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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052385/-research-advances-on-baicalin-and-baicalein-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-fibrotic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Qing-Jun Zhu
Tissue and organ fibrosis is the major cause for disability and death related to a variety of diseases worldwide. As specific therapies to halt, or even to reverse the existing tissue fibrosis are not yet available, it is of great significance to find new anti-fibrosis therapeutic agents. Tissue and organ fibrosis is a nonphysiological scarring process, associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, and leads to impairment of organ function. Fibrotic lesions of all organs show similar histological abnormalities...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051974/cardiac-disease-in-familial-mediterranean-fever
#2
REVIEW
Eren Erken, Ertugrul Erken
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease manifested by inflammatory attacks of peritonitis, pleuritis, pericarditis accompanied by fever and arthritis. Mutations of MEFV gene results in pyrin dysfunction, which causes uncontrolled interleukin-1 beta production and triggers the inflammatory attacks. Inflammation persists even during attack-free periods in one-third of the FMF patients. Findings of elevated proinflammatory cytokine patterns during remission as well as inflammatory attacks indicate the continuous subclinical disease activity and inflammation...
October 20, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051788/emerging-oral-targeted-therapies-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-opportunities-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Marcel Vetter, Markus F Neurath
To improve quality of life and prevent long-term risks in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), it is essential to suppress inflammatory activity adequately. However, corticosteroids are only suitable for therapy of acute flares and the evidence for positive effects of immunosuppressive substances like azathioprine or 6-mercapropurine is mainly limited to maintenance of remission. In addition, only subgroups of patients benefit from biologicals targeting tumour necrosis factor α or α4β7 integrins...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051764/polyfunctional-cd4-t-cells-as-targets-for-tuberculosis-vaccination
#4
REVIEW
Deborah A Lewinsohn, David M Lewinsohn, Thomas J Scriba
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the widespread use of the only licensed vaccine, Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). Eradication of TB will require a more effective vaccine, yet evaluation of new vaccine candidates is hampered by lack of defined correlates of protection. Animal and human studies of intracellular pathogens have extensively evaluated polyfunctional CD4(+) T cells producing multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) as a possible correlate of protection from infection and disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051760/interplay-of-gtpases-and-cytoskeleton-in-cellular-barrier-defects-during-gut-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Rocío López-Posadas, Michael Stürzl, Imke Atreya, Markus F Neurath, Nathalie Britzen-Laurent
An essential role of the intestine is to build and maintain a barrier preventing the luminal gut microbiota from invading the host. This involves two coordinated physical and immunological barriers formed by single layers of intestinal epithelial and endothelial cells, which avoid the activation of local immune responses or the systemic dissemination of microbial agents, and preserve tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, alterations of epithelial and endothelial barrier functions have been associated with gut inflammation, for example during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051105/nicotine-and-autoimmunity-the-lotus-flower-in-tobacco
#6
REVIEW
João Pedro Gomes, Abdulla Watad, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Nicotine, the major component of cigarettes, has demonstrated conflicting impact on the immune system: some authors suggest that increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and provokes cellular apoptosis of neutrophils, releasing intracellular components that act as auto-antigens; others claimed that nicotine has a protective and anti-inflammatory effects, especially by binding to α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The cholinergic pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory environment characterized by increasing T regulatory cells response, down-regulating of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a pro-inflammatory cells apoptosis...
October 16, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051031/inflammatory-molecules-and-neurotrophic-factors-as-biomarkers-of-neuropsychomotor-development-in-preterm-neonates-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Rafael C Magalhães, Letícia P Pimenta, Izabela G Barbosa, Janaina M Moreira, João L V M de Barros, Antônio L Teixeira, Ana C Simões E Silva
OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic review investigating the role of inflammatory molecules and neurotrophic factors as biomarkers of neuropsychomotor development in preterm neonates. DATA SOURCE: Databases including PubMed, BIREME, and Scopus were systematically searched. Observational studies, as well as transversal, and cohort studies using human subjects published from 1990 to September 2017 were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently identified eligible studies and analyzed their characteristics, quality, and accuracy in depth...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047220/the-cytokines-and-microenvironment-of-fracture-haematoma-current-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Gavin Walters, Ippokratis Pountos, Peter V Giannoudis
BACKGROUND: Fracture haematoma formation is the first and foremost important stage of fracture healing. It orchestrates the inflammatory and cellular processes leading to the formation of callus and the restoration of the continuity of the bone. Evidence suggests that blocking this initial stage could lead to an impairment of the overall bone healing process. This review aims to analyse the existing evidence of molecular contributions to bone healing within fracture haematoma, and to determine the potential to modify the molecular response to fracture in the haematoma with the aim of improving union times...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047120/dental-pulp-regeneration-via-cell-homing
#9
REVIEW
S Eramo, A Natali, R Pinna, E Milia
The typical treatment for irreversibly inflamed/necrotic pulp tissue is root canal treatment. As an alternative approach, regenerative endodontics aims to regenerate dental pulp-like tissues using two possible strategies: cell transplantation and cell homing. The former requires exogenously transplanted stem cells, complex procedures and high costs; the latter employs the host's endogenous cells to achieve tissue repair/regeneration, which is more clinically translatable. This systematic review examines cell homing for dental pulp regeneration, selecting articles on in vitro experiments, in vivo ectopic transplantation models and in situ pulp revascularization...
October 19, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046826/incorporation-of-functional-elements-enhances-the-antitumor-capacity-of-car-t-cells
#10
REVIEW
Le Qin, Ruocong Zhao, Peng Li
As chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have displayed an unprecedented efficacy in the treatment of CD19-positive malignances, it is believed that this cell therapy will be a milestone in the history of mankind's conquering of cancer. However, there are some issues that restrict CAR T cells from reaching their optimal anti-tumor capacity, especially in the treatment of solid tumors. Inhibitory cytokines, immune checkpoint molecules, hypoxia and other adverse factors have been reported to be involved in this process...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040423/title-therapeutic-strategies-utilising-sdf-1%C3%AE-in-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy
#11
Oliver J Ziff, Daniel I Bromage, Derek M Yellon, Sean M Davidson
Heart failure is rapidly increasing in prevalence and will redraw the global landscape for cardiovascular health. Alleviating and repairing cardiac injury associated with myocardial infarction (MI) is key to improving this burden. Homing signals mobilise and recruit stem cells to the ischaemic myocardium where they exert beneficial paracrine effects. The chemoattractant cytokine SDF-1α and its associated receptor CXCR4 are upregulated after MI and appear to be important in this context. Activation of CXCR4 promotes both cardiomyocyte survival and stem cell migration towards the infarcted myocardium...
October 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039818/the-role-of-b-cell-targeting-in-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#12
REVIEW
Ruben Rhoades, Sameh Gaballa
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a leading cause of late morbidity and mortality following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Current therapies, including corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, are only effective in roughly 50% of cases; therefore, new treatment strategies are under investigation. What was previously felt to be a T cell disease has more recently been shown to involve activation of both T and B cells, as well as a number of cytokines. With a better understanding of its pathophysiology have come more expansive preclinical and clinical trials, many focused on B cell signaling...
October 17, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039064/developments-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-expansion-and-gene-editing-technologies
#13
Dogacan Yucel, Fatih Kocabas
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare cells, which housed in the adult bone marrow. They maintain all types of differentiated blood cells throughout life. Due to limited availability of HSCs for transplantation, treatment of various inherited bone marrow disorders and anemia requires the development of HSC expansion and gene editing technologies. To this end, various studies addressed the use of cytokines and growth factors for HSC expansion. Major hurdle with these studies was found to be spontaneous differentiation of HSCs into different lineages during ex vivo procedure...
October 17, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038795/immune-engineering-from-systems-immunology-to-engineering-immunity
#14
Ning Jiang
The smallpox vaccine represents the earliest attempt in engineering immunity. The recent success of chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in cancer once again demonstrates the clinical potential of immune engineering. Inspired by this success, diverse approaches have been used to boost various aspects of immunity: engineering dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, antibodies, cytokines, small peptides, and others. With recent development of various high-throughput technologies (of which engineers, especially biomedical engineers/bioengineers contributed significantly), such as immune repertoire sequencing, and analytical methods, a systems level of understanding immunity (or the lack of it) beyond model animals has provided critical insights into the human immune system...
March 2017: Curr Opin Biomed Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038791/traditional-chinese-medicine-protects-against-cytokine-production-as-the-potential-immunosuppressive-agents-in-atherosclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Yan Ren, Wei Qiao, Dongliang Fu, Zhiwei Han, Wei Liu, Weijie Ye, Zunjing Liu
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by dyslipidemia and mediated by both innate and adaptive immune responses. Inflammation is a critical factor at all stages of atherosclerosis progression. Proinflammatory cytokines accelerate atherosclerosis progression, while anti-inflammatory cytokines ameliorate the disease. Accordingly, strategies to inhibit immune activation and impede immune responses towards anti-inflammatory activity are an alternative therapeutic strategy to conventional chemotherapy on cardiocerebrovascular outcomes...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038121/targeting-il-10-family-cytokines-for-the-treatment-of-human-diseases
#16
Xiaoting Wang, Kit Wong, Wenjun Ouyang, Sascha Rutz
Members of the interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines play important roles in regulating immune responses during host defense but also in autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Although IL-10 itself primarily acts on leukocytes and has potent immunosuppressive functions, other family members preferentially target nonimmune compartments, such as tissue epithelial cells, where they elicit innate defense mechanisms to control viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, protect tissue integrity, and promote tissue repair and regeneration...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038115/the-common-cytokine-receptor-%C3%AE-chain-family-of-cytokines
#17
Jian-Xin Lin, Warren J Leonard
Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 form a family of cytokines based on their sharing the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc), which was originally discovered as the third receptor component of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rγ. The IL2RG gene is located on the X chromosome and is mutated in humans with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID). The breadth of the defects in XSCID could not be explained solely by defects in IL-2 signaling, and it is now clear that γc is a shared receptor component of the six cytokines noted above, making XSCID a disease of defective cytokine signaling...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037907/interleukin-22-in-human-inflammatory-diseases-and-viral-infections
#18
REVIEW
Arezoo Gowhari Shabgah, Jamshid Gholizadeh Navashenaq, Omid Gohari Shabgah, Hamed Mohammadi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Interleukin-22 (IL22) is one of the members of IL10 family. Elevated levels of this cytokine can be seen in diseases caused by T lymphocytes, such as Psoriasis, Rheumatoid arthritis, interstitial lung diseases. IL22 is produced by different cells in both innate and acquired immunities. Different types of T cells are able to produce IL22, but the major IL22-producing T-cell is the TCD4. TH22 cell is a new line of TCD4 cells, which differentiated from naive T cells in the presence of TNFα and IL6; 50% of peripheral blood IL22 is produced by these cells...
October 13, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037268/probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-insulin-sensitivity
#19
Y A Kim, J B Keogh, P M Clifton
Animal studies indicate that the composition of gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be a promising approach to improve insulin sensitivity by favourably modifying the composition of the gut microbial community, reducing intestinal endotoxin concentrations and decreasing energy harvest. The aim of the present review was to investigate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics (a combination of probiotics and prebiotics) on insulin resistance in human clinical trials and to discuss the potential mechanisms whereby probiotics and prebiotics improve glucose metabolism...
October 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037210/a-vicious-circle-between-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Zhonge Chen, Rong Yu, Ying Xiong, Fangteng Du, Shuishan Zhu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of diseases, including simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Lipotoxicity, insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are involved in the disease process. Lipotoxicity promotes inflammation and IR, which in turn, increase adipocyte lipolysis and exacerbates lipotoxicity. Furthermore, IR and inflammation form a vicious circle, with each condition promoting the other and accelerating the development of NAFLD in the presence of lipotoxicity...
October 16, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
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