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Pneumonia etiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686667/-streptococcus-agalactiae-non-pilus-cell-wall-anchored-proteins-involvement-in-colonization-and-pathogenesis-and-potential-as-vaccine-candidates
#1
REVIEW
Giampiero Pietrocola, Carla Renata Arciola, Simonetta Rindi, Lucio Montanaro, Pietro Speziale
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains an important etiological agent of several infectious diseases including neonatal septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, and orthopedic device infections. This pathogenicity is due to a variety of virulence factors expressed by Streptococcus agalactiae . Single virulence factors are not sufficient to provoke a streptococcal infection, which is instead promoted by the coordinated activity of several pathogenicity factors. Such determinants, mostly cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that mediate binding of the pathogen to host extracellular matrix/plasma ligands and cell surfaces, proteins that cooperate in the invasion of and survival within host cells and factors that neutralize phagocytosis and/or modulate the immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685118/predictors-of-post-stroke-fever-and-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Maja Wästfelt, Yang Cao, Jakob O Ström
BACKGROUND: Fever after stroke is common, and often caused by infections. In the current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that pneumonia, urinary tract infection and all-cause fever (thought to include at least some proportion of endogenous fever) have different predicting factors, since they differ regarding etiology. METHODS: PubMed was searched systematically for articles describing predictors for post-stroke pneumonia, urinary tract infection and all-cause fever...
April 23, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680828/viral-pneumonia-etiologies-and-treatment
#3
Dima Dandachi, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas
Viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as a cause of pneumonia, in immunocompetent patients and more commonly among immunocompromised. Viral pneumonia in adults could present as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), ranging from mild disease to severe disease requiring hospital admission and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, the role of viruses in hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia as causative agents or as co-pathogens and the effect of virus detection on clinical outcome are being investigated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679726/late-presenting-dural-tear-incidence-risk-factors-and-associated-complications
#4
Wesley M Durand, J Mason DePasse, Eren O Kuris, JaeWon Yang, Alan H Daniels
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Unrecognized and inadequately repaired intraoperative durotomies may lead to cerebrospinal fluid leak, pseudomeningocele, and other complications. Few studies have investigated durotomy that is unrecognized intraoperatively and requires additional postoperative management (hereafter, late-presenting dural tear [LPDT]), though estimates of LPDT range from 0.6 - 8.3 per 1,000 spinal surgeries. These single-center studies are based on relatively small sample sizes for an event of this rarity, all with <10 patients experiencing LPDT...
April 18, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676360/detection-of-immunoglobulin-m-and-immunoglobulin-g-antibodies-to-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-children-with-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#5
Surinder Kumar, Indu Bala Garg, Gulshan Rai Sethi, Sanchit Kumar, Sanjeev R Saigal
Context: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) causes up to 40% of community-acquired pneumonia in children. It is impossible to identify M. pneumoniae infection on the basis of clinical signs, symptoms, and radiological features. Therefore, correct etiological diagnosis strongly depends on laboratory diagnosis. Aims: This study aims to investigate the role of M. pneumonia e in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and particle agglutination (PA) test...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673334/full-blood-count-values-as-a-predictor-of-poor-outcome-of-pneumonia-among-hiv-infected-patients
#6
S Camon, C Quiros, N Saubi, A Moreno, M A Marcos, Y Eto, S Rofael, E Monclus, J Brown, T D McHugh, J Mallolas, R Perello
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the predictive value of analytical markers of full blood count that can be assessed in the emergency department for HIV infected patients, with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: Prospective 3-year study including all HIV-infected patients that went to our emergency department with respiratory clinical infection, more than 24-h earlier they were diagnosed with CAP and required admission. We assessed the different values of the first blood count performed on the patient as follows; total white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes (LYM), basophils, eosinophils (EOS), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelets (PLT), mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width (PDW)...
April 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667378/alarming-results-of-nosocomial-infections-in-a-multicenter-program-of-surveillance-in-polish-intensive-care-units
#7
Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Małgorzata Bulanda, Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach, Polish Society of Hospital Infections Team
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) among patients in intensive care units (ICU) are the most common form of nosocomial infections and they are serious complications of the treatment process. The etiological factors of these infections and the proper antibiotic therapy can influence the effects of patient treatment. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology, microbiology and antibiotic therapy of nosocomial BSI in Polish ICU patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study covered patients hospitalized in seven ICUs for adults with a general profile, located in southern Poland...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666966/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-for-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-notes-from-the-field
#8
Maria Teresa Giordani, Francesca Tamarozzi, Daniel Kaminstein, Enrico Brunetti, Tom Heller
BACKGROUND: Thoracic ultrasound is helpful to evaluate lung pathology in patients with acute dyspnea. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of point-of-care ultrasound in patients with extrapulmonary TB and HIV co-infection. This retrospective, open-label case-control study explores the role of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in HIV-positive patients. In particular, it highlights the potential role of specific sonographic features that may be unique to this population...
April 17, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663903/burden-of-influenza-in-less-than-5-year-old-children-admitted-to-hospital-with-pneumonia-in-developing-and-emerging-countries-a-descriptive-multicenter-study
#9
Cédric Dananché, Valentina Sánchez Picot, Thomas Bénet, Mélina Messaoudi, Monidarin Chou, Jianwei Wang, Jean-William Pape, Shally Awasthi, Ashish Bavdekar, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mariam Sylla, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Graciela Russomando, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà, Philippe Vanhems, On Behalf Of The Pneumonia Gabriel Network
This descriptive 4-year study reports the proportion of detection of influenza viruses in less than 5-year-old children hospitalized for pneumonia in eight developing and emerging countries and describes clinical and microbiological characteristics of influenza-related pneumonia cases. Hospitalized children presenting radiologically confirmed pneumonia aged 2-60 months were prospectively enrolled in this observational standardized study. Mean proportion of isolated influenza virus was 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 7...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651615/usefulness-of-sofia-pneumococcal-fia%C3%A2-test-in-comparison-with-binaxnow%C3%A2-pneumococcal-test-in-urine-samples-for-the-diagnosis-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#10
Joaquin Burgos, Jorge N Garcia-Pérez, Sabina González di Lauro, Vicenç Falcó, Tomás Pumarola, Benito Almirante, M Teresa Martín Gomez
The Sofia Pneumococcal FIA® test is a recently introduced immunofluorescent assay automatically read aimed to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen in urine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of SofiaFIA® urinary antigen test (UAT) in comparison with classical immunochromatographic BinaxNOW® test for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP). Observational study was conducted in the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron from December 2015 to August 2016. Consecutive adult patients diagnosed of pneumonia and admitted to the emergency department in whom UAT was requested were prospectively enrolled...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650059/labyrinthitis-ossificans-in-a-cynomolgus-macaque-macaca-fascicularis
#11
Gayathriy Balamayooran, Hannah M Atkins, Christopher T Whitlow, Samuel T Aycock, Michael A Nader, J Mark Cline, David L Caudell
Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the membranous and bony labyrinth of the inner ear. Typical portals of entry includehematogenous spread from the cochlear vasculature, passage of otitis media pathogens through the round window, and mostcommonly, meningogenic spread from the subarachnoid space. The sequela of chronic inner ear inflammation is labyrinthitisossificans, in which inner ear structures are replaced by fibrous and osseous tissues. Labyrinthitis in humans has been reportedconcurrently with infection due to various viruses (for example, varicella-zoster, measles, mumps) and bacteria (for example,Treponema pallidum, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and may be associated with vertebrobasilar ischemia and meningitis...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616405/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-incidence-risk-factors-and-etiological-agents
#12
Gnanaguru Vijay, Anirban Mandal, Jhuma Sankar, Arti Kapil, Rakesh Lodha, S K Kabra
OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence, etiology and risk factors associated with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in children. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a tertiary care institute of North India, from June 2012 through March 2014, who received mechanical ventilation for more than 24 h. All enrolled children were assessed daily for development of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) using the case definition given by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
April 4, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607301/contemporary-situation-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-china-a-systematic-review
#13
Ying-Gang Zhu, Xiao-Dan Tang, Yun-Tao Lu, Jing Zhang, Jie-Ming Qu
The prevalence and microbial pattern reported for Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) differ considerably and contemporary situation remains changing over time. We therefore searched both international and domestic databases for relevant references and pooled incidence of CAP and etiological distribution were estimated separately between children and adults groups. The results showed that CAP remained a major public health issue in China, with a relatively higher incidence than that reported in Western countries...
March 2018: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606535/immunochromatography-in-csf-improves-data-on-surveillance-of-s-pneumoniae-meningitis-in-india
#14
Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Sanjay Mehendale, Ranjith Jayaraman, Rosemol Varghese, C P Girish Kumar, Prabu Rajkumar, Bharathy Sukumar, Rajamohanan K, Girija Mohan, Devasena N, Sujatha Sridharan, Narayan Babu, G Mathevan, P Sugandhi Rao, S K Kar, Vikas Manchanda, Anil Kanga, Valsan Philip Verghese, Balaji Veeraraghavan
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant cause of childhood bacterial meningitis in India. The United States Food and Drug Administration has licensed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test, Binax® NOW™, to detect the C polysaccharide antigen of S. pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). Accurate etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in India is essential for effective treatment strategies and preventive interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CSF samples from 2081 children admitted, with clinically suspected bacterial meningitis at 11 sentinel sites of hospital based sentinel surveillance network for bacterial meningitis in India between September 2009 and December 2016 were tested with ICT...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605556/re-evaluation-of-the-etiology-and-clinical-and-radiological-features-of-community-acquired-lobar-pneumonia-in-adults
#15
Takashi Ishiguro, Yutaka Yoshii, Tetsu Kanauchi, Toshiko Hoshi, Yotaro Takaku, Naho Kagiyama, Kazuyoshi Kurashima, Noboru Takayanagi
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to elucidate the frequency and etiology of community-acquired lobar pneumonia (CALP) and the clinical and radiological differences between CALP and tuberculous lobar pneumonia (TLP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (n = 1032) and tuberculosis (n = 1101) admitted to our hospital. RESULTS: Sixty-nine (6.7%) patients with CAP and 23 (2...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605210/a-review-of-the-etiology-and-clinical-presentation-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-tertiary-care-experience
#16
Ozlem Satırer, Ayse Mete Yesil, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Gökcen Dilsa Tugcu, Ebru Yalcın, Deniz Dogru, Nural Kiper, Ugur Ozcelik
INTRODUCTION: Non-cystic fibrosis(CF) bronchiectasis has been recognized in children for the past 200 years. Early childhood pneumonia and underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia(PCD), and congenital lung pathology should be considered in the etiology. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory, and radiological findings of a large population of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis at a tertiary center. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical findings of 187 patients diagnosed with non-CF bronchiectasis over a period of 10 years (January 2005-December 2015) at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Pulmonology...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605194/acute-eosinophilic-pneumonia-in-the-deployed-military-setting
#17
Christy R Sine, Paul D Hiles, Stephanie L Scoville, Ralph L Haynes, Patrick F Allan, Teri J Franks, Michael J Morris, Erik C Osborn
RATIONALE: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare but important cause of severe respiratory failure most typically caused by cigarette smoking, but can also be caused by medications, illicit drugs, infections and environmental exposures. There is growing evidence that disease severity varies and not all patients require mechanical ventilation or even supplemental oxygen. OBJECTIVES: To compare patients with AEP treated at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) to those in other published series, and to provide recommendations regarding diagnosis and treatment of AEP...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603531/a-new-multiplex-real-time-taqman-%C3%A2-pcr-for-quantification-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-m-hyorhinis-and-m-flocculare-exploratory-epidemiological-investigations-to-research-mycoplasmal-association-in-enzootic-pneumonia-like-lesions-in-slaughtered-pigs
#18
Sarah Fourour, Christelle Fablet, Véronique Tocqueville, Virginie Dorenlor, Florent Eono, Eric Eveno, Isabelle Kempf, Corinne Marois-Créhan
AIMS: A new multiplex qPCR targeting Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis and M. flocculare was developed and the relationship between the detection of those mycoplasma species and the extent of gross pneumonia like lesions in slaughtered pigs lungs were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The multiplex qPCR method targets the p102, p37 and fruA genes and has detection limits of 14, 146, and 16 genome equivalents μl-1 for M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis and M...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602809/genome-wide-analysis-of-mycoplasma-bovirhinis-gs01-reveals-potential-virulence-factors-and-phylogenetic-relationships
#19
Shengli Chen, Huafang Hao, Ping Zhao, Yongsheng Liu, Yuefeng Chu
Mycoplasma bovirhinis is a significant etiology in bovine pneumonia and mastitis, but our knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic mechanisms of M. bovirhinis is very limited. In this study, we sequenced the complete genome of M. bovirhinis strain GS01 isolated from the nasal swab of pneumonic calves in Gansu, China, and we found that its genome forms a 847,985 bp single circular chromosome with a GC content of 27.57% and with 707 protein-coding genes. The putative virulence determinants of M. bovirhinis were then analyzed...
March 30, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596444/incidence-and-case-fatality-rates-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-pneumococcal-diseases-among-korean-adults-catchment-population-based-analysis
#20
Jung Yeon Heo, Yu Bin Seo, Won Suk Choi, Jacob Lee, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Jin-Young Ahn, Hye Won Jeong, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Hee Young Lee, Joon Young Song
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality among adults. Pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) is the most common vaccine-preventable bacterial etiology of pneumonia. In this study, we estimated the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal diseases among Korean adults. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological databases from three hospitals were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and case fatality rates of CAP and pneumococcal diseases in Korean adults aged ≥19 years from 2011 to 2014...
2018: PloS One
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