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Microbiology of pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432161/aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-pneumonia-with-chest-and-abdominal-wall-involvement
#1
Iris Storms, Marre van den Brand, Peter Schneeberger, Nico van 't Hullenaar
A 54-year-old man presented with a productive cough, chest pain, fever and weight loss. Initial analysis revealed a palpable chest wall mass and consolidation in the left lower lobe and pleural abnormalities on imaging. At that point no infectious cause or malignancy was identified. Microbiological analysis of a needle biopsy from a newly developed abdominal wall mass revealed growth of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy for 1 year. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative coccobacillus and is part of the normal oral flora...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428877/p-aeruginosa-colonization-at-icu-admission-as-a-risk-factor-for-developing-p-aeruginosa-icu-pneumonia
#2
Fleur P Paling, Martin Wolkewitz, Pieter Depuydt, Liesbet de Bus, Frangiscos Sifakis, Marc J M Bonten, Jan A J W Kluytmans
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of P. aeruginosa (PA) ICU pneumonia and its independent association with PA colonization at ICU admission. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of a prospectively collected cohort study. Adult ICU patients with a length of stay of ≥48 h were included and assessed for microbiologically confirmed PA ICU pneumonia. Multivariate survival analysis was performed, including the covariates age, gender, PA colonization at ICU admission, ICU admission specialty and mechanical ventilation at ICU admission, while taking into account the effect of competing risks...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420276/the-influence-of-maternal-vaginal-flora-on-the-intestinal-colonization-in-newborns-and-3-month-old-infants
#3
Iwona Gabriel, Anita Olejek, Krystyna Stencel-Gabriel, Miroslaw Wielgoś
The role of maternal vaginal bacteria on the colonization of neonatal gut is still matter of discussion. Our aim was estimate the role of maternal vaginal flora on the development of intestinal flora in neonates and 3- months-old infants. 79 maternal-neonatal pairs were included in the study. Vaginal swabs were taken before the rupture of membranes after admission to the delivery ward. First neonatal stool (meconium) and stool at 3-months-old infants were collected and cultured. All samples were subject to a microbiological analysis for Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium (including Cl...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415946/azacitidine-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-a-patient-with-therapy-related-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#4
Shinichi Makita, Wataru Munakata, Daisuke Watabe, Akiko Miyagi Maeshima, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Kosuke Toyoda, Nobuhiko Yamauchi, Suguru Fukuhara, Dai Maruyama, Yukio Kobayashi, Kensei Tobinai
Azacitidine is a first-in-class demethylating agent, and it is widely used globally as a first-line treatment for higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Here, we report the case of a patient with MDS who suffered from a rare adverse event, an acute lung injury (ALI), which was suspected to have been caused by azacitidine and was successfully treated with corticosteroids. As it is a rare, but critical, adverse event, clinicians should consider ALI as one of the differential diagnoses in cases where 1) pneumonia and fever of unknown etiology arise in MDS patients treated with azacitidine, 2) antimicrobial agents are not effective, and 3) microbiological tests produce negative results...
April 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413102/-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-healthy-carrier-individuals-in-primary-care-in-barcelona-area
#5
Carles Llor, Albert Boada, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Elisabet Grenzner, Rosa Juvé, Jesús Almeda
INTRODUCTION: The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Seven PCC in the Barcelona area...
April 13, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412382/use-of-nebulized-antimicrobials-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-infections-in-invasively-mechanically-ventilated-adults-a-position-paper-from-the-european-society-of-clinical-microbiology-and-infectious-diseases
#6
Jordi Rello, Candela Solé-Lleonart, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Jean Chastre, Stijn Blot, Garyfallia Poulakou, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Jordi Riera, Lucy B Palmer, Jose M Pereira, Tim Felton, Jayesh Dhanani, Matteo Bassetti, Tobias Welte, Jason A Roberts
With an established role in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis, nebulized antibiotics are increasingly being used to treat respiratory infections in critically ill invasively mechanically ventilated adult patients. Although there is limited evidence describing their efficacy and safety, in an era of need for new strategies to enhance antibiotic effectiveness because of a shortage of new agents and increases in antibiotic resistance, the potential of nebulization of antibiotics to optimize therapy is considered of high interest, particularly in patients infected with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409871/a-molecular-docking-and-dynamics-approach-to-screen-potent-inhibitors-against-fosfomycin-resistant-enzyme-in-clinical-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#7
D Thirumal Kumar, P Lavanya, C George Priya Doss, Iftikhar Aslam Tayubi, D R Naveen Kumar, I Francis Yesurajan, R Siva, V Balaji
Klebsiella pneumoniae, BA6753 was cultured from a patient in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Christian Medical College. K. pneumoniae, BA6753 has a multidrug resistance plasmid encoding novel FosA variant-7, fosfomycin resistance enzyme. Minimal side effects and a wide range of bactericidal activity of fosfomycin have resulted in its expanded clinical use that prompts the rise of fosfomycin-resistant strains. At present, there are no effective inhibitors available to conflict the FosA-medicated fosfomycin resistance...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408060/bacterial-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-urinary-specimens-of-the-elderly
#8
F Gravey, G Loggia, A de La Blanchardière, V Cattoir
OBJECTIVE: Although urinary tract infections are the second leading cause of infections among patients aged above 65 years, data on bacterial epidemiology of urinary specimens in these patients is scarce. Our aim was to describe the main bacterial species found at significant levels in urine specimens of the elderly and to determine their antimicrobial resistance profiles. METHODS: From October 2012 to October 2015, all urinary specimens (catheter-related or not) received at the laboratory of microbiology of the university hospital of Caen (France) were retrospectively studied...
April 10, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395861/dissemination-and-clinical-implications-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-producing-oxa-48-in-a-spanish-hospital
#9
A Madueño, J González García, S Fernández-Romero, J Oteo, M Lecuona
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are increasing and few effective antibiotics are currently available to treat patients. AIM: To assess the epidemiology, molecular basis, clinical features, and outcomes in the acquisition and dissemination of OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae (OXA48KP) in a tertiary Spanish hospital between October 2013 and December 2015. METHODS: Clinical, demographic, and microbiological data of patients with OXA48KP in clinical samples were collected from medical records...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390400/a-comparative-study-do-clickers-increase-student-engagement-in-multidisciplinary-clinical-microbiology-teaching
#10
Niall T Stevens, Hélène McDermott, Fiona Boland, Teresa Pawlikowska, Hilary Humphreys
BACKGROUND: Audience response devices, or "clickers", have been used in the education of future healthcare professionals for several years with varying success. They have been reported to improve the learning experience by promoting engagement and knowledge retention. In 2014, our department evaluated the use of "clickers" in a newly introduced multidisciplinary approach to teaching large groups of third year medical students clinical cases developed around a microbiology theme. METHODS: Six multidisciplinary teaching sessions covering community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, infective endocarditis, peritonitis, bloodstream infection with pyelonephritis and bacterial meningitis were included in the study...
April 8, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388651/tigecycline-resistance-among-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clinical-characteristics-and-expression-levels-of-efflux-pump-genes
#11
Sheng-Kang Chiu, Ming-Chin Chan, Li-Yueh Huang, Yi-Tsung Lin, Jung-Chung Lin, Po-Liang Lu, L Kristopher Siu, Feng-Yee Chang, Kuo-Ming Yeh
OBJECTIVES: Tigecycline is a treatment option for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). Emerging tigecycline resistance in CRKP represents a growing threat. Knowledge of the clinical, microbiological, and molecular characteristics of tigecycline- and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (TCRKP) is limited. METHODS: Patients infected with TCRKP were identified from a Taiwanese national surveillance study. Clinical data were collected from medical records...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384860/fungal-opportunistic-pneumonias-in-hiv-aids-patients-an-indian-tertiary-care-experience
#12
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Preena Bhalla, Richa Dewan
INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic pneumonias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reactive patients. Despite the significant role that fungi play in causation of this opportunistic mycoses, very few Indian studies have attempted to investigate the burden and aetiological spectrum of HIV/AIDS-associated fungal pneumonias. AIM: To document the prevalence of fungal aetiology in HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic pneumonias in an Indian setting; and to elucidate the various fungal opportunists responsible for the same...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382951/nosocomial-and-community-acquired-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-in-china-comparative-microbiology-and-therapeutic-implications
#13
Lei Shi, Dan Wu, Lei Wei, Suxia Liu, Peng Zhao, Bo Tu, Yangxin Xie, Yanan Liu, Xinhua Wang, Liying Liu, Xin Zhang, Zhe Xu, Fusheng Wang, Enqiang Qin
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. This study was performed to compare the microbiological characteristics of nosocomial and community-acquired episodes of bacterial peritonitis in China. Five hundred and seventy-five strains were isolated from the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients from the Beijing 302 Hospital from January 2014 to December 2014. The patients in the community-acquired SBP (n = 311) and the nosocomial SBP (n = 264) groups exhibited significant differences in clinical symptoms (P < 0...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381268/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-tigecycline-for-the-treatment-of-bloodstream-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Jian Wang, Yaping Pan, Jilu Shen, Yuanhong Xu
Patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) are associated with high mortality rates. Due to tigecycline has shown excellent in vitro activity against most pathogens, tigecycline is selected as one of the candidate drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant organisms infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the use of tigecycline for the treatment of patients with BSI. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched, to identify published studies, and we searched clinical trial registries to identify completed unpublished studies, the results of which were obtained through the manufacturer...
April 5, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377180/unique-characteristics-of-community-onset-healthcare-associated-bloodstream-infections-a-multi-centre-prospective-surveillance-study-of-bloodstream-infections-in-japan
#15
N Takeshita, I Kawamura, H Kurai, H Araoka, A Yoneyama, T Fujita, Y Ainoda, R Hase, N Hosokawa, H Shimanuki, N Sekiya, N Ohmagari
BACKGROUND: Analysis of bloodstream infections (BSIs) is valuable for their diagnosis, treatment and prevention. However, limited data are available in Japan. AIM: To investigate the characteristics of patients with bacteraemia in Japan. METHODS: This study was conducted in five hospitals from October 2012 to September 2013. Clinical, demographic, microbiological and outcome data for all blood-culture-positive cases were analysed. FINDINGS: In total, 3206 cases of BSI were analysed: 551 community-onset healthcare-associated (CHA)-BSIs, 1891 hospital-acquired (HA)-BSIs and 764 community-acquired (CA)-BSIs...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376809/molecular-characterization-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-before-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-implementation-in-casablanca-morocco
#16
Idrissa Diawara, Abouddihaj Barguigua, Khalid Katfy, Kaotar Nayme, Houria Belabbes, Mohammed Timinouni, Khalid Zerouali, Naima Elmdaghri
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among children and the elderly. The ability to effectively treat pneumococcal infection has been compromised due to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance, particularly to β-lactam drugs. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and molecular evolution of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolated from invasive diseases before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in Casablanca, Morocco...
April 4, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371525/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-children-with-pneumonia-admitted-to-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#17
Jia Wen Janine Cynthia Koh, Judith Ju-Ming Wong, Rehena Sultana, Petrina Poh Chen Wong, Yee Hui Mok, Jan Hau Lee
AIMS: To describe the epidemiology of children with severe pneumonia and identify risk factors for poor outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) from 2010 to 2014 with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Clinical microbiological, ventilation and other pertinent PICU data were collected. Primary outcome was PICU mortality. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors for mortality...
April 3, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367029/biofilm-colonization-in-chronic-treatment-refractory-infections-presenting-with-discharging-sinuses-a-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-eastern-india
#18
Asmita De, Hirak Jyoti Raj, Jayeeta Haldar, Poulami Mukherjee, Prasanta Kumar Maiti
INTRODUCTION: Treatment refractory chronic recurrent infections mean those chronic infections which recur by same causal agents with similar drug responsiveness after apparent relief following full course of recommended antimicrobial management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty different samples were collected from patients with chronic surgical site infections, laparoscopic port site infections, anal fistula, mesh hernioplasty, chronic dacryocystitis, chronic osteomyelitis, and chronic burn wounds...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359546/attributable-mortality-of-hospital-acquired-bloodstream-infections-in-ireland
#19
M Brady, A Oza, R Cunney, K Burns
AIM: To estimate the attributable mortality of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HA-BSI) in Ireland. METHODS: A retrospective case-cohort study was conducted, based on notifications from Irish microbiology laboratories and administrative patient records from six Irish hospitals from January 2007 to December 2013. Probabilistic linkage was used to link 1252 cases of bloodstream infection from a cohort of 343,189 hospitalized patients. Independent predictors of mortality were determined using a multi-variable logistic regression model, and included: patient age, emergency or re-admission to hospital, length of stay in an intensive care unit, number of procedures, number of diagnoses, major diagnostic category and presence of HA-BSI...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353417/do-patients-with-pre-existing-psychiatric-illness-have-an-increased-risk-of-infection-after-injury
#20
Catherine M Dickinson, Daniel R Karlin, Hector R Nunez, Shiliang A Cao, Daithi S Heffernan, Sean F Monaghan, Tareq Kheirbek, Charles A Adams, Andrew H Stephen
BACKGROUND: Trauma remains a leading cause of death and long term-morbidity. We have shown that patients who sustain traumatic injuries are at increased risk for the development of infectious complications. Psychiatric illnesses (PIs) are also noted to occur frequently among the general population. The presence of a PI has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of infections. Despite the prevalence of both traumatic injuries and psychiatric diseases, there are little data relating the impact of PI on the outcome of patients with trauma...
March 29, 2017: Surgical Infections
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