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Pneumonia etiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218726/biomarkers-in-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied...
February 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218631/the-non-innoculous-hilar-calcification-recurrent-pneumonia-secondary-to-broncholith-associated-actinomyces
#2
Oluwayemisi Ojemakinde, Adam Wellikoff, Catherine Chaudoir, Guillermo Sangster, Alberto Simoncini, Carlos Previgliano, Disha Adelle Desouza
Dystrophic calcification of hilar lymph nodes is a common response to chronic inflammation related to several etiologies and rarely is associated with any clinical findings. A clinical scenario related to these calcified lymph nodes can thus be delayed by the low clinical suspicion associated with such a presumably innocuous finding. Normal respiratory movements however, can cause erosion into adjacent bronchi leading to a broncholith, complications of which can result in morbidity. We illustrate one of these complications, a partial obstruction with subsequent recurrent infection due to normal oral flora - actinomyces...
January 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208675/pneumonia-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-and-early-immune-modulator-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Kyung-Yil Lee
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196635/childhood-meningitis-in-kuwait-in-the-era-of-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-a-multicenter-study
#4
Hussain Sadeq, Entesar H Husain, Amna Alkoot, Suha Atyani, Abdullah Al-Fraij, Abdulrahman Al-Daithan, Talal AlSaleem, Anfal Taher, May Alenezi
This is a retrospective study to evaluate epidemiology and etiologies of childhood meningitis in Kuwait after the routine introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The data was collected from 196 patients in the period of 2010-2014. Aseptic meningitis accounted for 51% of the cases, bacterial meningitis accounted for 29% cases and partially treated meningitis were 20%. Organisms causing bacterial meningitis were: Streptococcus pneumoniae 40.4%, Neisseria meningitidis 17.6%, Haemophilus spp. 12.2%, other gram positive or negative 19...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194450/assessment-of-the-adjuvant-activity-of-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-in-recombinant-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-antigen-vaccines
#5
Veridiana Gomes Virginio, Natalia Costantin Bandeira, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos Leal, Marcelo Lancellotti, Arnaldo Zaha, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira
The adjuvant potential of two mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), SBa-15 and SBa-16, was assessed in combination with a recombinant HSP70 surface polypeptide domain from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). The recombinant antigen (HSP70212-600), previously shown as immunogenic in formulation with classic adjuvants, was used to immunize BALB/c mice in combination with SBa-15 or SBa-16 MSNs, and the effects obtained with these formulations were compared to those obtained with alum, the adjuvant traditionally used in anti-PEP bacterins...
January 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187206/effectiveness-of-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccination-in-preventing-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalization-and-severe-outcomes-in-the-elderly-in-spain
#6
Àngela Domínguez, Núria Soldevila, Diana Toledo, Núria Torner, Luis Force, María José Pérez, Vicente Martín, Lourdes Rodríguez-Rojas, Jenaro Astray, Mikel Egurrola, Francisco Sanz, Jesús Castilla
Pneumococcal pneumonia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, but investigation of the etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not possible in most hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23) in preventing CAP hospitalization and reducing the risk of intensive care unit admission (ICU) and fatal outcomes in hospitalized people aged ≥65 years. We made a multicenter case-control study in 20 Spanish hospitals during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187063/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-malagasy-children
#7
Ravelomanana Lova, Bouazza Naim, Mbola Rakotomahefa, André Zo Andrianirina, Annick Lalaina Robinson, Honoré Raobidjaona, Rabezanahary Andriamihaja, Nadjet Benhaddou, Fréderique Randrianirina, Elisoa Ratsima, Patrick Imbert, Josette Raymond
BACKGROUND: Childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in low-income countries. The etiologic agents are usually Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. M. pneumoniae was recognized as co-factor in asthmatic disease. High asthma prevalence was reported in Madagascar. Our aim was to clarify the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection in this country and its relationship with asthma. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 351 children (aged from 2 to 16 years) from January 2012 to December 2014...
February 9, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182741/etiology-of-severe-pneumonia-in-ecuadorian-children
#8
Sivani Jonnalagadda, Oswaldo Rodríguez, Bertha Estrella, Lora L Sabin, Fernando Sempértegui, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. METHODS: This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182358/aetiology-and-significance-of-hospital-acquired-infections-in-mexico
#9
REVIEW
Nayelli M Alonso-Aguilar, Sara R Juarez-Enriquez, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli, Gildardo Rivera, Virgilio Bocanegra-Garcia, Xianwu Guo, Julieta Luna-Herrera, M G Aguilera-Arreola
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that develop in the hospital environment and can be acquired by a patient or hospital staff. They are complications that combine diverse risk factors that make an individual susceptible and are frequently caused by endogenous and exogenous bacterial agents. The most commonly studied etiological agents are bacteria and fungi, with the former representing the most common etiological agents reported to the Hospital Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RHOVE) between 2007 and 2012...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182108/assessment-of-the-usefulness-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-tests-in-the-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-process-of-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-children-a-single-center-experience
#10
Ewelina Gowin, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Joanna Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Waldemar Bobkowski, Piotr Fichna, Paulina Sobkowiak, Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Anna Bręborowicz, Jacek Wysocki, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
The aim of the study was assessment of the usefulness of multiplex real-time PCR tests in the diagnostic and therapeutic process in children hospitalized due to pneumonia and burdened with comorbidities. Methods. The study group included 97 children hospitalized due to pneumonia at the Karol Jonscher Teaching Hospital in Poznań, in whom multiplex real-time PCR tests (FTD respiratory pathogens 33; fast-track diagnostics) were used. Results. Positive test results of the test were achieved in 74 patients (76...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178138/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-and-serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chilean-children-5-years-of-age
#11
Andres Rosenblut, Carla Napolitano, Angelica Pereira, Camilo Moreno, Devayani Kolhe, Alejandro Lepetic, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged <5 years in a public setting in Santiago, Chile.Children aged ≥3 months and <5 years referred to the physician for treatment of AOM episodes (with an onset of symptoms <72 h) were enrolled between September 2009 and September 2010...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170400/acute-bacterial-meningitis-in-iran-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Hamidreza Houri, Ali Pormohammad, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Fatemeh Fallah, Hossein Dabiri, Ramin Pouriran
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial meningitis persists in being a substantial cause of high mortality and severe neurological morbidity, despite the advances in antimicrobial therapy. Accurate data has not been available regarding the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis particularly in developing countries, yet. Indeed, the present systematic review provides a comprehensive data analysis on the prevalence and epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Iran. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles from 1994 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168215/incidence-and-etiology-of-surgical-site-infections-among-emergency-postoperative-patients-in-mbarara-regional-referral-hospital-south-western-uganda
#13
Abubaker Lubega, Bazira Joel, Najjuka Justina Lucy
Background. This prospective hospital based study was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of surgical site infection their susceptibility to among 114 emergency postoperative patients at the Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital between September 2014 and January 2015. Methods. Consented patients were consecutively enrolled and their preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected. Follow-ups were done in the surgical outpatient clinics. Wound specimens were collected and processed as per Sops; susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique...
2017: Surgery Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161744/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-bangladesh
#14
H C Gugnani, D W Denning, R Rahim, A Sadat, M Belal, M S Mahbub
In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160220/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-hiv-positive-patients-an-update-on-etiologies-epidemiology-and-management
#15
REVIEW
André Almeida, Matteo Boattini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the cause of a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. The purpose of this study was to review recent literature for epidemiological trends and management of CAP in HIV patients. RECENT FINDINGS: While the specific infectious etiologies are very diverse, bacterial infection and tuberculosis are the main causes of CAP in this population. Bacterial CAP mostly affects high-income countries, while tuberculosis is mostly in low-/middle-income countries...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156016/severe-pneumonia-associated-with-ibrutinib-monotherapy-for-cll-and-lymphoma
#16
Natalia Kreiniz, Jacob Bejar, Aaron Polliack, Tamar Tadmor
In recent years, there have been major advances in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) particularly since the development of novel therapeutic agents, mostly "biological drugs." One of the obvious advantages of these agents is the decreased rate of infectious complications occurring during the course of therapy, compared to the use of standard immuno-chemotherapy regimens. Here, we describe 3 patients with CLL and 1 with mantle cell lymphoma who developed severe life-threatening pneumonias, during monotherapy with ibrutinib...
February 3, 2017: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144059/epidemiological-profile-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-patients-a-tertiary-care-experience
#17
Rahul Magazine, Shobitha Rao, Bharti Chogtu, Ramkumar Venkateswaran, Hameed Aboobackar Shahul, Umesh Goneppanavar
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in critically ill patients. Its etiological spectrum in India is expected to be different from that seen in western countries due to the high prevalence of tropical infections. AIM: To study the epidemiological profile of ARDS patients. SETTING: A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 150 out of the 169 ARDS patients diagnosed during 2010-2012...
January 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142306/noninvasive-ventilation-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy
#18
Jiajia Liu, Conor Bell, Vagia Campbell, Julian DeBacker, Erik Tamberg, Christie Lee, Sangeeta Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is commonly used as first-line therapy for immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure. However, it may not be appropriate for all patients, as failure of NIV and delayed endotracheal intubation (ETI) may increase mortality. We report our center's experience and outcomes for patients with active hematologic malignancy (HM) treated with NIV. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive patients with HM who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Mount Sinai Hospital for acute respiratory failure between January 1, 2010, and May 31, 2015, and were initially treated with NIV...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139879/differences-in-inflammatory-marker-patterns-for-adult-community-acquired-pneumonia-patients-induced-by-different-pathogens
#19
Meng Liu, Hui Li, Chun Xue Xue, Li Gu, Jiu Xin Qu, Yi Min Wang, Ying Mei Liu, Bin Cao, Meng Liu, Hui Li, Chun Xue Xue, Li Gu, Jiu Xin Qu, Yi Min Wang, Ying Mei Liu, Bin Cao
INTRODUCTION: The inflammatory marker patterns of Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) induced by different microorganisms in adult patients remained unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the inflammatory marker patterns of adult CAP patients induced by different pathogens. METHODS: Adult CAP patients with definite etiologies were enrolled from September 2010 to June 2012. They were divided into three groups according to the causative pathogens: typical bacteria, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), and viruses...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121925/prospective-etiological-investigation-of-community-acquired-pulmonary-infections-in-hospitalized-people-living-with-hiv
#20
Claudia Figueiredo-Mello, Pontus Naucler, Marinella D Negra, Anna S Levin
The study of the etiological agents of community-acquired pulmonary infections is important to guide empirical therapy, requires constant updating, and has a substantial impact on the prognosis of patients. The objective of this study is to determine prospectively the etiology of community-acquired pulmonary infections in hospitalized adults living with HIV. Patients were submitted to an extended microbiological investigation that included molecular methods. The microbiological findings were evaluated according to severity of the disease and pneumococcal vaccine status...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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