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Neonatal pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672858/neonates-colonized-with-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-airways-have-a-low-grade-systemic-inflammation
#1
Nadia Rahman Fink, Bo Lund Chawes, Jonathan Thorsen, Jakob Stokholm, Karen Krogfelt, Susanne Schjørring, Marie Kragh, Klaus Bønnelykke, Susanne Brix, Hans Bisgaard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The development of childhood asthma is associated with neonatal colonization with pathogenic bacteria in hypopharynx. Furthermore, established asthma is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation. We here report on the association between neonatal colonization with pathogenic bacteria in hypopharynx and the development of systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS: Bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx with M. catharralis, H. influenzae and/or S...
April 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666078/persistent-respiratory-distress-in-a-neonate-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#2
Amit Shukla, Aakash Pandita, Girish Gupta, Namita Mishra
We present a 17-day-old term, female baby who was referred to our centre for persistent respiratory distress. She was managed for pneumonia and pneumothorax at the primary care centre. On detailed clinical examination at admission, a possibility of congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) was considered. A CT chest was performed, and diagnosis of CLE was confirmed. The infant was managed with lobectomy. The respiratory distress settled within a few hours after the surgery, and the baby was discharged in stable condition...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664370/antimicrobial-resistance-in-invasive-bacterial-infections-in-hospitalized-children-cambodia-2007-2016
#3
Andrew Fox-Lewis, Junko Takata, Thyl Miliya, Yoel Lubell, Sona Soeng, Poda Sar, Kolthida Rith, Gregor McKellar, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Erin McGonagle, Nicole Stoesser, Catrin E Moore, Christopher M Parry, Claudia Turner, Nicholas P J Day, Ben S Cooper, Paul Turner
To determine trends, mortality rates, and costs of antimicrobial resistance in invasive bacterial infections in hospitalized children, we analyzed data from Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, for 2007-2016. A total of 39,050 cultures yielded 1,341 target pathogens. Resistance rates were high; 82% each of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were multidrug resistant. Hospital-acquired isolates were more often resistant than community-acquired isolates; resistance trends over time were heterogeneous...
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658448/-clinical-features-and-prognosis-of-preterm-infants-with-varying-degrees-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#4
Wen-Li Li, Fa-Lin Xu, Ming Niu, Meng-Di Liu, Hui-Fang Dong
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features and prognosis of preterm infants with varying degrees of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS: The clinical data of 144 preterm infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from March 2014 to March 2016 and were diagnosed with BPD were collected. According to the severity of BPD, these preterm infants were divided into mild group with 81 infants and moderate/severe group with 63 infants...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657735/necrotizing-enterocolitis-associated-with-clostridium-butyricum-in-a-japanese-man
#5
Yukio Sato, Dai Kujirai, Katsura Emoto, Toshiaki Yagami, Taketo Yamada, Manabu Izumi, Masaki Ano, Kenichi Kase, Kenji Kobayashi
Case: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) caused by Clostridium butyricum is common in neonates; however, a case of NEC in adults has not been previously reported. An 84-year-old Japanese man developed C. butyricum -related NEC during hospitalization for treatment of stab wounds to the left side of the neck and lower abdomen, without organ damage, and concomitant pneumonia. Outcome: The patient developed acute onset of emesis accompanied by shock during his admission; partial resection of the small intestine was carried out due to necrosis...
April 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608659/long-term-impact-of-oral-azithromycin-taken-by-gambian-women-during-labour-on-prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-s-pneumoniae-and-s-aureus-in-their-infants-follow-up-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Abdoulie Bojang, Bully Camara, Isatou Jagne Cox, Claire Oluwalana, Kodou Lette, Effua Usuf, Christian Bottomley, Benjamin P Howden, Umberto D'Alessandro, Anna Roca
Background: Oral azithromycin given to women in labour decreases maternal and neonatal bacterial carriage but increases azithromycin resistant bacteria during at least 4 weeks following the intervention. We assessed the prevalence of bacterial carriage and azithromycin resistance 12 months after treatment among study infants. Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) were collected between November 2014 and May 2015 from children 11-13 months old whose mothers had received azithromycin or placebo during labour...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578985/acog-committee-opinion-no-732-influenza-vaccination-during-pregnancy
#7
(no author information available yet)
Influenza vaccination is an essential element of prepregnancy, prenatal, and postpartum care because influenza can result in serious illness, including a higher chance of progressing to pneumonia, when it occurs during the antepartum or postpartum period. In addition to hospitalization, pregnant women with influenza are at increased risk of intensive care unit admission and adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that all adults receive an annual influenza vaccine and that women who are or will be pregnant during influenza season receive an inactivated influenza vaccine as soon as it is available...
April 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578983/acog-committee-opinion-no-732-summary-influenza-vaccination-during-pregnancy
#8
(no author information available yet)
Influenza vaccination is an essential element of prepregnancy, prenatal, and postpartum care because influenza can result in serious illness, including a higher chance of progressing to pneumonia, when it occurs during the antepartum or postpartum period. In addition to hospitalization, pregnant women with influenza are at increased risk of intensive care unit admission and adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that all adults receive an annual influenza vaccine and that women who are or will be pregnant during influenza season receive an inactivated influenza vaccine as soon as it is available...
April 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577993/routine-screening-for-colonization-by-gram-negative-bacteria-in-neonates-at-intensive-care-units-for-the-prediction-of-sepsis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Juliane Seidel, Sebastian Haller, Tim Eckmanns, Thomas Harder
BACKGROUND: At neonatal intensive care units sepsis due to Gram-negative bacteria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The benefits of routine microbiological screening of neonatal body surface to predict and prevent sepsis are controversial. AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of neonatal body surface screening for colonization with Gram-negative bacteria for the prediction of late-onset sepsis (LoS). METHODS: We performed a systematic review and included studies of any design that reported data to calculate prognostic accuracy of surface screening for the prediction of LoS...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567889/evaluation-of-procalcitonin-as-a-diagnostic-marker-in-neonatal-sepsis
#10
Marie Victor Pravin Charles, Ramakrishnan Kalaivani, Soma Venkatesh, Arunava Kali, Kunigal Srinivasiah Seetha
Context: Neonatal sepsis is an early infection occurring within 28 days of the postnatal life. It has nonspecific signs and symptoms which make the diagnosis cumbersome. It inflicts an increase in morbidity and mortality among neonates. Procalcitonin (PCT) is yet another acute phase reactant, which is synthesized by the C-cells of thyroid gland. Aims: The aim of our study is to evaluate PCT as a diagnostic marker of neonatal sepsis in comparison with C-reactive protein (CRP)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563908/occurrence-of-bla-ndm-variants-among-enterobacteriaceae-from-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-a-northern-india-hospital
#11
Nayeem Ahmad, Shamsi Khalid, Syed M Ali, Asad U Khan
Carbapenem-resistance among enterobacteriaceae has become a global health concern. The objective of this study was to understand NDM producing enterobacteriaceae and their genetic basis of resistance, spreading in neonatal intensive care unit. Carbapenem resistant NDM producing enterobacteriaceae isolates were recovered from rectal swab and blood sample of infants admitted in NICU. These were determined by using Carba-NP test. All isolates were identified using BD PhoenixTM-100 and MICs were determined by broth microdilution method...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559786/epidemiology-microbiology-and-treatment-patterns-of-pediatric-patients-hospitalized-with-pneumonia-at-two-hospitals-in-china-a-patient-chart-review-study
#12
Zehuai Wen, Jia Wei, Huiling Xue, Yunqin Chen, David Melnick, Jesus Gonzalez, Judith Hackett, Xiaoyan Li, Zhaolong Cao
Background: The etiology, epidemiology, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes of neonatal and pediatric pneumonia patients in China are not well reported. This retrospective chart review study aimed to describe such information among neonatal (0 to 27 days) and pediatric (28 days to <18 years) pneumonia patients in two regions of China. Methods: Electronic medical records of pneumonia hospitalizations (aged <18 years) admitted between 2008 and 2013 from four hospitals under Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine (Southern China) and between 2010 and 2014 at Peking University People's Hospital (Beijing, Northern China) were reviewed...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543970/analysis-of-vocal-fold-motion-impairment-in-neonates-undergoing-congenital-heart-surgery
#13
Stephanie Elyse Ambrose, Julina Ongkasuwan, Kavita Dedhia, Gillian Ruth Diercks, Samantha Anne, Subhadra Shashidharan, Nikhila Raol
Importance: Vocal fold motion impairment (VFMI) is a known risk factor following congenital heart surgery (CHS). The impact of this diagnosis on utilization and outcomes is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the cost, postprocedure length of stay (PPLOS), and outcomes for neonates with VFMI after CHS. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional analysis of the 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) of neonates who underwent CHS was carried out...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520519/a-cytosol-derived-factor-of-group-b-streptococcus-prevent-its-invasion-into-human-epithelial-cells
#14
Manju Ohri, Smriti Parashar, Venkatesh S Pai, Sujata Ghosh, Anuradha Chakraborti
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae, is an opportunistic pathogen causing a wide range of infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborn, pregnant women and adults. While this bacterium has adapted well to asymptomatic colonization of adult humans, it still remains a potentially devastating pathogen to susceptible infants. Advances in molecular techniques and refinement of in vitro and in vivo model systems have elucidated key elements of the pathogenic process, from initial attachment to the maternal vaginal epithelium to penetration of the newborn blood-brain barrier...
March 8, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508361/surgical-chylothorax-in-neonates-management-and-outcomes
#15
Karina Miura Costa, Amulya Kumar Saxena
BACKGROUND: Postoperative chylothorax occurs due to trauma to lymphatic vessels and can occur after any thoracic procedure. This study reviewed recent literature to evaluate the management and outcomes of surgical chylothorax in neonates. METHODS: PubMed database was searched for articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish from 2000 to 2016. Data were collected for surgery, chylothorax management, complications, mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS). RESULTS: Twenty studies offered 107 neonates: congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) (n = 76, 71%), cardiac malformations (n = 25, 23...
March 5, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504385/diagnosis-of-a-neonatal-ophthalmic-discharge-ophthalmia-neonatorum-in-the-%C3%A2-molecular-age%C3%A2-investigation-for-a-correct-therapy
#16
P E Gallenga, M Del Boccio, C E Gallenga, G Neri, A Pennelli, E Toniato, L Lobefalo, M Maritati, P Perri, C Contini, G Del Boccio
An early double case of acute Ophthalmia neonatorum in 3-day-old twins is reported. Culture of eye swabs showed a wide bacterial polymorphism, in which common bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Corynebacterium ulcerans and other Enterobacteriaceae, coexisted with atypical Mycoplasmataceae and Chlamydiaceae from resident cervical-vaginal maternal microbiota. The neonates were in an apparently healthy state, but showed red eyes with abundant greenish-yellow secretion, mild chemosis and lid edema...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503274/cytomegalovirus-enterocolitis-in-a-term-neonate
#17
Siva Prasad Vyasam, Thangaraj Abiramalatha, Nalapalu Srinivasan Hema, Niranjan Thomas
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) enterocolitis is rare in term neonates. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: A term newborn with persistent pneumonia from birth developed enterocolitis on day 18 of life. OUTCOME: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CMV DNA was positive in urine sample. Antiviral therapy for six weeks resulted in successful treatment without any stricture formation. MESSAGE: CMV enterocolitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in atypical cases of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates...
February 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502491/cause-specific-mortality-in-the-kombewa-health-and-demographic-surveillance-systems-site-rural-western-kenya-from-2011-2015
#18
Peter Sifuna, Lucas Otieno, Sheila Ogwang, Bernhards Ogutu, Ben Andagalu, John Owuoth, Valentine Singoei, Jessica Cowden, Walter Otieno
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of deaths in the health and Kombewa demographic surveillance system (HDSS) study area are not registered and reported through official systems of vital registration. As a result, few data are available regarding causes of death in this population. OBJECTIVES: To describe causes of death among residents of all ages in the Kombewa HDSS, located in rural Western Kenya. METHODS: Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews at the site were conducted using the modified 2007 and later 2012 standardized WHO questionnaires...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495215/-progress-on-influencing-factors-regarding-the-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-infectious-diseases
#19
X Hong, H Yu, B Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the severe pathogenic bacteria during the perinatal period, both on pregnant women and newborns. GBS infection may lead to pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis or other severe disease, even death in neonates. Although only 1%-2% infections will develop into GBS disease among the neonates, the etiological mechanism of which is worth researching. This review summarizes the possible factors related to GBS infection or occurrence of the disease, including the risk in gestation period (for example, colonization of GBS on vagina of pregnant women, preterm birth or premature rupture of fetal membranes and so on), related pathogens (bacteria strains, loads or virulence), immune level (inflammatory factor or neutralizing anticytokine auto-Abs), gene defect or primary immunodeficiencies of the hosts...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494706/acquisition-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-neonates-a-community-based-cohort-in-madagascar
#20
Perlinot Herindrainy, Mamitiana Alain Noah Rabenandrasana, Zafitsara Zo Andrianirina, Feno Manitra Jacob Rakotoarimanana, Michael Padget, Agathe de Lauzanne, Awa Ndir, Elsa Kermorvant-Duchemin, Benoit Garin, Patrice Piola, Jean-Marc Collard, Didier Guillemot, Bich-Tram Huynh, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau
In low and middle income countries (LMICs), where the burden of neonatal sepsis is the highest, the spread of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in the community, potentially contributing to the neonatal mortality, is a public health concern. Data regarding the acquisition of ESBL-PE during the neonatal period are scarce. The routes of transmission are not well defined and particularly the possible key role played by pregnant women. This study aimed to understand the neonatal acquisition of ESBL-PE in the community in Madagascar...
2018: PloS One
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