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Cytokine reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908211/roles-of-microrna-in-the-immature-immune-system-of-neonates
#1
Hong-Ren Yu, Lien-Hung Huang, Sung-Chou Li
Neonates have an immature immune system; therefore, their immune activities are different from the activities of adult immune systems. Such differences between neonates and adults are reflected by cell population constitutions, immune responses, cytokine production, and the expression of cellular/humoral molecules, which contribute to the specific neonatal microbial susceptibility and atopic properties. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered to modulate many aspects of immune responses. Herein, we summarize the distinct manifestations of the neonatal immune system, including cellular and non-cellular components...
June 13, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908080/genotypes-phenotypes-and-treatment-with-immunomodulators-in-the-rheumatic-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Ronald F van Vollenhoven
The autoimmune rheumatological diseases rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are treated with conventional immunosuppressive agents and with modern biological immunomodulators. The latter group of medications have brought about a major change in our ability to control RA and SpA, with more modest results for SLE. The biologicals are very specific in their mechanisms of action, targeting one specific cytokine or one particular cellular marker. Because of this, their efficacy can readily be linked to a single immunomodulatory mechanism...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908065/a-complex-interplay-between-the-extracellular-matrix-and-the-innate-immune-response-to-microbial-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Hannah Tomlin, Anna Maria Piccinini
The role of the host extracellular matrix (ECM) in infection tends to be neglected. However, the complex interactions between invading pathogens, host tissues and immune cells occur in the context of the ECM. On the pathogen side, a variety of surface and secreted molecules, including microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) and tissue degrading enzymes, are employed that interact with different ECM proteins in order to effectively establish an infection at specific sites...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907890/impact-of-mast-cells-in-depression-disorder-inhibitory-effect-of-il-37-new-frontiers
#4
REVIEW
Pio Conti, Alessandro Caraffa, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Chiara M Conti, Spiros K Kritas, Filiberto Mastrangelo, Lucia Tettamanti, Theoharis C Theoharides
The purpose of this article is to study the involvement of inflammatory mast cells (MCs) in depression which may be inhibited by IL-37. We evaluate mast cells in depression on the basis of our previous experimental data, and using the most relevant studies reported in the literature. Dysfunction of mood, feelings, and thoughts is a major risk factor for several metabolic diseases and may influence the physiology of the body leading to depression. Depression, present in mastocytosis, is an important endogenous process that promotes the activation of meningeal cell receptors through a low-grade neurogenic chronic inflammation, and MCs...
June 16, 2018: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907163/cytokine-release-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Alexander Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Philipp Gödel, Marion Subklewe, Hans Joachim Stemmler, Hans Anton Schlößer, Max Schlaak, Matthias Kochanek, Boris Böll, Michael S von Bergwelt-Baildon
During the last decade the field of cancer immunotherapy has witnessed impressive progress. Highly effective immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibition, and T-cell engaging therapies like bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) single-chain antibody constructs and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown remarkable efficacy in clinical trials and some of these agents have already received regulatory approval. However, along with growing experience in the clinical application of these potent immunotherapeutic agents comes the increasing awareness of their inherent and potentially fatal adverse effects, most notably the cytokine release syndrome (CRS)...
June 15, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906710/a-meta-analysis-of-cytokine-concentrations-in-eating-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Bethan Dalton, Savani Bartholdy, Lauren Robinson, Marco Solmi, Mohammad A A Ibrahim, Gerome Breen, Ulrike Schmidt, Hubertus Himmerich
Cytokines are signalling molecules, which play an important role in both immune system function and brain development and function, and subsequently mental states and behaviour. Cytokines have been implicated in eating disorders (EDs) due to their role in psychological health, body weight and appetite regulation. This meta-analysis examined cross-sectional and longitudinal studies measuring concentrations of cytokines in individuals with EDs. Using PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed relevant articles in PubMed, Web of Science, and MEDLINE...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906528/cd300c-co-stimulates-ige-mediated-basophils-activation-and-its-expression-is-increased-in-cow%C3%A2-s-milk-allergy
#7
Olatz Zenarruzabeitia, Joana Vitallé, Iñigo Terrén, Ane Orrantia, Itziar Astigarraga, Leire Dopazo, Carlos Gonzalez, Laura Santos-Díez, Carlos Tutau, Pedro M Gamboa, Agurtzane Bilbao, Francisco Borrego
BACKGROUND: Basophils express high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), which play an essential role in allergic diseases. To design promising immunomodulatory therapies, it is important to characterize new cell surface receptors that modulate immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated basophil activation threshold. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the expression of CD300 receptors on human basophils and their implication in IgE-mediated basophil activation processes. METHODS: Blood samples from healthy and cow´s milk allergic patients were collected through the Basque Biobank under an institutional review board-approved protocol...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904899/use-of-interleukin-1-blockers-in-pericardial-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Giacomo Emmi, Maria Letizia Urban, Massimo Imazio, Marco Gattorno, Silvia Maestroni, Giuseppe Lopalco, Luca Cantarini, Domenico Prisco, Antonio Brucato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the role of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) blocking agents in cardiovascular diseases, briefly describing the pathogenetic rationale and the most relevant clinical studies. RECENT FINDINGS: IL-1 is a pivotal cytokine of the innate immune system. Anti-IL-1 agents are currently used for the treatment of several autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions. Recently, the role of IL-1 has also emerged in cardiovascular diseases...
June 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904777/science-behind-the-cardio-metabolic-benefits-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-biochemical-effects-vs-clinical-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
Rohith N Thota, Jessica J A Ferguson, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Manohar L Garg
Lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Greenland Inuit, Northern Canada and Japan has been attributed to their consumption of seafood rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA). While a large majority of pre-clinical and intervention trials have demonstrated heart health benefits of LCn-3PUFA, some studies have shown no effects or even negative effects. LCn-3PUFA have been shown to favourably modulate blood lipid levels, particularly a reduction in circulating levels of triglycerides...
June 15, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904382/retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptors-critical-roles-in-tumorigenesis
#10
REVIEW
Jinshuo Fan, Zhilei Lv, Guanghai Yang, Ting Ting Liao, Juanjuan Xu, Feng Wu, Qi Huang, Mengfei Guo, Guorong Hu, Mei Zhou, Limin Duan, Shuqing Liu, Yang Jin
Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs) include RORα (NR1F1), RORβ (NR1F2), and RORγ (NR1F3). These receptors are reported to activate transcription through ligand-dependent interactions with co-regulators and are involved in the development of secondary lymphoid tissues, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, the circadian rhythm, and metabolism homeostasis. Researches on RORs contributing to cancer-related processes have been growing, and they provide evidence that RORs are likely to be considered as potential therapeutic targets in many cancers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903689/interplay-between-epicardial-adipose-tissue-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#11
Olga Bornachea, Angela Vea, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in obese and diabetic patients. In these groups of patients, the alterations of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) contribute to both vascular and myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, it is of clinical interest to determine the mechanisms by which EAT influences cardiovascular disease. Two key factors contribute to the tight intercommunication among EAT, coronary arteries and myocardium. One is the close anatomical proximity between these tissues. The other is the capacity of EAT to secrete cytokines and other molecules with paracrine and vasocrine effects on the cardiovascular system...
June 11, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903575/cxcl4-and-cxcl4l1-in-cancer
#12
Pieter Ruytinx, Paul Proost, Sofie Struyf
Chemokines regulate leukocyte migration during physiological and pathological conditions. It is currently accepted that these chemotactic cytokines are also important in the development and progression of cancer. CXCL4 and its non-allelic variant CXCL4L1 are two platelet-associated chemokines that have been attributed anti-tumoral activity as a result of their angiostatic potential and the chemotactic activity for anti-tumoral leukocytes. Here we review the role of CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 in cancer, the use of both chemokines as cancer biomarkers and discuss some possible therapeutic opportunities...
September 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903521/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-constitutive-activation-of-integrin-linked-kinase-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
REVIEW
Mohammed Alasseiri, Afsar U Ahmed, Bryan R G Williams
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has emerged as a critical adaptor and mediator protein in cell signaling pathways that is commonly deregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This has led to the expectation that therapeutic targeting of ILK may be a useful option in treating leukemia. Although ILK can regulate many cellular processes, including cell differentiation, survival, migration, apoptosis and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, its role in promoting AML is still unclear. However, its ability to mediate phosphorylation and regulate the important hematopoietic stem cell regulators protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β supports ILK as an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics...
June 7, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903464/paradoxical-reactions-to-biologic-therapy-in-psoriasis-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
M Munera-Campos, F Ballesca, J M Carrascosa
Biologic drugs, which are molecules designed to act on specific immune system targets, have been shown to be very effective in treating various dermatological, rheumatological, and systemic diseases. As a group, they have an acceptable safety profile, but their use has been associated with the onset of both systemic and organ-specific inflammatory conditions. True paradoxical reactions are immune-mediated disorders that would usually respond to the biologic agent that causes them. There is still debate about whether certain other adverse reactions can be said to be paradoxical...
June 11, 2018: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902778/toxic-metal-loid-based-pollutants-and-their-possible-role-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Anatoly V Skalny, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Maryam Dadar, Heba A Yassa, Jan Aaseth, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Margarita G Skalnaya, Alexey A Tinkov
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotypic behaviors. Many studies support a significant relationship between many different environmental factors in ASD etiology. These factors include increased daily exposure to various toxic metal-based environmental pollutants, which represent a cause for concern in public health. This article reviews the most relevant toxic metals, commonly found, environmental pollutants, i...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901306/-non-neurogenic-activators-of-myocyte-contraction-and-their-role-in-the-realization-of-the-accumulative-evacuating-functions-of-the-urinary-bladder
#16
V B Berdichevskii, B A Berdichevskii
The search for and use of alternative biomarkers of the hyperactive bladder has garnered increasing attention in recent years because they may be considered pathogenetically significant and used as surrogate biomarkers. Promising agents that have met these criteria include proteins cytokines, neurotrophins, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), fibrinopeptides A and B, C-reactive protein, membrane-bound ATPase. Analysis of current scientific literature has demonstrated that specialists in many fields of medicine show interest in endogenous proteins that do not belong to neurotransmitters but affect the contractile ability of myocytes...
May 2018: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901209/material-mediated-pyrogens-in-medical-devices-applicability-of-the-in-vitro-monocyte-activation-test
#17
Lindsey K Borton, Kelly P Coleman
Pyrogenicity presents a challenge to clinicians, medical device manufactures, and regulators. A febrile response may be caused by endotoxin contamination, microbial components other than endotoxin, or chemical agents that generate a material-mediated pyrogenic response. While test methods for the assessment of endotoxin contamination and some microbial components other than endotoxin are well-established, material-mediated pyrogens remain elusively undefined. This review presents the findings of literature searches conducted to identify material-mediated pyrogens associated with medical devices...
June 14, 2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900602/nlrp3-inflammasome-a-likely-target-for-the-treatment-of-allergic-diseases
#18
Yichen Xiao, Wenna Xu, Wenru Su
Allergic diseases, such as asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and anaphylaxis, have recently become a global public health concern. According to previous studies, the NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex known to be associated with many inflammatory conditions. In response to allergens or allergen/damage-associated molecular signals, NLRP3 changes its conformation to allow the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex and activates caspase-1, which is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18...
June 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900155/differential-role-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-in-an-osteoarthritic-or-a-healthy-joint
#19
REVIEW
Peter M van der Kraan
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine that plays an important role in both normal joints and joints affected by osteoarthritis (OA), the most common joint disease. However, the role of this pleiotropic cytokine in a normal healthy joint is very different from its role in an OA joint. In a normal synovial joint, active TGF-β is only present after joint loading and only for a short period. In contrast, permanent and high levels of active TGF-β are detected in OA joints. Due to this difference in levels and exposure period of joint cells to active TGF-β, the function of TGF-β is strikingly different in normal and OA joints...
May 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899748/transcription-factor-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-%C3%AE-t-a-promising-target-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#20
REVIEW
Lipeng Tang, Xiaozhi Yang, Yongxin Liang, Hesong Xie, Zhenhua Dai, Guangjuan Zheng
Psoriasis, which is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, endangers human health and brings about a major economic burden worldwide. To date, treatments for psoriasis remain unsatisfied because of their clinical limitations and various side effects. Thus, developing a safer and more effective therapy for psoriasis is compelling. Previous studies have explicitly shown that psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that is predominantly mediated by T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which express high levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in response to interleukin-23 (IL-23)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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