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Cytokine reviews

Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the prognosis of patients with advanced stage of disease remains unfavorable. Several immune therapies have been applied to HCC, and their responses have not been satisfactory. The immune response to cancer is determined by the balance between the antigenicity of the tumor and the microenvironment of cancer tissues. Generally, accumulated genetic mutations are observed in HCC, which may lead to increased neoantigens on cancer cells with high antigenicity...
October 21, 2016: Oncology
Racquel Domingo-Gonzalez, Oliver Prince, Andrea Cooper, Shabaana A Khader
Chemokines and cytokines are critical for initiating and coordinating the organized and sequential recruitment and activation of cells into Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lungs. Correct mononuclear cellular recruitment and localization are essential to ensure control of bacterial growth without the development of diffuse and damaging granulocytic inflammation. An important block to our understanding of TB pathogenesis lies in dissecting the critical aspects of the cytokine/chemokine interplay in light of the conditional role these molecules play throughout infection and disease development...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Joshua Bloom, Shan Sun, Yousef Al-Abed
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has emerged as a promising drug target in diseases including sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. MIF has multiple properties that favor development of specific, targeted therapies: it is expressed broadly among human cells, has noted roles in diverse inflammatory and oncological processes, and has intrinsic enzymatic activity amenable to high-throughput screening. Despite these advantages, anti-MIF therapy remains well behind other cytokine-targeted therapeutics, with no small molecules in the pipeline for clinical development and anti-MIF antibodies only recently beginning clinical trials...
October 20, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Rodolfo Ciuffa, Etienne Caron, Alexander Leitner, Federico Uliana, Matthias Gstaiger, Ruedi Aebersold
NF-κB is a family of ubiquitous dimeric transcription factors that play a role in a myriad of cellular processes, ranging from differentiation to stress response and immunity. In inflammation, activation of NF-κB is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, in particular the prototypic cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, which trigger the activation of complex signaling cascades. In spite of decades of research, the system level understanding of TNF-α signaling is still incomplete. This is partially due to the limited knowledge at the proteome level...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Florian Hoss, Juan F Rodriguez-Alcazar, Eicke Latz
The inflammasome adapter ASC links activated inflammasome sensors to the effector molecule pro-caspase-1. Recruitment of pro-caspase-1 to ASC promotes the autocatalytic activation of caspase-1, which leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. Upon triggering of inflammasome sensors, ASC assembles into large helical fibrils that interact with each other serving as a supramolecular signaling platform termed the ASC speck. Alternative splicing, post-translational modifications of ASC, as well as interaction with other proteins can perturb ASC function...
October 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Jessalyn M Ubellacker, Sandra S McAllister
Systemic factors including cytokines, cell-free nucleic acids, microvesicles, and platelets are appreciated as important regulators of adenocarcinoma progression. Research findings using pre-clinical mouse models have revealed that many such systemically acting factors are either secreted by or responsive to peripheral tumors and impact bone and bone marrow (collectively referred to as the bone microenvironment) to initiate processes that ultimately govern disease progression, even in the absence of detectable bone metastases...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
James Holton, Mohamed Imam, Jonathan Ward, Martyn Snow
There has been great interest in bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) as a cost effective method in delivering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to aid in the repair and regeneration of cartilage defects. Alongside MSCs, BMAC contains a range of growth factors and cytokines to support cell growth following injury. However, there is paucity of information relating to the basic science underlying BMAC and its exact biological role in supporting the growth and regeneration of chondrocytes. The focus of this review is the basic science underlying BMAC in relation to chondral damage and regeneration...
September 19, 2016: Orthopedic Reviews
Olga Ruiz-Andres, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Juan Antonio Moreno, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Adrian Mario Ramos, Ana Belén Sanz, Alberto Ortiz
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated to an increased risk of death, CKD progression and acute kidney injury (AKI) even from early stages, when glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is preserved. The link between early CKD and these risks is unclear, since there is no accumulation of uremic toxins. However, pathological albuminuria and kidney inflammation are frequent features of early CKD and the production of kidney protective factors may be decreased. Indeed, Klotho expression is already decreased in CKD category G1 (normal GFR)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Behzad Heidari, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki, Mansour Babaei
BACKGROUND: Several factors are associated with the development or exacerbation of pain in knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In this study, we reviewed this context based on relevant studies. METHODS: Recent published studies which have addressed the relationship between pain and KOA were summarized. RESULTS: Correlates of the clinical, demographic features, laboratory tests and abnormalities on radiographic as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the knee pain have been discussed...
2016: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Priya Sakthivel, Dunja Bruder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The formation of noncaseating granuloma is a hallmark of pulmonary sarcoidosis. This review summarizes recent progress made to explain the cellular dynamics within the granuloma structure that may considerably differ between the two clinically distinct variants, that is, acute and chronic sarcoidosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Compelling evidence exists that in acute but not chronic sarcoidosis CD4 T lymphocytes specifically recognizing the auto-antigen vimentin on human leukocyte antigen-DR3 molecules accumulate in sarcoid granuloma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
Michael J Ryan
Connective tissue diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma, have a strong predilection for women and are associated with a marked increase in the prevalence of hypertension. The mechanisms leading to the increased risk of hypertension in these patients remain unclear; however, they are likely related to immune mediated changes in cardiovascular and renal function. Over the past several years, we have elucidated a number of factors that contribute to the development of hypertension during SLE using a widely established experimental model of SLE, the female NZBWF1 mouse...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Monica D Prakash, Sarah Miller, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Kulmira Nurgali
Cancer development is often associated with chronic inflammation. To date, research into inflammation-induced cancer has largely focused on chemokines, cytokines, and their downstream targets. These inflammatory mediators may promote tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation promotes neoplasia remain unclear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent, idiopathic intestinal inflammation, the complications of which are potentially fatal...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Gareth W Jones, David G Hill, Simon A Jones
Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are frequently observed in tissues affected by non-resolving inflammation as a result of infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and allograft rejection. These highly ordered structures resemble the cellular composition of lymphoid follicles typically associated with the spleen and lymph node compartments. Although TLOs within tissues show varying degrees of organization, they frequently display evidence of segregated T and B cell zones, follicular dendritic cell networks, a supporting stromal reticulum, and high endothelial venules...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
N Kappelmann, G Lewis, R Dantzer, P B Jones, G M Khandaker
Inflammatory cytokines are commonly elevated in acute depression and are associated with resistance to monoaminergic treatment. To examine the potential role of cytokines in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of antidepressant activity of anti-cytokine treatment using clinical trials of chronic inflammatory conditions where depressive symptoms were measured as a secondary outcome. Systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases, search of reference lists and conference abstracts, followed by study selection process yielded 20 clinical trials...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Stefanie Luecke, Søren R Paludan
Nucleic acids sensors of the innate immune system recognize various RNA and DNA structures during infection to induce transcription of interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of inflammasomes. Cytosolic RNA is recognized by RIG-I and MDA5, while intracellular DNA is sensed among others by cGAS, AIM2, IFI16 and RNA polymerase III. The diversity of nucleic acid species produced during infection in the cytosol and nucleus and the limited chemical differences between self and non-self nucleic acids challenge the host's innate pattern recognition system to ensure reliable sensing while avoiding immune activation by self nucleic acids...
October 14, 2016: Cytokine
Eric R Craig, Angelina I Londoño, Lyse A Norian, Rebecca C Arend
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial ovarian cancer continues to be the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. Patients with both diabetes mellitus and obesity have poorer outcomes, yet research correlating metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic syndrome, to ovarian cancer risk and outcomes is lacking. This article reviews the literature regarding metabolic derangements and their relationship to epithelial ovarian cancer, with a focus on potential mechanisms behind these associations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles in the English language regarding epithelial ovarian cancer, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, with a focus on studies conducted since 1990...
October 14, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Dominika Labochka, Barbara Moszczuk, Wojciech Kukwa, Cezary Szczylik, Anna M Czarnecka
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) comprises 2‑3% of all malignant tumors in adults. Many studies have established the key roles of smoking, hypertension and other components of metabolic syndrome in the occurrence of RCC. Diabetes mellitus (DM), one of the main consequences of metabolic syndrome, appears much more often in patients with RCC. The prognosis for patients suffering from both diabetes and RCC is worse than for those with kidney cancer only. Diabetes is linked to higher rate of recurrence and a greater number of distant metastases...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Siddharth Shanbhag, Vivek Shanbhag, Andreas Stavropoulos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to systematically review the literature for studies reporting gene expression analyses (GEA) of the biological processes involved in early human peri-implant bone healing. METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE) were searched in duplicate. Controlled and uncontrolled studies reporting GEA of human peri-implant tissues - including ≥5 patients and ≥2 time points - during the first 4 weeks of healing were eligible for inclusion...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
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