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Microbiology of pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538846/-clinical-and-microbiological-study-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-internal-medicine-services-of-a-venezuelan-university-hospital
#1
Pedro Quijada-Martínez, Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, María Araque
Objectives: To determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine services of the Hospital Universitario de Los Andes (HULA), Mérida, Venezuela and to establish the clonal distribution of multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that produce this infection. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three adult patients with bladder catheterization were studied between January and July 2015...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#2
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533857/antibiogram-profile-of-uropathogens-isolated-at-bahir-dar-regional-health-research-laboratory-centre-northwest-ethiopia
#3
Awoke Derbie, Derese Hailu, Daniel Mekonnen, Bayeh Abera, Gashaw Yitayew
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) has been increasing since the introduction of chemotherapy. This study was aimed to assess the types of isolates from patients with UTI and to determine their current antimicrobial susceptibility profile. METHODS: A record based retrospective analysis of bacterial uropathogens processed in the period of January 2012 to December 2014 at Bahir Dar Health Research Laboratory Center (BRHRLC) was determined...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532398/clinical-outcomes-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-in-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-stratified-by-baseline-renal-function-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#4
Ping Liu, Blair Capitano, Amy Stein, Ali A El-Solh
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to assess whether baseline renal function impacts treatment outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin (with a dose-optimized regimen) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data generated from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT 00084266). The analysis included 405 patients with culture-proven MRSA pneumonia. Baseline renal function was stratified based on creatinine clearance...
May 22, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#5
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
May 17, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526799/acquired-resistance-to-macrolides-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#6
Muhammad-Hariri Mustafa, Shaunak Khandekar, Michael M Tunney, J Stuart Elborn, Barbara C Kahl, Olivier Denis, Patrick Plésiat, Hamidou Traore, Paul M Tulkens, Francis Vanderbist, Françoise Van Bambeke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive chronic treatment with macrolides for their antivirulence and anti-inflammatory properties. We, however, previously showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, considered as naturally resistant to macrolides, becomes susceptible when tested in a eukaryotic medium rather than a conventional broth.We therefore looked for specific macrolide resistance determinants in 333 CF isolates from four European CF centres in comparison with 48 isolates from patients suffering from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526309/antimicrobial-stewardship-for-hospitalized-patients-with-viral-respiratory-tract-infections
#7
Christopher F Lowe, Michael Payne, David Puddicombe, Allison Mah, Davie Wong, Allison Kirkwood, Mark W Hull, Victor Leung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516200/respiratory-viral-infections-are-underdiagnosed-in-patients-with-suspected-sepsis
#8
L R Ljungström, G Jacobsson, B E B Claesson, R Andersson, H Enroth
The study aim was to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of viral findings by multiplex PCR from the nasopharynx of clinically septic patients during a winter season. During 11 weeks of the influenza epidemic period in January-March 2012, consecutive adult patients suspected to be septic (n = 432) were analyzed with cultures from blood and nasopharynx plus multiplex PCR for respiratory viruses on the nasopharyngeal specimen. The results were compared with those from microbiology analyses ordered as part of standard care...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515629/microbial-competition-in-environmental-nosocomial-reservoirs-and-diffusion-capacity-of-oxa48-klebsiella-pneumoniae-potential-impact-on-patients-and-possible-control-methods
#9
REVIEW
R Herruzo, G Ruiz, M J Vizcaino, L Rivas, V Pérez-Blanco, M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: We have found clusters of Klebsiella pneumoniae with OXA48-carbepenemase cases in some hospital rooms, and decided to investigate whether bathroom siphons could be a reservoir for OXA48 bacteria, as occurs with K. oxytoca with other types of carbepenemases. METHODS: We evaluated the microbial competition between strains with OXA48 and VIM carbepenemases, in diluted nutrient-broth, on a slime germ-carrier. We compared the number of colonies at 5 and 10 days on the contaminated carriers with one or two strains...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512556/pediatric-tuberculosis-in-northern-sardinia
#10
Maria Grazia Clemente, Elena Dore, Lidia Abis, Paola Molicotti, Stefania Zanetti, Paolina Olmeo, Roberto Antonucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Migration flux is an increasing phenomenon in Italy, and it raises several public health issues and concerns in pediatric infectious diseases. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a pediatric population at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB) and the potential role of immigration as a risk factor. DESIGN: We performed an observational retrospective study of children referred to the only Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit for Northern Sardinia over a 6-year-period (2009-2014)...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511383/study-on-mics-of-tigecycline-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#11
Vineeta Khare, Prashant Gupta, Fareya Haider, Rehana Begum
INTRODUCTION: Members of family Enterobacteriaceae are the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples. Those Enterobacteriaceae which have acquired resistance to all β-lactams antibiotics including the carbapenems are considered as Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). These CRE isolates are often resistant to most other classes of antimicrobials as well, making their treatment a great challenge. Tigecycline is one of the last resort antimicrobials against such multidrug resistant bacteria...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511165/susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-fluoroquinolones-and-macrolides-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#12
Yaroslav O Mykhalko, Tetyana V Duhovych, Pavlo P Kish
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcal species are known as the most common cause of bacterial upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Once bacterial infection is diagnosed it demands empirical antibiotic prescription. On the other hand antimicrobial resistance is a global burden in today's medicine. For that reason, knowing of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in population is an important background for successful treatment of bacterial caused URTI. The aim of this study was to analyze S...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510994/improved-detection-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-from-non-blood-clinical-specimens-using-enrichment-culture-and-pcr-narrowing-diagnostic-gap-in-resource-constrained-settings
#13
Chaitanya Tellapragada, Tushar Shaw, Annet D'Souza, Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of enrichment culture and PCR for improved case detection rates of non-bacteremic form of melioidosis in limited resource settings. METHODS: Clinical specimens (n=525) obtained from patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of south India with clinical symptoms suggestive of community-acquired pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infections, superficial or internal abscesses, chronic skin ulcers and bone or joint infections were tested for the presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei using conventional culture (CC), enrichment culture (EC) and PCR...
May 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507488/microbiological-analysis-of-acute-infections-of-the-nail-fold-on-the-basis-of-bait-thread-test
#14
Hanna Tomczak, Aleksandra Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Adriana Polańska, Agnieszka Osmola-Mańkowska, Jakub Pazdrowski, Wioleta Błażejewska-Gąsior, Anna Horla, Marta Hasse-Cieślińska, Zygmunt Adamski
INTRODUCTION: An acute infection of the nail fold, called paronychia, is a common clinical problem. The basis for the implementation of the treatment is the result of microbiological examination. Due to the rapid and painful course of infection, usually an empirical antimicrobial treatment prior to obtaining microbiological test results is introduced. AIM: The microbial analysis of acute infections of the nail fold. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 32 tests conducted on 31 patients of the Department of Dermatology...
April 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502892/biomarkers-kinetics-in-the-assessment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-response-to-antibiotics-results-from-the-biovap-study
#15
Pedro Póvoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Paula Ramirez, Lieuwe D Bos, Mariano Esperatti, Joana Silvestre, Gisela Gili, Gemma Goma, Eugenio Berlanga, Mateu Espasa, Elsa Gonçalves, Antoni Torres, Antonio Artigas
PURPOSE: Our aim was to evaluate the role of biomarker kinetics in the assessment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) response to antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study to evaluate in 37 microbiologically documented VAP, the kinetics of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), mid-region fragment of pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM). The kinetics of each variable, from day 1 to 6 of therapy, was assessed with a time dependent analysis comparing survivors and non-survivors...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485357/bacteriological-trends-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-of-clinical-isolates-at-government-cancer-hospital-marathwada
#16
S Nazneen, K Mukta, C Santosh, A Borde
INTRODUCTION: Preventing and starting early treatment of infections in patients whose immunity system is weak due to malignancies can reduce mortality. Since our hospital is a newly constructed one, this study aimed to determine microbial and antibiotic resistance patterns in clinical samples of patients with cancer at our center to start early treatment before the results of clinical tests are known. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Government Cancer Hospital during the period from January 2016 to December 2016...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483958/new-aspects-of-the-interplay-between-penicillin-binding-proteins-murm-and-the-two-component-system-ciarh-of-penicillin-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-isolates-from-hungary
#17
Inga Schweizer, Sebastian Blättner, Patrick Maurer, Katharina Peters, Daniela Vollmer, Waldemar Vollmer, Regine Hakenbeck, Dalia Denapaite
The Streptococcus pneumoniae clone Hungary(19A)-6 can expresses unusually high levels of β-lactam resistance which is in part due to mutations in the MurM gene encoding a transferase involved in the synthesis of branched peptidoglycan. Moreover it contains the allele ciaH232 encoding the histidine kinase CiaH (M Müller, P Marx, R Hakenbeck, and R Brückner, Microbiology 157:3104-12, 2011, doi: 10.1099/mic.0.053157-0). High-level penicillin resistance primarily requires the presence of low-affinity (mosaic) PBP genes as, for example, in strain Hu17, a closely related member of the Hungary(19A)-6 lineage...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473912/high-burden-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre-fecal-carriage-at-a-teaching-hospital-cost-effectiveness-of-screening-in-low-resource-setting
#18
Abdul Rahman Zaidah, Nurul Izzah Mohammad, Siti Suraiya, Azian Harun
BACKGROUND: Infections by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) have been continuously growing and pose challenge to health institution globally. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacea (CRE) was identified as one of the MDR-GNB which has limited treatment options and higher mortality compared to those of sensitive strains. We report an increased burden of CRE fecal carriage at a hospital in the North-eastern region of Malaysia. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study from August 2013 to December 2015 was conducted in the Medical Microbiology & Parasitology laboratory of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, which is a tertiary teaching hospital with more than 700 beds...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461868/the-mask-of-acute-bacterial-pneumonia-may-disguise-the-face-of-tuberculosis
#19
HamidReza Naderi, Fereshte Sheybani, Sedigheh Sadat Erfani, Bezat Amiri, Mehdi Jabbari Nooghabi
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can present as acute pneumonia. Differentiation of tuberculous from non-tuberculous community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important challenge in endemic areas. The purpose of this study was the comparison between characteristics of tuberculous and non-tuberculous CAP patients. METHODS: In this prospective and observational study, all adult patients (aged ≥16 years) who were admitted to Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad (Iran) with the diagnosis of CAP, between February 2013 and January 2014, were enrolled...
March 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458172/efficacy-and-toxicity-of-high-dose-nebulized-colistin-for-critically-ill-surgical-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#20
Ji Young Jang, Hye Youn Kwon, Eun Hee Choi, Won-Yeon Lee, Hongjin Shim, Keum Seok Bae
PURPOSE: Few studies have compared nebulized and intravenous (IV) colistin for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. This study compared the nephrotoxicity and clinical outcomes for these two delivery routes. METHODS: This study retrospectively compared 95 critically ill surgical patients who were diagnosed with Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia and received colistin between March 2013 and January 2016...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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