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Microbiology of pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777923/diagnosis-and-management-of-pulmonary-infection-due-to-rhodococcus-equi
#1
REVIEW
Weijie V Lin, Robert L Kruse, Katharine Yang, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is a recognized cause of disease in humans, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Because diphtheroids are regarded as part of normal respiratory flora, the importance of R. equi as a pulmonary pathogen may not be fully appreciated and its prevalence underestimated. Most treatment recommendations for R. equi infection were established before antiretroviral drugs became available for HIV/AIDS therapy, and therapeutic strategies may need to be updated...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774878/-etiology-and-risk-factors-for-meningitis-and-or-bacteremia-after-craniotomy-for-patients-with-glioma
#2
Yaning Wang, Yu Wang, Wenbin Ma
To evaluate the incidence and microbiological profile of meningitis and/or bacteremia after craniotomy in patients with glioma and analyze the risk factors relevant to postoperative meningitis.
 Methods: All demographic data, etiological data and clinical data for hospitalized patients who underwent craniotomy in Dept. of Neurosurgery of Peking Union Medical College Hospital between Jan. 2013 to Dec. 2017 were recorded.
 Results: The incidence of post-craniotomy meningitiswas 7.73%, bacteremia was 2.21% and meningitis combined with bacteremia was 1...
April 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771872/outbreaks-associated-with-treated-recreational-water-united-states-2000-2014
#3
Michele C Hlavsa, Bryanna L Cikesh, Virginia A Roberts, Amy M Kahler, Marissa Vigar, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Timothy J Wade, Dawn M Roellig, Jennifer L Murphy, Lihua Xiao, Kirsten M Yates, Jasen M Kunz, Matthew J Arduino, Sujan C Reddy, Kathleen E Fullerton, Laura A Cooley, Michael J Beach, Vincent R Hill, Jonathan S Yoder
Outbreaks associated with exposure to treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in venues such as pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive water play venues (i.e., water playgrounds). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 46 states and Puerto Rico reported 493 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water. These outbreaks resulted in at least 27,219 cases and eight deaths. Among the 363 outbreaks with a confirmed infectious etiology, 212 (58%) were caused by Cryptosporidium (which causes predominantly gastrointestinal illness), 57 (16%) by Legionella (which causes Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness with flu-like symptoms), and 47 (13%) by Pseudomonas (which causes folliculitis ["hot tub rash"] and otitis externa ["swimmers' ear"])...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768293/seasonality-of-common-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#4
Susan C Lipsett, Michael C Monuteaux, Andrew M Fine
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Traditional sources cite seasonal patterns for common infectious diseases, often based on microbiologic data, but little is known about cyclical trends in clinically diagnosed infectious conditions in the emergency department (ED). We leveraged the publicly available Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database to measure the seasonality of the most common pediatric infectious diseases diagnosed in US EDs. METHODS: We searched the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database to identify infectious diagnoses comprising at least 1% of all diagnosis codes ascribed to patients 21 years and younger in US EDs from 2009 to 2013...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765367/detection-of-bacteriophage-particles-containing-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-sputum-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#5
Maryury Brown-Jaque, Lirain Rodriguez Oyarzun, Thais Cornejo-Sánchez, Maria T Martín-Gómez, Silvia Gartner, Javier de Gracia, Sandra Rovira, Antonio Alvarez, Joan Jofre, Juan J González-López, Maite Muniesa
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease in which the bacterial colonization of the lung is linked to an excessive inflammatory response that leads to respiratory failure. The microbiology of CF is complex. Staphylococcus aureus is the first bacterium to colonize the lungs in 30% of pediatric CF patients, and 80% of adult patients develop a chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, but other microorganisms can also be found. The use of antibiotics is essential to treat the disease, but antibiotic performance is compromised by resistance mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759089/thrombocytopenia-in-bacteraemia-and-association-with-bacterial-species
#6
D Johansson, M Rasmussen, M Inghammar
Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with invasive bacterial infections. Bacteria can activate platelets, but it is unclear if this affects platelet count. The aim of this study was to examine whether bacteraemia with Staphylococcus aureus, which readily activate human platelets, was more likely to be complicated by thrombocytopenia than bacteraemia with Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae with different abilities to activate platelets.We compared information from 600 adult patients with community-acquired bacteraemia with S...
May 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748840/clinical-patterns-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-of-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producers-a-prospective-hospital-case-control-study
#7
Basima A Almomani, Wail A Hayajneh, Abeer M Ayoub, Mera A Ababneh, Miral A Al Momani
PURPOSE: To assess incidence rate, risk factors and susceptibility patterns associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae in community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs). METHODS: A prospective, case-control study was conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital from Jan 2015 to Dec 2016. The results of microbiology cultures were initially screened to include only patients with positive E. coli or K...
May 10, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747810/oral-health-interventions-using-chlorhexidine-effects-on-the-prevalence-of-oral-opportunistic-pathogens-in-stroke-survivors-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Normaliza Ab Malik, Fathilah Abdul Razak, Sa'ari Mohamad Yatim, Otto Lok Tao Lam, Lijian Jin, Leonard S W Li, Colman McGrath
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of oral opportunistic pathogens among stroke survivors, both before and after oral health care interventions. METHODS: A multicenter randomized clinical trial was conducted on hospitalized stroke survivors. Those in the control group were given standard care of oral hygiene (a manual toothbrush and toothpaste), whereas those in the test group were given intense care of oral hygiene (a powered toothbrush and 1% chlorhexidine oral gel)...
June 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746946/pneumonic-and-non-pneumonic-exacerbations-in-bronchiectasis-clinical-and-microbiological-differences
#9
Eva Polverino, Edmundo Rosales-Mayor, Mariana Benegas, Rosario Menendez, Victoria Alcaraz-Serrano, Emilio Ansotegui, Beatriz Montull, Rosa María Girón, Carolina Cisneros, Montserrat Vendrell, Gerard Muñoz, María Angeles Marcos, Marcelo Sanchez, Antoni Torres
OBJECTIVES: Despite the clinical relevance of exacerbations in bronchiectasis (BE), little is known about the microbiology and outcomes of pneumonic (CAP) vs. non-pneumonic (NOCAP) exacerbations. METHODS: This study compares clinical and microbiological characteristics of CAP vs. NOCAP in adults with BE. We performed a multicenter prospective observational study of consecutive cases of NOCAP and CAP from four Spanish hospitals (2011-2015). RESULTS: We recruited 144 patients, 47 of them CAP (33%) cases...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742926/iclaprim-a-dihydrofolate-reductase-inhibitor-antibiotic-in-phase-iii-of-clinical-development-a-review-of-its-pharmacology-microbiology-and-clinical-efficacy-and-safety
#10
David B Huang, Matthew Dryden
Iclaprim is under clinical development for treating acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and nosocomial pneumonia most often due to Gram-positive bacteria, including infections due to drug-resistant bacteria. In two recent Phase III studies of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, intravenous iclaprim 80 mg every 12 h was noninferior to dose-adjusted vancomycin. Additional studies are planned for patients with nosocomial pneumonia. Iclaprim represents an alternative for the treatment of severe skin and pulmonary infections due to Gram-positive bacteria...
May 10, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736610/occult-bacteremia-etiology-following-the-introduction-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-a-multicenter-study-in-spain
#11
Susanna Hernández-Bou
Little is known about occult bacteremia (OB) in Spain following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13). Our aim was to describe the microbiologic characteristics and management of OB among children aged 3-36 months in Spain in the era of PCV13. Data were obtained from a multicenter registry of positive blood cultures collected at 22 Spanish emergency departments (ED). Positive blood cultures performed on patients aged 3-36 months from 2011 to 2015 were retrospectively identified...
May 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731643/ugly-bugs-in-healthy-guts-carriage-of-multidrug-resistant-and-esbl-producing-commensal-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-intestine-of-healthy-nepalese-adults
#12
Anjila Maharjan, Anjeela Bhetwal, Shreena Shakya, Deepa Satyal, Shashikala Shah, Govardhan Joshi, Puspa Raj Khanal, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Background: Fecal carriage of multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is one of the important risk factors for infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this report, we examined the prevalence of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing common enterobacterial strains colonizing the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adults in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods: During a 6-month period (February-July 2016), a total of 510 stool specimens were obtained from apparently healthy students of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730068/biofilm-testing-of-microbiota-an-essential-step-during-corneal-scrap-examination-in-egyptian-acanthamoebic-keratitis-cases
#13
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Haidy S M Khalil
PURPOSE: To detect co-infections in the culture-proven acanthamoebic keratitis (AK) cases, and to test the capability of biofilm formation in the isolated microbiota. The clinical findings, habit of wearing contact lens and in-vitro antibiotic resistance were analyzed further according to the biofilm formation capability. METHODS: After clinical examination, corneal scraps and swabs were taken from 240 clinically suspected AK cases, for Acanthamoeba and microbiological cultures...
May 3, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727650/mechanical-structural-and-physical-aspects-of-chitosan-based-films-as-antimicrobial-dressings
#14
Ana A Escárcega-Galaz, Dalia I Sánchez-Machado, Jaime López-Cervantes, Ana Sanches-Silva, Tomás J Madera-Santana, Perfecto Paseiro-Losada
Chitosan is a biodegradable, non-toxic, and antimicrobial polymer. Chitosan films can be used as a dressing because they promote the healing of cutaneous ulcers. In this study, the mechanical, physical, and microbiological properties films of pure chitosan and films formulated with a glycerol-honey mixture were characterized. The films were smooth, homogenous, transparent, and porous, with no fractures or cracks. Additionally, it was found that all were resistant to breaking, that the tearing force was directly related to the chitosan concentration, and that the addition of honey and glycerol improved the elongation percentage...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722052/the-methodological-quality-of-guidelines-for-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
R Ambaras Khan, Z Aziz
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical practice guidelines serve as a framework for physicians to make decisions and to support best practice for optimizing patient care. However, if the guidelines do not address all the important components of optimal care sufficiently, the quality and validity of the guidelines can be reduced. The objectives of this study were to systematically review current guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), evaluate their methodological quality and highlight the similarities and differences in their recommendations for empirical antibiotic and antibiotic de-escalation strategies...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717284/antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-gram-negative-isolates-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#16
Rakshya Nepal, Basudha Shrestha, Deepak Man Joshi, Rajesh Dhoj Joshi, Sanjit Shrestha, Anjana Singh
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A cross-sectional study was carried out with an objective to study the antibiogram of Gram-negative isolates of patients with lower respiratory tract infection visiting Kathmandu Model Hospital. METHODS: A total of 274 specimens including sputum, endotracheal aspirates, suction tips were cultured as per standard microbiological technique. Antibiotic susceptibility and detection of Extended-spectrum beta- lactamases (ESBLs) were performed following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI 2014) guidelines...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699468/lower-respiratory-tract-infection-and-short-term-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#17
Fernando G Zampieri, Pedro Póvoa, Jorge I Salluh, Alejandro Rodriguez, Sandrine Valade, José Andrade Gomes, Jean Reignier, Elena Molinos, Jordi Almirall, Nicolas Boussekey, Lorenzo Socias, Paula Ramirez, William N Viana, Anahita Rouzé, Saad Nseir, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTIs) are associated with mortality in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Post hoc analysis of prospective cohort study including mechanically ventilated patients from a multicenter prospective observational study (TAVeM study); VA-LRTI was defined as either ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) based on clinical criteria and microbiological confirmation...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671364/infectious-complications-in-morbidly-adherent-placenta-treated-with-leaving-placenta-in-situ-a-cohort-series-and-suggested-approach
#18
Mehmet Kutuk, Aysegul Kilic, Mehmet Ak, Mahmut Ozgun
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and microbiological features of infections in patients with morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) treated by leaving placenta in situ (LPIS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of MAP cases who were treated by LPIS between 2 May, 2010 and 15 March 2017. The inclusion criteria's were: gestational age at or above 24 weeks, prenatal diagnosis elective operation, and complete data. RESULTS: Nineteen MAP cases were treated by LPIS during the study period...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667378/alarming-results-of-nosocomial-infections-in-a-multicenter-program-of-surveillance-in-polish-intensive-care-units
#19
Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Małgorzata Bulanda, Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach, Polish Society of Hospital Infections Team
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) among patients in intensive care units (ICU) are the most common form of nosocomial infections and they are serious complications of the treatment process. The etiological factors of these infections and the proper antibiotic therapy can influence the effects of patient treatment. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology, microbiology and antibiotic therapy of nosocomial BSI in Polish ICU patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study covered patients hospitalized in seven ICUs for adults with a general profile, located in southern Poland...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666966/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-for-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-notes-from-the-field
#20
Maria Teresa Giordani, Francesca Tamarozzi, Daniel Kaminstein, Enrico Brunetti, Tom Heller
BACKGROUND: Thoracic ultrasound is helpful to evaluate lung pathology in patients with acute dyspnea. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of point-of-care ultrasound in patients with extrapulmonary TB and HIV co-infection. This retrospective, open-label case-control study explores the role of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in HIV-positive patients. In particular, it highlights the potential role of specific sonographic features that may be unique to this population...
April 17, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
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