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Microbiology of pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719310/severity-of-pneumonia-in-under-5-year-old-children-from-developing-countries-a-multicenter-prospective-observational-study
#1
Thomas Bénet, Valentina Sanchez Picot, Shally Awasthi, Nitin Pandey, Ashish Bavdekar, Anand Kawade, Annick Robinson, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Maryam Sylla, Souleymane Diallo, Graciela Russomando, Wilma Basualdo, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Philippe Vanhems, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà, For The Gabriel Network
Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. The objectives were to evaluate the microbiological agents linked with hypoxemia in hospitalized children with pneumonia from developing countries, to identify predictors of hypoxemia, and to characterize factors associated with in-hospital mortality. A multicenter, observational study was conducted in five hospitals, from India (Lucknow, Vadu), Madagascar (Antananarivo), Mali (Bamako), and Paraguay (San Lorenzo). Children aged 2-60 months with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were enrolled prospectively...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710611/bad-bacteria-in-acute-appendicitis-rare-but-relevant
#2
Alexander Reinisch, Patrizia Malkomes, Nils Habbe, Wolf Otto Bechstein, Juliane Liese
PURPOSE: Bacterial infections are a factor for morbidity in patients with acute appendicitis (AA). The spreading of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a significant problem in surgery, and the most relevant MDR pathogens are summarized as Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococci (ESKAPE) bacteria. Data regarding the species and distribution of bacteria in AA are available, but information about the resistances and their relevance is deficient...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709439/enhanced-antimicrobial-de-escalation-for-pneumonia-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-cross-over-study
#3
Tracy Trupka, Kristen Fisher, Scott T Micek, Paul Juang, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are commonly administered to hospitalized patients with infiltrates for possible bacterial pneumonia, often leading to unnecessary treatment and increasing the risk for resistance emergence. Therefore, we performed a study to determine if an enhanced antibiotic de-escalation practice could improve antibiotic utilization in mechanically ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia cared for in an academic closed intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This was a prospective cross-over trial comparing routine antibiotic management (RAM) and enhanced antimicrobial de-escalation (EAD) performed within two medical ICUs (total 34 beds) at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, an academic referral center...
July 15, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709108/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-v-alginolyticus-associated-meningo-encephalitis-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-from-the-adriatic-coast-of-italy
#4
Ludovica Di Renzo, Gabriella Di Francesco, Chiara Profico, Cristina E Di Francesco, Nicola Ferri, Daniela Averaimo, Giovanni Di Guardo
A case of Vibrio parahaemolyticus- and V. alginolyticus-associated meningo-encephalitis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy in 2016 is herein reported, along with a minireview on V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus infections in aquatic mammals. Macroscopically, two abscesses were found in the dolphin's forebrain, along with an extensive, bilateral, parasitic broncho-pneumonia. Histologically, a suppurative-to-pyogranulomatous meningo-encephalitis involved the brain but not the cerebellum...
July 1, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708458/effectiveness-of-a-double-carbapenem-regimen-in-a-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#5
Nuria Piedra-Carrasco, Lucia Miguel, Anna Fàbrega, Belén Viñado, David Campany, Alba Mir, María Laura Fox, Benito Almirante, Nieves Larrosa, Isabel Ruiz-Camps, Juan José González-López
The progressive increase of infections produced by extensively drug-resistant carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (XDR-CPKP) represents an important threat to public health. Unfortunately, optimal therapeutic options are scarce. Retrospective studies have recommended combined therapy with more than one antibiotic and, more recently, a double-carbapenem regimen has been reported to be an effective alternative therapy. Here, we describe an episode of sepsis in an immunocompromised patient after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, caused by an XDR-CPKP...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705671/antibiotic-resistance-in-west-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Kerlly J Bernabé, Céline Langendorf, Nathan Ford, Jean-Baptiste Ronat, Richard A Murphy
BACKGROUND: Growing data suggest that antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are common in low and middle-income countries. This review summarizes the microbiology of key bacterial syndromes encountered in West Africa and estimates the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that could compromise first-line empirical treatment. METHODS: We systematically searched for studies reporting on the epidemiology of infection and AMR in West Africa. Within each syndrome, the pooled proportion and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each pathogen-antibiotic pair, using random effects models...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705427/invasive-disease-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-patients-hospitalized-for-6-years
#7
Vanessa Arias-Constantí, Victoria Trenchs-Sainz de la Maza, Nuria Elvira Sanz-Marcos, Carmina Guitart-Pardellans, Amadeu Gené-Giralt, Carles Luaces-Cubells
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The last years an increase of severe cases of invasive disease (ID) due to Streptococcus pyogenes or streptococcus b-hemolytic group A (SGA) had been detected. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and the clinical features of ID due to SGA in a tertiary Pediatric Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study in a Pediatric hospital, of all in-patients with final diagnosis of ID due to SGA during 6 years (2009-2014)...
July 10, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705217/monitoring-clinical-and-microbiological-evolution-of-a-cystic-fibrosis-patient-over-26%C3%A2-years-experience-of-a-brazilian-cf-centre
#8
Cassiana da Costa Ferreira Leite, Tania Wrobel Folescu, Mônica de Cássia Firmida, Renata Wrobel Folescu Cohen, Robson Souza Leão, Flávia Alvim Dutra de Freitas, Rodolpho Mattos Albano, Claudia Henrique da Costa, Elizabeth Andrade Marques
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients believed to be associated with poor prognosis and patient-to-patient transmissibility. Little is known about clinical outcomes after B. vietnamiensis chronic colonization/infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33 yo male patient had diagnosis of CF by 7 yo, after recurrent pneumonia during infancy and lobectomy (left upper lobe) at 6 yo. Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) was first isolated by 13 yo, and the patient fulfilled the criteria for chronic colonization by 15 yo...
July 14, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702467/ceftaroline-for-severe-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Reese A Cosimi, Nahal Beik, David W Kubiak, Jennifer A Johnson
Ceftaroline is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, including cases with concurrent bacteremia. Use for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has risen for a multitude of reasons. The aim of this article is to review the literature evaluating clinical outcomes and safety of ceftaroline prescribed for serious MRSA infections. We conducted a literature search in Ovid (Medline) and PubMed for reputable case reports, clinical trials, and reviews focusing on the use of ceftaroline for treatment of MRSA infections...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701159/bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-a-tertiary-infectious-diseases-hospital-in-northern-vietnam-aetiology-drug-resistance-and-treatment-outcome
#10
Vu Quoc Dat, Hieu Ngoc Vu, Hung Nguyen The, Hoa Thi Nguyen, Long Bao Hoang, Dung Vu Tien Viet, Chi Linh Bui, Kinh Van Nguyen, Trung Vu Nguyen, Dao Tuyet Trinh, Alessandro Torre, H Rogier van Doorn, Behzad Nadjm, Heiman F L Wertheim
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. However their aetiology, antimicrobial susceptibilities and associated outcomes differ between developed and developing countries. Systematic data from Vietnam are scarce. Here we present aetiologic data on BSI in adults admitted to a large tertiary referral hospital for infectious diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases between January 2011 and December 2013...
July 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699377/microbiological-and-immunological-profile-of-patients-with-severe-lupus-flares-related-to-bloodstream-infections-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
J Torres-Ruiz, A Barrera-Vargas, R Ortiz-Hernández, J Alcocer-Varela, A Ponce-de-León, D Gómez-Martín
Background This study aimed to address whether bloodstream infections are a risk factor for the development of severe lupus flares, as well as clinical, immunological and microbiological features of patients with bloodstream infections that develop severe lupus flares. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing 87 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with bloodstream infections and 87 hospitalized SLE patients without bloodstream infections as a comparison group. All patients were followed up for at least 3 months or until one of the primary outcomes was developed (severe SLE flare according to SELENA/SLEDAI score or death)...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698042/propensity-matched-analysis-of-the-impact-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-production-on-adults-with-community-onset-escherichia-coli-klebsiella-species-and-proteus-mirabilis-bacteremia
#12
Ching-Chi Lee, Chung-Hsun Lee, Ming-Yuan Hong, Chih-Chia Hsieh, Hung-Jen Tang, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Proteus mirabilis (EKP) is of great microbiological and clinical importance. The study dealing with the direct impact of ESBL producers on the outcome of patients with community-onset bacteremia is lacking. METHODS: Adults with community-onset EKP bacteremia were recruited retrospectively during a 6-year period. ESBL producers were determined according to ESBL phenotype...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694234/effectiveness-of-and-obstacles-to-antibiotic-streamlining-to-amoxicillin-monotherapy-in-bacteremic-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#13
Mathieu Blot, Diane Pivot, Abderrahmane Bourredjem, Arnaud Salmon-Rousseau, Claire de Curraize, Delphine Croisier, Pascal Chavanet, Christine Binquet, Lionel Piroth
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic streamlining is pivotal to reduce the emergence of resistant bacteria. However, whether streamlining is frequently performed and safe in difficult situations, such as bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP), has still to be assessed. METHODS: All adult patients admitted to Dijon Hospital (France) from 2005 to 2013 who had BPP without complications, and were alive on the third day were enrolled. Clinical, biological, radiological, microbiological and therapeutic data were recorded...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693930/the-prevalence-of-rectal-carriage-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-amongst-diabetic-patients-and-their-clinical-relevance-in-taiwan-a-five-year-prospective-study
#14
Yu-Tsung Huang, Ju-Ying Jiang, Meng-Shiuan Hsu, Hsin-Sui Hsu, Chun-Hsing Liao, Po-Ren Hsueh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) and bacteremia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common complication among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of rectal carriage and serotype distribution of K. pneumoniae amongst DM patients and their clinical relevance. METHODS: We prospectively collected rectal swabs for K. pneumoniae culture in asymptomatic DM patients from March 2008 to June 2009. Seven capsular serotypes that were commonly associated with PLA were determined by capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) genotyping...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688757/-description-and-role-of-bacteriological-techniques-in-the-management-of-lung-infections
#15
REVIEW
S Dahyot, L Lemee, M Pestel-Caron
Acute pneumonias occur in a variety of clinical settings and accurate identification of bacterial causes is extremely important. No microbiological tool is either 100 % sensitive or 100 % specific, and despite investigations, aetiology remains unanswered in more than 30 % of pneumonia. No sample may be necessary for patients treated as outpatients, non invasive respiratory specimens are preferred in hospitalised individuals (community or healthcare associated), while invasive specimens are used as second line for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in intensive care, and in the first line where pneumonia occurs in immunosuppressed patients...
July 5, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679413/double-carbapenem-as-a-rescue-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infections-a-two-center-matched-case-control-study
#16
Gennaro De Pascale, Gennaro Martucci, Luca Montini, Giovanna Panarello, Salvatore Lucio Cutuli, Daniele Di Carlo, Valentina Di Gravio, Roberta Di Stefano, Guido Capitanio, Maria Sole Vallecoccia, Piera Polidori, Teresa Spanu, Antonio Arcadipane, Massimo Antonelli
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested the efficacy of a double carbapenem (DC) combination, including ertapenem, for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) infections. We aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of such a regimen in critically ill patients. METHODS: This case-control (1:2), observational, two-center study involved critically ill adults with a microbiologically documented CR-Kp invasive infection treated with the DC regimen matched with those receiving a standard treatment (ST) (i...
July 5, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673280/incidence-clinical-features-and-implications-on-outcomes-of-neonatal-late-onset-sepsis-with-concurrent-infectious-focus
#17
I-Hsyuan Wu, Ming-Horng Tsai, Mei-Yin Lai, Lee-Fen Hsu, Ming-Chou Chiang, Reyin Lien, Ren-Huei Fu, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Shih-Ming Chu, Jen-Fu Hsu
BACKGROUND: Neonatal bloodstream infection (BSI) is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Although most neonatal BSIs are primary bacteremia, some are associated with a focus of infection. This distinction is not well characterized. METHODS: All patients with neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) between January 2006 and December 2013 were enrolled. LOS was categorized as a BSI with a concurrent focus of infection if LOS occurred before or within 24 h after the diagnosis of a specific infectious entity, and as "primary bacteremia" if no concurrent focus of infection was identified...
July 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670346/molecular-characterization-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-stool-specimens-of-outpatients-in-sentinel-hospitals-beijing-china-2010-2015
#18
Bing Lu, Haijian Zhou, Xin Zhang, Mei Qu, Ying Huang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is an opportunistic pathogen associated with community-acquired infections and nosocomial infections. From 2010 to 2015, K. pneumoniae testing was included into the exiting diarrhea-syndrome surveillance with objective to estimate the prevalence of K. pneumoniae in diarrhea-syndrome patients, test antibiotics susceptibility and investigate molecular characteristics. METHODS: Stool specimens from diarrhea-syndrome outpatients were cultured and identified the pathogens by the Vitek2 Compact instrument...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669567/nationwide-surveillance-of-bacterial-respiratory-pathogens-conducted-by-the-surveillance-committee-of-japanese-society-of-chemotherapy-the-japanese-association-for-infectious-diseases-and-the-japanese-society-for-clinical-microbiology-in-2012-general-view-of
#19
Katsunori Yanagihara, Akira Watanabe, Nobuki Aoki, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Masaki Yoshida, Junko Sato, Tomotaro Wakamura, Keisuke Sunakawa, Junichi Kadota, Hiroshi Kiyota, Satoshi Iwata, Mitsuo Kaku, Hideaki Hanaki, Yoshinobu Ohsaki, Satoru Fujiuchi, Manabu Takahashi, Kenichi Takeuchi, Hiroaki Takeda, Hideki Ikeda, Makoto Miki, Susumu Nakanowatari, Hiroshi Takahashi, Mutsuko Utagawa, Hajime Nishiya, Sayoko Kawakami, Eriko Morino, Jin Takasaki, Kazuhisa Mezaki, Naohiko Chonabayashi, Chie Tanaka, Hideko Sugiura, Hajime Goto, Takeshi Saraya, Daisuke Kurai, Yasuhiro Katono, Rika Inose, Yoshihito Niki, Takahiro Takuma, Makoto Kudo, Shigeru Ehara, Yoshimi Sato, Hiroki Tsukada, Nobuei Watabe, Yasuo Honma, Hiroshige Mikamo, Yuka Yamagishi, Atsushi Nakamura, Minoru Ohashi, Masafumi Seki, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Masahiro Toyokawa, Yasunori Fujikawa, Noriko Mitsuno, Akira Ukimura, Takayuki Miyara, Takahito Nakamura, Keiichi Mikasa, Kei Kasahara, Koji Ui, Saori Fukuda, Akihiro Nakamura, Mika Morimura, Mikio Yamashita, Yoshio Takesue, Yasunao Wada, Keisuke Sugimoto, Nobuchika Kusano, Motoko Nose, Eiichirou Mihara, Masao Kuwabara, Masao Doi, Yaeko Watanabe, Hirokazu Tokuyasu, Satoshi Hino, Kiyoshi Negayama, Hiroshi Mukae, Toshinori Kawanami, Toshiyuki Ota, Masaki Fujita, Junichi Honda, Kazufumi Hiramatsu, Yosuke Aoki, Mami Fukuoka, Hiroki Magarifuchi, Zenzo Nagasawa, Norihito Kaku, Jiro Fujita, Futoshi Higa, Masao Tateyama
The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in Japan was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese association for infectious diseases and Japanese society for Clinical Microbiology in 2012. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between January and December in 2012 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institutes...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668656/epidemiology-management-and-outcome-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-in-hospitals-within-the-same-endemic-metropolitan-area
#20
Maria Luisa Cristina, Cristiano Alicino, Marina Sartini, Valeria Faccio, Anna Maria Spagnolo, Valerio Del Bono, Giovanni Cassola, Anna Maria De Mite, Maria Paola Crisalli, Gianluca Ottria, Elisa Schinca, Giuliano Lo Pinto, Luigi Carlo Bottaro, Claudio Viscoli, Andrea Orsi, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Giancarlo Icardi
In the last decade, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) has become endemic in several countries, including Italy. In the present study, we assessed the differences in epidemiology, management, and mortality of CR-Kp bloodstream infection (BSI) in the three main adult acute-care hospitals of the metropolitan area of Genoa, Italy. From January 2013 to December 2014, all patients with CR-Kp BSI were identified through the computerized microbiology laboratory databases of the three hospitals. The primary endpoints of the study were incidence and characteristics of CR-Kp BSI in hospitals within the same endemic metropolitan area...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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