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Neonatal pneumonia

Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Sebastien Breurec, Coralie Bouchiat, Jean-Marie Sire, Olivier Moquet, Raymond Bercion, Moussa Fafa Cisse, Philippe Glaser, Ousmane Ndiaye, Sidy Ka, Helene Salord, Abdoulaye Seck, Haby Signate Sy, Remy Michel, Benoit Garin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal's most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. METHODS: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Alessandro Cassini, Diamantis Plachouras, Tim Eckmanns, Muna Abu Sin, Hans-Peter Blank, Tanja Ducomble, Sebastian Haller, Thomas Harder, Anja Klingeberg, Madlen Sixtensson, Edward Velasco, Bettina Weiß, Piotr Kramarz, Dominique L Monnet, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, Carl Suetens
BACKGROUND: Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011-2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Jing Yu, Kun Tan, Zhihui Rong, Yue Wang, Zhongju Chen, Xuhui Zhu, Li Wu, Li Tan, Wei Xiong, Ziyong Sun, Ling Chen
BACKGROUND: The spread of resistance to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae has become a major public health problem in recent years. In this study, we describe an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the neonatal ward. First, we aimed to study the drug resistance, genetic relatedness, and transmission mechanism of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae; second, we implemented infection control measures to contain the outbreak. METHODS: We investigated 27 non-repetitive strains isolated from neonates and five strains cultured from around the neonatal ward...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jeffrey L Carson, Gordon Guyatt, Nancy M Heddle, Brenda J Grossman, Claudia S Cohn, Mark K Fung, Terry Gernsheimer, John B Holcomb, Lewis J Kaplan, Louis M Katz, Nikki Peterson, Glenn Ramsey, Sunil V Rao, John D Roback, Aryeh Shander, Aaron A R Tobian
Importance: More than 100 million units of blood are collected worldwide each year, yet the indication for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and the optimal length of RBC storage prior to transfusion are uncertain. Objective: To provide recommendations for the target hemoglobin level for RBC transfusion among hospitalized adult patients who are hemodynamically stable and the length of time RBCs should be stored prior to transfusion. Evidence Review: Reference librarians conducted a literature search for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating hemoglobin thresholds for RBC transfusion (1950-May 2016) and RBC storage duration (1948-May 2016) without language restrictions...
October 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Yousef Erfani, Arezoo Rasti, Leila Janani
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and potentially lethal problem among mechanically ventilated neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The main pathogenic bacteria of VAP in NICUs are Gram-negative pathogens, which show a general decline in sensitivities to commonly used antibiotics, but their true prevalence is not known. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aim to provide a systematic review of studies measuring the prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria in VAP in NICUs...
October 11, 2016: BMJ Open
Kristen Nelson-McMillan, Christoph P Hornik, Xia He, Luca A Vricella, Jeffrey P Jacobs, Kevin D Hill, Sara K Pasquali, Diane E Alejo, Duke E Cameron, Marshall L Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Delayed sternal closure (DSC) is commonly used to optimize hemodynamic stability after neonatal and infant heart surgery. We hypothesized that duration of sternum left open (SLO) was associated with rate of infection complications, and that location of sternal closure may mitigate infection risk. METHODS: Infants (age ≤365 days) undergoing index operations with cardiopulmonary bypass and DSC at STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database centers (from 2007 to 2013) with adequate data quality were included...
October 6, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Zhen Shen, Shan Zheng, Rui Dong, Gong Chen
PURPOSE: We aimed to study whether saturation in HSV color model could be a parameter for acholic stool and utilized for designing a mobile application for screening biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: Saturations of the colors in the three validated stool color cards (Taiwan, Japan, Britain) were read using PHOTOSHOP. Stools from 40 BA patients and 40 in-hospital neonates with pneumonia were photographed and analyzed with color-analyzing mobile applications. RESULTS: Saturations of normal colors in the published stool cards were all >50% (67%~99%, median 85%) and were all <50% (7~47%, median 25%) for abnormal colors...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Revital Abitbul, Israel Amirav, Hannah Blau, Soliman Alkrinawi, Micha Aviram, David Shoseyov, Lea Bentur, Avraham Avital, Chaim Springer, Moran Lavie, Dario Prais, Husein Dabbah, Nael Elias, Arnon Elizur, Shmuel Goldberg, Avigdor Hevroni, Eitan Kerem, Anthony Luder, Yehudah Roth, Malena Cohen-Cymberknoh, Marta Ben Ami, Avigdor Mandelberg, Galit Livnat, Elie Picard, Joseph Rivlin, Moshe Rotschild, Ruth Soferman, Niki T Loges, Heike Olbrich, Claudius Werner, Alexander Wolter, Martina Herting, Julia Wallmeier, Johanna Raidt, Heymut Omran, Huda Mussaffi
BACKGROUND: Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is rare and its features in Israel have not been described. AIMS: to assess prevalence utilizing state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques, and describe clinical features, diagnostic and management practices in Israel. METHODS: A national multicenter study from 2012 to 2013 recruited patients diagnosed or suspected of having PCD. Diagnosis was verified using: nasal Nitric Oxide (nNO); High-speed Video Microscope Analysis (HVMA); Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of cilia; Immuno-fluorescence staining (IF) for ciliary proteins, and genetic analysis...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Nicola De Maio, Chieh-Hsi Wu, Daniel J Wilson
Exploiting pathogen genomes to reconstruct transmission represents a powerful tool in the fight against infectious disease. However, their interpretation rests on a number of simplifying assumptions that regularly ignore important complexities of real data, in particular within-host evolution and non-sampled patients. Here we propose a new approach to transmission inference called SCOTTI (Structured COalescent Transmission Tree Inference). This method is based on a statistical framework that models each host as a distinct population, and transmissions between hosts as migration events...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Mohamad S Alsalhi, Sandhanasamy Devanesan, Akram A Alfuraydi, Radhakrishnan Vishnubalaji, Murugan A Munusamy, Kadarkarai Murugan, Marcello Nicoletti, Giovanni Benelli
BACKGROUND: The present study focused on a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with multipurpose anticancer and antimicrobial activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a green synthesis route to produce AgNPs by using an aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum seeds (3 mM). Their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human neonatal skin stromal cells (hSSCs) and colon cancer cells (HT115) were assessed. RESULTS: A biophysical characterization of the synthesized AgNPs was realized: the morphology of AgNPs was determined by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Christina Clarke, Louise O'Connor, Heather Carré-Skinner, Olaf Piepenburg, Terry J Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, group B Streptococcal (GBS) infection remains a leading cause of sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis, resulting in significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive approaches that identify women at risk of transmitting GBS have reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease, and dramatically decreased the associated mortality rates. However, there is an on-going requirement for a near-patient diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out at the time of delivery, ideally in the labour ward setting, particularly for women of unknown GBS colonisation status at the time of delivery...
2016: BMC Microbiology
L Zhang, Y Qiu, B Yi, L Ni, L Zhang, Pulati Taxi, H Li, Q Zhang, W Wang, Z Liu, L Li, L Zhao, H Wang, B Sun
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of respiratory support and surfactant in incidence, management and outcome of neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure (NRF) in Chinese emerging regional neonatal-perinatal care system in the era of universal health insurance policy. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical data of NRF were prospectively collected in 12 consecutive months from 2011 to 2012 in 12 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in major cities of Northwest China. NRF was defined as hypoxemia requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) or intratracheal ventilation combined with surfactant for at least 24 h, with associated risk factors, mortality rate and major co-morbidities analyzed...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Polly Soo Xi Yap, Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Chun Wie Chong, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Kwai Lin Thong, Yao Mun Choo, Mohd Yasim Md Yusof, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh
The prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of intestinal carriage of Gram-negative bacteria among preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia were determined. A total of 34 stool specimens were obtained from preterm infants upon admission and once weekly up to two weeks during hospitalization. The presumptive colonies of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected for identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and subtyping by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Kelly B Kamm, Jelena Vujcic, Sharifa Nasreen, Stephen P Luby, K Zaman, Shams El Arifeen, Pavani K Ram
OBJECTIVE: Promoting handwashing with soap to mothers of young children can significantly reduce diarrhoea and pneumonia morbidity among children, but studies that measured long-term behaviour after interventions rarely found improvements in handwashing habits. Expecting mothers may experience emotional and social changes that create a unique environment that may encourage adoption of improved handwashing habits. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to an intensive handwashing intervention in the perinatal period (perinatal arm) was associated with improved maternal handwashing behaviour vs...
September 19, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Luis Huicho, Carlos A Huayanay-Espinoza, Eder Herrera-Perez, Jessica Niño de Guzman, Maria Rivera-Ch, Maria Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Aluisio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: Peru has impressively reduced its neonatal mortality rate (NMR). We aimed, for the period 2000-2013, to: (a) describe national and district NMR variations over time; (b) assess NMR trends by wealth quintile and place of residence; (c) describe evolution of mortality causes; (d) assess completeness of registered mortality; (e) assess coverage and equity of NMR-related interventions; and (f) explore underlying driving factors. METHODS: We compared national NMR time trends from different sources...
2016: BMC Public Health
Simon Pius, Mustapha Bello, Gadzama Balla Galadima, Halima A Ibrahim, Samuel Timothy Yerima, Jose Pwavimbo Ambe
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim and objective of the study was to determine the incidence, bacterial isolates and the antibiogram sensitivity of the isolates in neonates with septicaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The neonates with clinical diagnosis of neonatal septicaemia (NNS) were consecutively enrolled into our special care baby unit. The patients were investigated including blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid cultures and urine among others. Data were analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 16...
July 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Santosh Kumar Singh, Minakshi Gupta
Bacteria resistant to colistin, a last resort antibiotic reflect the pre-antibiotic era. In this study, colistin resistance carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (COL(R)- CRKP) strains from neonate's intensive care unit were evaluated. Molecular analysis showed that all the four colistin resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were clonally related with strong biofilm formation ability and harbored blaSHV-34 and blaOXA-48 genes. Our result suggested the need of proper surveillance and adequate infection control to limiting the spread of these organisms...
September 10, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Cinthia G Pérez, Aixa Reusmann
Congenital tracheo-or-bronchobiliary fistula or congenital he-patopulmonary fistula is a rare malformation with high morbidity and mortality if the diagnosis is not made early. The tracheo-or-bronchobiliary fistula is a communication between the respiratory (trachea or bronchus) and biliary tract. To date, only 35 cases have been published worldwide. We report a case of a neonate with right pneumonia and bilious fluid in the endotracheal tube. Diagnosis was made using bronchoscopy with fluoroscopy. Videothoracoscopy was used to remove the bronchobiliary fistula...
October 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
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