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Myeloid neoplasm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920690/adaptive-radiotherapy-for-an-uncommon-chloroma
#1
Soufya Majdoul, Laurianne Colson-Durand, Nu Hanh To, Yazid Belkacemi
Granulocytic sarcomas, also referred to as chloromas or myeloid sarcomas, are extramedullary neoplasms that are composed of immature myeloid cells. This uncommon disease is known to be radiosensitive. However, the total dose and dose per fraction are not standardized. In addition, during the course of radiation therapy, significant reduction of the tumor is usually obtained. Thus, target volume reduction may require an intermediate radiotherapy plan evaluation for an adaptive treatment. A second plan at mid-dose is highly recommended...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913464/new-challenges-in-evaluating-anemia-in-older-persons-in-the-era-of-molecular-testing
#2
David P Steensma
Anemia is common in older persons, and often remains unexplained despite a thorough clinical history, physical examination, and focused laboratory testing, including marrow aspiration, biopsy, and karyotyping. The advent of molecular genetic testing panels in hematology clinical practice has complicated the evaluation of older patients with unexplained anemia. While the presence of a somatic mutation provides evidence of clonal hematopoiesis and may support a diagnosis of a hematologic neoplasm such as one of the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), with rare exceptions, individual mutations are not strongly associated with one specific diagnosis, nor are they by themselves diagnostic of neoplasia...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913458/therapy-related-myeloid-neoplasms-does-knowing-the-origin-help-to-guide-treatment
#3
Michael Heuser
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) combine t-MDS and therapy related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) patients in one entity because of their similar pathogenesis, rapid progression from t-MDS to t-AML, and their equally poor prognosis. Treatment with epipodophyllotoxins like etoposide has been associated with a short interval between treatment and development of t-AML, with fusion oncogenes like KMT2A/MLL-MLLT3 and a better prognosis. In contrast, treatment with alkylating agents has been associated with a longer latency, an initial MDS phase, adverse cytogenetics, and a poor prognosis...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913457/treatment-of-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm
#4
Jill M Sullivan, David A Rizzieri
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare myeloid malignancy with no defined standard of care. BPDCN presents most commonly with skin lesions with or without extramedullary organ involvement before leukemic dissemination. As a result of its clinical ambiguity, differentiating BPDCN from benign skin lesions or those of acute myeloid leukemia with leukemia cutis is challenging. BPDCN is most easily defined by the phenotype CD4(+)CD56(+)CD123(+)lineage(-)MPO(-), although many patients will present with variable expression of CD4, CD56, or alternate plasmacytoid markers, which compounds the difficulty in differentiating BPDCN from other myeloid or lymphoid malignancies...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910028/recurrent-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-and-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#5
John Swansbury
The commonest types of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) have remarkably similar recurrent chromosome abnormalities, but with varying incidence and prognostic implications. After a clear decade of treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the differing prognostic implications of abnormalities additional to the Ph chromosome are being revealed. This chapter provides a description of the main chromosome abnormalities in MPN and CML and their clinical implications in a time of rapid changes in both the application of new diagnostic techniques and the introduction of targeted therapies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910027/recurrent-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#6
John J Yang, Tae Sung Park, Thomas S K Wan
The spectrum of chromosomal abnormality associated with leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is broad and heterogeneous when compared to chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloid neoplasms. Recurrent chromosomal translocations such as t(8;21), t(15;17), and inv(16) are frequently detected, but hundreds of other uncommon chromosomal aberrations from AML also exist. This chapter discusses 22 chromosomal abnormalities that are common structural, numerical aberrations, and other important but infrequent (less than 1 %) translocations emphasized in the WHO classification...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910009/cancer-cytogenetics-an-introduction
#7
Thomas S K Wan
The Philadelphia chromosome was the first chromosomal abnormality discovered in cancer using the cytogenetics technique in 1960, and was consistently associated with chronic myeloid leukemia. Over the past five decades, innovative technical advances in the field of cancer cytogenetics have greatly enhanced the detection ability of chromosomal alterations, and have facilitated the research and diagnostic potential of chromosomal studies in neoplasms. These developments notwithstanding, chromosome analysis of a single cell is still the easiest way to delineate and understand the relationship between clonal evolution and disease progression of cancer cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909216/molecular-determinants-of-pathogenesis-and-clinical-phenotype-in-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#8
Jacob Grinfeld, Jyoti Nangalia, Anthony R Green
The myeloproliferative neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders characterised by overproduction of mature cells in the peripheral blood, together with an increased risk of thrombosis and progression to acute myeloid leukemia. The majority of patients with Philadelphia-chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms harbour somatic mutations in Janus kinase 2, leading to constitutive activation. Acquired mutations in calreticulin or myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene are found in a significant number of patients with essential thrombocythaemia or myelofibrosis, and mutations in numerous epigenetic regulators and spliceosome components are also seen...
December 1, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899359/how-i-treat-atypical-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Jason Gotlib
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, BCR-ABL1-negative (aCML) is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm for which no current standard of care exists. The challenges of atypical CML relate to its heterogeneous clinical and genetic features, high rate of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia, and historically poor survival. Therefore, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should always be an initial consideration for eligible patients with a suitable donor. Non-transplant approaches for treating aCML have otherwise largely relied on adopting treatment strategies used for MDS and MPN...
November 29, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889325/-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-and-erdheim-chester-disease-a-continuity
#10
S Parreau, J Haroche, I Pommepuy, J F Emile, J C Bourras, F Archambeaud
INTRODUCTION: Erdheim-Chester disease and langerhans cell histiocytosis are two rare diseases separate on clinical, radiological and histological aspects. However, several cases involving both entities have been described. OBSERVATION: A 70-year-old man had a central diabetes insipidus, xanthelasmas, retroperitoneal fibrosis and osteosclerosis of the legs suggestive of Erdheim-Chester disease. Bone biopsy showed langerhans cell histiocytosis CD1a positive with the presence of BRAF V600E mutation...
November 23, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875373/revisiting-erythroleukemia
#11
Daniel A Arber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 2016 WHO classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms alters the diagnostic criteria for erythroleukemia, including eliminating the erythroid/myeloid type of acute erythroleukemia, which was a prior subcategory of acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified. Only pure erythroid leukemia remains in the WHO classification. This review will summarize the literature that contributed to that classification change as well as recent literature on the significance of the change...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872592/a-pyrazolo-3-4-d-pyrimidine-compound-reduces-cell-viability-and-induces-apoptosis-in-different-hematological-malignancies
#12
Ilaria Laurenzana, Antonella Caivano, Francesco La Rocca, Stefania Trino, Luciana De Luca, Francesca D'Alessio, Silvia Schenone, Geppino Falco, Maurizio Botta, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pellegrino Musto
Molecular targeted therapies are based upon drugs acting on tumors by interfering with specific targets involved in growth and spread of cancer. Many targeted therapies were approved by Food and Drug Administration as standard treatment, others were introduced into preclinical or clinical studies on hematological malignancies (HMs). The development of drug-resistance in some HMs and the lack of effective treatments in other ones emphasized the need for searching new molecular targets and therapeutic agents...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870069/suspected-myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative-neoplasm-in-a-feline-leukemia-virus-negative-cat
#13
Amy L Weeden, Kyle R Taylor, Scott P Terrell, Alexander E Gallagher, Heather L Wamsley
A 10-year-old castrated Domestic Short-Haired cat was presented to a primary care veterinarian for a wellness examination and laboratory examination for monitoring of diabetes mellitus. The CBC revealed marked thrombocytosis, leukopenia and macrocytic, normochromic anemia. The cat tested negative for FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus, but was positive for Mycoplasma haemominutum by PCR. Hematologic abnormalities were not responsive to therapy, so a repeat CBC and a bone marrow aspiration for cytology were performed...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866579/polycythemia-and-thrombocytosis
#14
REVIEW
Aric Parnes, Arvind Ravi
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are diseases of excess cell proliferation from bone marrow precursors. Two classic MPNs, polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocytosis (ET), are conditions of excess proliferation of red blood cells and platelets, respectively. Although PV and ET involve different cells in the myeloid lineage, their clinical presentations have shared features, consistent with overlapping mutations in growth factor signaling. The management of both diseases involves minimizing the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865464/myeloproliferative-neoplasms-molecular-drivers-and-therapeutics
#15
G W Reuther
Activating mutations in genes that drive neoplastic cell growth are numerous and widespread in cancer, and specific genetic alterations are associated with certain types of cancer. For example, classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders that affect cells of the myeloid lineage, including erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. An activating mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase is prevalent in these diseases. In MPN patients that lack such a mutation, other genetic changes that lead to activation of the JAK2 signaling pathway are present, indicating deregulation of JAK2 signaling plays an etiological driving role in MPNs, a concept supported by significant evidence from in vivo experimental MPN systems...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863435/myb-expression-is-critical-for-myeloid-leukemia-development-induced-by-setbp1-activation
#16
Nhu Nguyen, Bandana A Vishwakarma, Kevin Oakley, Yufen Han, Bartlomiej Przychodzen, Jaroslaw P Maciejewski, Yang Du
SETBP1 missense mutations have been frequently identified in multiple myeloid neoplasms; however, their oncogenic potential remains unclear. Here we show that expression of Setbp1 mutants carrying two such mutations in mouse bone marrow progenitors efficiently induced development of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) in irradiated recipient mice with significantly shorter latencies and greater penetrance than expression of wild-type Setbp1, suggesting that these mutations are highly oncogenic. The increased oncogenicity of Setbp1 missense mutants could be due in part to their capability to drive significantly higher target gene transcription...
November 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852053/therapy-related-acute-myeloid-leukemia-following-treatment-of-lymphoid-malignancies
#17
Sarah Bertoli, Arthur Sterin, Suzanne Tavitian, Lucie Oberic, Loïc Ysebaert, Reda Bouabdallah, François Vergez, Audrey Sarry, Emilie Bérard, Françoise Huguet, Guy Laurent, Thomas Prébet, Norbert Vey, Christian Récher
Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is a heterogeneous entity most frequently related to breast cancer or lymphoproliferative diseases (LD). Population-based studies have reported an increased risk of t-AML after treatment of lymphomas. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome of 80 consecutive cases of t-AML following treatment of LD. t-AML accounted for 2.3% of all AML cases, occurred 60 months after LD diagnosis, and were characterized by a high frequency of FAB M6 AML and poor-risk cytogenetic abnormalities...
November 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836923/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-array-snp-a-improves-the-identification-of-chromosomal-abnormalities-by-metaphase-cytogenetics-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#18
Fernanda Borges da Silva, João Agostinho Machado-Neto, Virginia Helena Leira Lipoli Bertini, Elvira Deolinda Rodrigues Pereira Velloso, Cristina Alonso Ratis, Rodrigo T Calado, Belinda Pinto Simões, Eduardo Magalhães Rego, Fabiola Traina
AIMS: The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematopoietic stem cell disorders characterised by inefficient haematopoiesis and risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia. Metaphase cytogenetics is an extremely valuable clinical tool in the management of haematological malignancies. However, metaphase cytogenetics requires cellular proliferation, its sensitivity and resolution depends on the proportion of clonal cells in the sample and size of the lesion, respectively...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822101/the-danish-national-chronic-myeloid-neoplasia-registry
#19
REVIEW
Marie Bak, Else Helene Ibfelt, Thomas Stauffer Larsen, Dorthe Rønnov-Jessen, Niels Pallisgaard, Ann Madelung, Lene Udby, Hans Carl Hasselbalch, Ole Weis Bjerrum, Christen Lykkegaard Andersen
AIM: The Danish National Chronic Myeloid Neoplasia Registry (DCMR) is a population-based clinical quality database, introduced to evaluate diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic myeloid malignancies. The aim is to monitor the clinical quality at the national, regional, and hospital departmental levels and serve as a platform for research. STUDY POPULATION: The DCMR has nationwide coverage and contains information on patients diagnosed at hematology departments from January 2010 onward, including patients with essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821554/assessment-of-drug-sensitivity-in-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-from-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-and-myelodysplastic-syndrome-ex-vivo
#20
Katherine L B Knorr, Laura E Finn, B Douglas Smith, Allan D Hess, James M Foran, Judith E Karp, Scott H Kaufmann
: : Current understanding suggests that malignant stem and progenitor cells must be reduced or eliminated for prolonged remissions in myeloid neoplasms such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Multicolor flow cytometry has been widely used to distinguish stem and myeloid progenitor cells from other populations in normal and malignant bone marrow. In this study, we present a method for assessing drug sensitivity in MDS and AML patient hematopoietic stem and myeloid progenitor cell populations ex vivo using the investigational Nedd8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 and standard-of-care agent cytarabine as examples...
November 7, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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