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Microbiology of pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642139/clinical-characteristics-and-epidemiology-of-sepsis-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-the-era-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-a-retrospective-review
#1
Dawood Yusef, Tala Shalakhti, Samah Awad, Hana'a Algharaibeh, Wasim Khasawneh
BACKGROUND: Sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) remains one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality, especially for preterm newborns. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) are emerging as important pathogens that cause neonatal sepsis in NICU. Therefore, studying the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome caused by MDROs vs. non-MDROs, and identifying risk factors that may predispose patients to sepsis by MDROs are important. METHODS: Episodes of blood culture-proven sepsis (age: 0-90 days) in the NICU at our institution from January 2012 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640714/an-unexplored-brain-gut-microbiota-axis-in-stroke
#2
Shu Wen Wen, Connie H Y Wong
Microbiota research, in particular that of the gut, has recently gained much attention in medical research owing to technological advances in metagenomics and metabolomics. Despite this, much of the research direction has focused on long-term or chronic effects of microbiota manipulation on health and disease. In this addendum, we reflect on our recent publication that reported findings addressing a rather unconventional hypothesis. Bacterial pneumonia is highly prevalent and is one of the leading contributors to stroke morbidity and mortality worldwide...
June 22, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639163/agr-functionality-affects-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-persistent-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia
#3
C K Kang, Y K Kim, S-I Jung, W B Park, K-H Song, K-H Park, P G Choe, H-C Jang, S Lee, Y-S Kim, Y G Kwak, K T Kwon, S Kiem, C-J Kim, E S Kim, H B Kim
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) often persists despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. It is unclear what microbiological factors contribute to poor clinical outcomes in persistent MRSAB (pMRSAB). We aimed to identify clinical and microbiological risk factors for in-hospital mortality in pMRSAB. We analysed MRSAB cases prospectively collected between 2009 and 2016 at 11 hospitals in Korea, defining cases of pMRSAB as MRSAB lasting ≥5 days despite administration of effective antibiotics...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638594/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-of-nepal
#4
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Keshab Parajuli, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) and antimicrobial resistance are principal threats to the patients of intensive care units and are the major determining factors for patient outcome. They are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, excess hospitalization and financial costs. The present study is an attempt to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates involved in healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in the patients of a critical care unit at a tertiary care university hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636666/molecular-and-microbiological-report-of-a-hospital-outbreak-of-ndm-1-carrying-enterobacteriaceae-in-mexico
#5
Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Elvira Garza-González, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Humberto Barrios, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Santiago Petersen-Morfin, Jesus Silva-Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiological, molecular and epidemiological data of an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico. METHODS: From September 2014 to July 2015, all CRE clinical isolates recovered during an outbreak in the Hospital Civil "Fray Antonio Alcalde" in Jalisco, Mexico were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, carbapenemase production, carbapenemase-encoding genes, and plasmid profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633678/variation-in-empiric-coverage-versus-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-hospitalizations-for-community-onset-pneumonia-across-128-us-veterans-affairs-medical-centers
#6
Barbara E Jones, Kevin Antoine Brown, Makoto M Jones, Benedikt D Huttner, Tom Greene, Brian C Sauer, Karl Madaras-Kelly, Michael A Rubin, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Matthew H Samore
OBJECTIVE To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010. METHODS We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625166/impact-of-gram-stain-results-on-initial-treatment-selection-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-retrospective-analysis-of-two-treatment-algorithms
#7
Jumpei Yoshimura, Takahiro Kinoshita, Kazuma Yamakawa, Asako Matsushima, Naoki Nakamoto, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Satoshi Fujimi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious problem in intensive care units (ICUs). Several studies have suggested that the Gram stain of endotracheal aspirates is a useful method for accurately diagnosing VAP. However, the usefulness of the Gram stain in predicting which microorganisms cause VAP has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a Gram stain of endotracheal aspirates could be used to determine appropriate initial antimicrobial therapy for VAP...
June 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618727/analysis-of-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-attacks-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#8
Ayşe But, Meltem Arzu Yetkin, Dilek Kanyilmaz, Halide Aslaner, Aliye Baştuğ, Adalet Aypak, Pınar Öngürü, Esragül Akinci, Nevzat Mehmet Mutlu, Hürrem Bodur
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics, the causative microorganisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and the prognostic risk factors for mortality in critically ill patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, all the critically ill patients with VAP hospitalized in a medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2010 and June 2015 were evaluated...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602703/clinical-predictors-and-outcomes-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteraemia-in-a-regional-hospital-in-hong-kong
#9
M Y Man, H P Shum, Y H Chan, K C Chan, W W Yan, R A Lee, S K P Lau
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) infection is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance, especially extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production, in KP is endemic worldwide. Our study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with KP bacteraemia in critical care and general ward settings. METHODS: Adult patients admitted to a regional hospital in Hong Kong from 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2016 (7.5 years) with KP bacteraemia were included...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594680/antibiotic-therapy-in-comatose-mechanically-ventilated-patients-following-aspiration-differentiating-pneumonia-from-pneumonitis
#10
Jean Baptiste Lascarrou, Floriane Lissonde, Aurélie Le Thuaut, Konstantinos Bachoumas, Gwenhael Colin, Matthieu Henry Lagarrigue, Isabelle Vinatier, Maud Fiancette, Jean Claude Lacherade, Aihem Yehia, Aurélie Joret, Christine Lebert, Sandra Bourdon, Laurent Martin Lefèvre, Jean Reignier
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of patients with documented bacterial aspiration pneumonia among comatose ICU patients with symptoms suggesting either bacterial aspiration pneumonia or non-bacterial aspiration pneumonitis. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University-affiliated 30-bed ICU. PATIENTS: Prospective cohort of 250 patients admitted to the ICU with coma (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8) and treated with invasive mechanical ventilation...
June 7, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583738/predictors-of-mortality-in-nursing-home-residents-with-pneumonia-a-multicenter-study
#11
Marco Falcone, Alessandro Russo, Flaminia Gentiloni Silverj, Daniela Marzorati, Renzo Bagarolo, Massimo Monti, Rosella Velleca, Roberto D'Angelo, Antonino Frustaglia, Ginetto Carlo Zuccarelli, Roberto Prina, Marco Vignati, Maria Grazia Marnati, Mario Venditti, Marco Tinelli
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate predictors of mortality in patients residing in nursing-homes (NHs) or long-term care facilities (LTCFs) with diagnosis of NH-acquired pneumonia (NHAP). METHODS: We conducted an observational, prospective study (December 2013-December 2015) of patients residing in 9 NHs/LTCFs of Central and Northern Italy with diagnosis of NHAP. Data on demographics, comorbidities, microbiology, and therapies were entered in an electronic database. To identify risk factors associated with 30-day mortality, we performed univariable and multivariable analyses, and predictors were internally validated using a bootstrap resampling procedure...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575374/evaluation-of-pneumococcal-load-in-blood-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-the-diagnosis-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-young-children-in-the-perch-study
#12
Maria Deloria Knoll, Susan C Morpeth, J Anthony G Scott, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Katherine L O'Brien, Donald M Thea, Dilruba Ahmed, Martin Antonio, Juliet O Awori, Vicky L Baillie, James Chipeta, Andrea N Deluca, Michel Dione, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Anchalee Jatapai, Ruth A Karron, Razib Mazumder, David P Moore, James Mwansa, Sammy Nyongesa, Christine Prosperi, Phil Seidenberg, Duangkamon Siludjai, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch, Shabir A Madhi
Background.: Detection of pneumococcus by lytA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood had poor diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia in children in 9 African and Asian sites. We assessed the value of blood lytA quantification in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods.: The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) case-control study tested whole blood by PCR for pneumococcus in children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with signs of pneumonia and in age-frequency matched community controls...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575371/detection-of-pneumococcal-dna-in-blood-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-diagnosing-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-young-children-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Susan C Morpeth, Maria Deloria Knoll, J Anthony G Scott, Daniel E Park, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, Donald M Thea, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Martin Antonio, Charatdao Bunthi, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Louis Peter Githua, Melissa M Higdon, Geoff Kahn, Angela Karani, Ruth A Karron, Geoffrey Kwenda, Sirirat Makprasert, Razib Mazumder, David P Moore, James Mwansa, Sammy Nyongesa, Christine Prosperi, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Toni Whistler, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch
Background.: We investigated the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia among children from 7 low- and middle-income countries. Methods.: We tested blood by PCR for the pneumococcal autolysin gene in children aged 1-59 months in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study. Children had World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia or were age-frequency-matched community controls...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575367/colonization-density-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-as-a-predictor-of-pneumonia-haemophilus-influenzae-moraxella-catarrhalis-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#14
Daniel E Park, Henry C Baggett, Stephen R C Howie, Qiyuan Shi, Nora L Watson, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Laura L Hammitt, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Dilruba Ahmed, Martin Antonio, Vicky L Baillie, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Wei Fu, Caroline W Gitahi, Emmanuel Olutunde, Melissa M Higdon, Lokman Hossain, Ruth A Karron, Abdoul Aziz Maiga, Susan A Maloney, David P Moore, Susan C Morpeth, John Mwaba, Musaku Mwenechanya, Christine Prosperi, Mamadou Sylla, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Scott L Zeger, Daniel R Feikin
Background.: There is limited information on the association between colonization density of upper respiratory tract colonizers and pathogen-specific pneumonia. We assessed this association for Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pneumocystis jirovecii. Methods.: In 7 low- and middle-income countries, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children with severe pneumonia and age-frequency matched community controls were tested using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575365/density-of-upper-respiratory-colonization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-its-role-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-among-children-aged-5-years-in-the-perch-study
#15
Henry C Baggett, Nora L Watson, Maria Deloria Knoll, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, David R Murdoch, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Martin Antonio, Juliet O Awori, Vicky L Baillie, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Julie Duncan, Bernard E Ebruke, Doli Goswami, Melissa M Higdon, Ruth A Karron, David P Moore, Susan C Morpeth, Justin M Mulindwa, Daniel E Park, Wantana Paveenkittiporn, Barameht Piralam, Christine Prosperi, Samba O Sow, Milagritos D Tapia, Khalequ Zaman, Scott L Zeger, Katherine L O'Brien
Background.: Previous studies suggested an association between upper airway pneumococcal colonization density and pneumococcal pneumonia, but data in children are limited. Using data from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, we assessed this potential association. Methods.: PERCH is a case-control study in 7 countries: Bangladesh, The Gambia, Kenya, Mali, South Africa, Thailand, and Zambia. Cases were children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538846/-clinical-and-microbiological-study-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-internal-medicine-services-of-a-venezuelan-university-hospital
#16
Pedro Quijada-Martínez, Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, María Araque
Objectives: To determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine services of the Hospital Universitario de Los Andes (HULA), Mérida, Venezuela and to establish the clonal distribution of multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that produce this infection. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three adult patients with bladder catheterization were studied between January and July 2015...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#17
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533857/antibiogram-profile-of-uropathogens-isolated-at-bahir-dar-regional-health-research-laboratory-centre-northwest-ethiopia
#18
Awoke Derbie, Derese Hailu, Daniel Mekonnen, Bayeh Abera, Gashaw Yitayew
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) has been increasing since the introduction of chemotherapy. This study was aimed to assess the types of isolates from patients with UTI and to determine their current antimicrobial susceptibility profile. METHODS: A record based retrospective analysis of bacterial uropathogens processed in the period of January 2012 to December 2014 at Bahir Dar Health Research Laboratory Center (BRHRLC) was determined...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532398/clinical-outcomes-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-in-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-stratified-by-baseline-renal-function-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#19
Ping Liu, Blair Capitano, Amy Stein, Ali A El-Solh
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to assess whether baseline renal function impacts treatment outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin (with a dose-optimized regimen) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data generated from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT 00084266). The analysis included 405 patients with culture-proven MRSA pneumonia. Baseline renal function was stratified based on creatinine clearance...
May 22, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#20
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
May 17, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
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