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Microbiology of pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088924/microbiology-of-otitis-media-in-indigenous-australian-children-review
#1
J Jervis-Bardy, A S Carney, R Duguid, A J Leach
OBJECTIVES: To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074713/pathogens-patterns-of-pneumonia-and-epidemiologic-risk-factors-associated-with-respiratory-disease-in-recently-weaned-cattle-in-ireland
#2
Gerard M Murray, Simon J More, Dónal Sammin, Mìcheàl J Casey, Máire C McElroy, Rónan G O'Neill, William J Byrne, Bernadette Earley, Tracy A Clegg, Hywel Ball, Colin J Bell, Joseph P Cassidy
We examined the pathogens, morphologic patterns, and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in 136 recently weaned cattle ("weanlings"), 6-12 mo of age, that were submitted for postmortem examination to regional veterinary laboratories in Ireland. A standardized sampling protocol included routine microbiologic investigations as well as polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Lungs with histologic lesions were categorized into 1 of 5 morphologic patterns of pneumonia. Fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%) and interstitial pneumonia (48%) were the morphologic patterns recorded most frequently...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074126/the-emergence-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-malaysia-correlation-between-microbiological-trends-with-host-characteristics-and-clinical-factors
#3
Ye-Mun Low, Polly Soo-Xi Yap, Kartini Abdul Jabar, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Rina Karunakaran, Rukumani Velayuthan, Chun-Wie Chong, Sazaly Abu Bakar, Mohd Yasim Md Yusof, Cindy Shuan-Ju Teh
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a growing concern worldwide including Malaysia. The emergence of this pathogen is worrying because carbapenem is one of the 'last-line' antibiotics. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of genetic mechanisms and clinical risk factors of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) in Malaysia. METHODS: In this study, seventeen carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae strains isolated from a tertiary teaching hospital in 2013 were studied...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068884/evaluation-of-protein-spectra-cluster-analysis-for-streptococcus-spp-identification-from-various-swine-clinical-samples
#4
Carlos E C Matajira, Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana Paula S Silva, Renan E Mesquita, Daniela S Doto, Franco F Calderaro, Fernando N de Souza, Ana Paula G Christ, Maria Inês Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno
Traditional microbiological methods enable genus-level identification of Streptococcus spp. isolates. However, as the species of this genus show broad phenotypic variation, species-level identification or even differentiation within the genus is difficult. Herein we report the evaluation of protein spectra cluster analysis for the identification of Streptococcus species associated with disease in swine by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 250 S...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067676/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-optimal-management
#5
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases. Several efforts have been implemented to achieve better outcomes, but an important proportion of patients continue dying. This review focuses on the newest research on prognostic factors and diagnostics, opening new perspectives in the management of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: CAP survival improved in recent years despite an increasing incidence of severe presentations...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061469/diagnosis-of-cytomegalovirus-pneumonia-by-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-using-bronchial-washing-fluid-from-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#6
Hwa Young Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Joon Young Choi, Hea Yon Lee, Jong Wook Lee, Dong Gun Lee
BACKGROUND: The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is increasing in patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies. The utility of CMV-DNA viral load measurement has not been standardized, and viral cut-off values have not been established. This study was designed to investigate the utility of CMV quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using bronchial washing fluid. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the microbiologic and pathologic results of bronchial washing fluid and biopsy specimens in addition to the patients' clinical characteristics...
January 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057656/epidemiology-and-control-measures-of-outbreaks-due-to-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-in-europe-embargo-a-systematic-review-protocol
#7
Nithya Babu Rajendran, Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Frangiscos Sifakis, Andreas Voss, Yehuda Carmeli, Francesco Robert Burkert, Panagiota Gkolia, Evelina Tacconelli
INTRODUCTION: Improving our understanding of outbreaks due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and their control is critical in the current public health scenario. The threat of outbreaks due to ARB requires multifaceted efforts. However, a global overview of epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks due to ARB and effective infection control measures is missing. In this paper, we describe the protocol of a systematic review aimed at mapping and characterising the epidemiological aspects of outbreaks due to ARB and infection control measures in European countries...
5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056827/strain-specific-transmission-in-an-outbreak-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-hemato-oncology-care-unit-a-cohort-study
#8
Makiko Uemura, Osamu Imataki, Shumpei Uchida, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Yukiko Ohue, Harumi Matsuka, Hatsune Mori, Hiroaki Dobashi, Tomomi Kuwahara, Norimitsu Kadowaki
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are resistant to several types of antibiotics excluding carbapenems. A transmissibility of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae would be depending on each bacterial property, however, that has not been elucidated in clinical setting. In this study, we attempted to identify the source of an outbreak of ESBL-producing bacteria in a medical oncology and immunology care unit. METHODS: An ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) outbreak observed between July 2012 and August 2012 in Kagawa University Hospital was surveyed using various molecular microbiology techniques...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053969/pneumococcal-urinary-antigen-test-use-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pneumonia-in-seven-utah-hospitals
#9
Devin M West, Lindsay M McCauley, Jeffrey S Sorensen, Al R Jephson, Nathan C Dean
The pneumocococcal urine antigen test increases specific microbiological diagnosis over conventional culture methods in pneumonia patients. Data are limited regarding its yield and effect on antibiotic prescribing among patients with community-onset pneumonia in clinical practice. We performed a secondary analysis of 2837 emergency department patients admitted to seven Utah hospitals over 2 years with international diagnostic codes version 9 codes and radiographic evidence of pneumonia. Mean age was 64.2 years, 47...
October 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051232/epidemiology-of-nosocomial-infections-about-70-cases
#10
Mohamed Hedfi, Hassen Khouni, Youssra Massoudi, Cherif Abdelhedi, Karim Sassi, Adnen Chouchen
Background - The infections associated with care (IAS) constitute a major public health problem by the morbi- mortality than they generate as well as by their cost to support. The prevention of these infections has become a priority for several years everywhere in the world and in the occurrence in Tunisia. Aim - The purpose of our study is to assess the prevalence of nosocomial infections as well as develop their microbiologic  profiles in the different departments of  the hospital of FSI  Marsa Tunisia and try to highlight the risk factors that can influence these infections Methods - It was a retrospective study about  patients with noscomila infection who were admitted in the different care unit of the Hospital of FSI  Marsa and this on a period of 6 years from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2014 Results - We have identified seventy(70) patients having contracted a nososcomial infection during the period of study for 24600 hospital admission, with a prevalence rate of 0...
July 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049457/breathdx-molecular-analysis-of-exhaled-breath-as-a-diagnostic-test-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-protocol-for-a-european-multicentre-observational-study
#11
Pouline M P van Oort, Tamara Nijsen, Hans Weda, Hugo Knobel, Paul Dark, Timothy Felton, Nicholas J W Rattray, Oluwasola Lawal, Waqar Ahmed, Craig Portsmouth, Peter J Sterk, Marcus J Schultz, Tetyana Zakharkina, Antonio Artigas, Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Stephen J Fowler, Lieuwe D J Bos
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains time-consuming and costly, the clinical tools lack specificity and a bedside test to exclude infection in suspected patients is unavailable. Breath contains hundreds to thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that result from host and microbial metabolism as well as the environment. The present study aims to use breath VOC analysis to develop a model that can discriminate between patients who have positive cultures and who have negative cultures with a high sensitivity...
January 3, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039666/use-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-children-review-of-current-knowledge-and-its-application
#12
REVIEW
Juwon Yim, Leah M Molloy, Jason G Newland
Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin recently approved in children for treatment of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other susceptible bacteria. With a favorable tolerability profile and efficacy proven in pediatric patients and excellent in vitro activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ceftaroline may serve as a therapeutic option for polymicrobial infections, CABP caused by penicillin- and ceftriaxone-resistant S...
December 30, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036311/etiological-profile-of-early-neonatal-bacterial-sepsis-by-multiplex-qpcr
#13
Walter P Silva-Junior, Almir S Martins, Paula C N Xavier, Kelly L A Appel, Silvio A Oliveira Junior, Durval B Palhares
INTRODUCTION: Given the major impact in terms of morbidity and mortality that episodes of early neonatal sepsis (ENS) have on both newborns and health systems, this study aimed to identify the etiological profile of early neonatal bacterial sepsis by a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). METHODOLOGY: Blood samples from newborns diagnosed with clinical ENS and hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) were collected and analyzed using the multiplex qPCR method to detect Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter sp...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025699/surveillance-of-gram-negative-bacteria-impact-of-variation-in-current-european-laboratory-reporting-practice-on-apparent-multidrug-resistance-prevalence-in-paediatric-bloodstream-isolates
#14
J A Bielicki, D A Cromwell, A Johnson, T Planche, M Sharland
This study evaluates whether estimated multidrug resistance (MDR) levels are dependent on the design of the surveillance system when using routine microbiological data. We used antimicrobial resistance data from the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) project. The MDR status of bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was defined using European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)-endorsed standardised algorithms (non-susceptible to at least one agent in three or more antibiotic classes)...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018869/pathogens-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-in-critically-ill-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-a-descriptive-study
#15
Rachel D Savage, Robert A Fowler, Asgar H Rishu, Sean M Bagshaw, Deborah Cook, Peter Dodek, Richard Hall, Anand Kumar, François Lamontagne, François Lauzier, John Marshall, Claudio M Martin, Lauralyn McIntyre, John Muscedere, Steven Reynolds, Henry T Stelfox, Nick Daneman
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is vital to guiding empirical treatment of infections. Collating and reporting routine data on clinical isolate testing may offer more timely information about resistance patterns than traditional surveillance network methods. METHODS: Using routine microbiology testing data collected from the Bacteremia Antibiotic Length Actually Needed for Clinical Effectiveness retrospective cohort study, we conducted a descriptive secondary analysis among critically ill patients in whom bloodstream infections had been diagnosed in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Canada...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013258/epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-network-of-long-term-acute-care-hospitals
#16
Jennifer H Han, Ellie J C Goldstein, Jacqueleen Wise, Warren B Bilker, Pam Tolomeo, Ebbing Lautenbach
BACKGROUND: The rapid emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) represents a major public health threat, including in the long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of CRKP in a network of United States LTACHs. METHODS: An observational study was performed among 64 LTACHs from January 2014 to March 2015. Clinical cultures were included, with the first CRKP isolate recovered from each patient per study quarter evaluated...
December 24, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010058/-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-of-patients-with-intra-abdominal-postsurgical-infection-treated-with-tigecycline-a-cohort-study
#17
G Torres, M Paredes, A Hernández, C García, F Sánchez Bueno, M Canteras, P Parrilla, J Gómez
OBJECTIVE: To study a cohort of patients with intra-abdominal postsurgical infection treated with tigecycline to analyze its effectiveness and mortality related factors. METHODS: Prospective study of patients with intra-abdominal postsurgical infection with microbiological isolation and treated with tigecycline. RESULTS: Out of 103 patients only 61 full fit inclusion criteria. Mean age was 67 year-old and 72% were male. Charlson score was ≥ 3 in 65...
December 23, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010044/the-gpsb-files-the-truth-is-out-there
#18
Richard J Lewis
Peptidoglycan (PG), an essential stress-bearing component of the bacterial cell wall, is synthesised by penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). PG synthesis at the cell division septum is necessary for constructing new poles of progeny cells, and cells cannot elongate without inserting new PG in the side-wall. The cell division regulator GpsB appears to co-ordinate PG synthesis at the septum during division and at the side-wall during elongation in rod-shaped and ovococcoid Gram-positive bacteria. How the control over PG synthesis is exerted is unknown...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009598/streptococcus-pneumoniae-detection-long-time-after-death-in-a-fatal-case-of-waterhouse-friderichsen-syndrome
#19
Andrea Verzeletti, Carlo Bonfanti, Anna Leide, Elena Azzalini, Maria Antonia De Francesco, Giorgio Piccinelli, Francesco De Ferrari
We report a fatal case of Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome in a 64-year-old man. The diagnosis, suspected during the autopsy (performed 63 hours after death), was confirmed through the successful detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA and antigens in samples (blood and liver) collected during the autopsy. These results conformed with blood cultures performed antemortem, which became available only the day after the autopsy. The case underlines the need to collect biological material (liver and blood samples) during autopsy for microbiological investigations, although the collection is performed a long time after the death, suggesting that a liver sample works for DNA and liver and blood work for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen detection...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005691/clinical-and-bacterial-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-children-with-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-infections-in-india
#20
Laura E B Nabarro, Chaitra Shankar, Akila Prakasam, Georgekutty Mathew, Visali Jeyaseelan, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Valsan P Verghese
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an increasing cause of nosocomial infection in hospitalized children worldwide. Few studies have investigated risk factors for mortality in children with CRE bloodstream infection (BSI). Data are particularly scarce in areas where NDM and OXA carbapenemases predominate. Here, we investigate mortality rates, clinical and microbiologic risk factors for mortality in 50 pediatric patients with CRBSI in India. METHOD: Children younger than 17 years old with meropenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli isolated from blood culture in 2014 and 2015 were identified from laboratory records...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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