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Pneumonia etiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#1
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230010/serotype-and-virulence-genes-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-mink-and-its-pathogenesis-in-mice-and-mink
#2
Wang Jian-Li, Shang Yuan-Yuan, Guo Shou-Yu, Diao Fei-Fei, Yu Jia-Yu, Wei Xue-Hua, Zhao Yong-Feng, Jiang Shi-Jin, Xie Zhi-Jing
In the study, 15 K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from the mink experiencing respiratory distress in mideastern Shandong province, China, and the prevalence of K. pneumoniae in the sampled mink was 11.9% (15/126). Fourteen (93.33%) of the 15 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified as serotype K2 and hypermucoviscosity phenotype. The 12 virulence-associated genes of the K. pneumoniae isolates were tested. The prevalence of the wabG gene for the isolates were 100% (15/15), the ureA gene 100% (15/15), the rmpA gene 93...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228381/the-etiology-and-impact-of-co-infections-in-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#3
Vikki G Nolan, Sandra R Arnold, Anna M Bramley, Krow Ampofo, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Richard G Wunderink, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew T Pavia, Seema Jain, Jonathan A McCullers
Background: Recognition that co-infections are common in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is increasing, but gaps remain in our understanding of their frequency and importance. Methods: We analyzed data from 2219 children hospitalized with CAP and compared demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes between groups with viruses alone, bacteria alone, or co-infections. We also assessed the frequency of selected pairings of co-detected pathogens and their clinical characteristics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224803/salmonella-in-dairy-cattle
#4
REVIEW
Chelsea L Holschbach, Simon F Peek
As an infectious, contagious pathogen, Salmonella is probably rivaled by only bovine viral diarrhea virus in its ability to cause clinical disease, such as enteritis, septicemia, pneumonia, and reproductive losses. The increasing prevalence of Salmonella, particularly Salmonella Dublin, on dairies presents new challenges to producers and veterinarians. No current discussion of bovine salmonellosis is complete without acknowledging the increasing public health concern. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among enteric pathogens brings the use of antimicrobials by veterinarians and producers under ever stricter scrutiny...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224300/-etiological-analysis-and-establishment-of-a-discriminant-model-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hospitalized-patients
#5
Y S Chen, X H Lin, H R Li, Z D Hua, M Q Lin, W S Huang, T Yu, H Y Lyu, W P Mao, Y Q Liang, X R Peng, S J Chen, H Zheng, S Q Lian, X L Hu, X Q Yao
Objective: To analyze the pathogens of lower respiratory tract infection(LRTI) including bacterial, viral and mixed infection, and to establish a discriminant model based on clinical features in order to predict the pathogens. Methods: A total of 243 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in Fujian Provincial Hospital from April 2012 to September 2015. The clinical data and airway (sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage) samples were collected. Microbes were identified by traditional culture (for bacteria), loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) and gene sequencing (for bacteria and atypical pathogen), or Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)for viruses...
December 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216940/-study-on-risk-factor-of-central-venous-catheter-infection-in-icu-1-160-patients-report
#6
Ming Zhang, Yongqing Xu, Zhiming Jiang, Junying Qian, Zhonghui Zhang, Nannan Sun, Jian Xie, Tao Li
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the etiology and risk factors of central venous catheter (CVCs) infections, and to explore the prophylaxis and treatment for catheter-related infections. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The patients with CVCs admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University from January 2000 to December 2016 were enrolled. The gender, age, catheter data and microorganism culture results of all patients were collected...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215596/rsv-infection-in-human-macrophages-promotes-cxcl10-ip-10-expression-during-bacterial-co-infection
#7
Daniela Machado, Jonathan Hoffmann, Marie Moroso, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Hubert Endtz, Olivier Terrier, Glaucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major etiologic agent of acute lower respiratory infection constitutes the most important cause of death in young children worldwide. Viral/bacterial mixed infections are related to severity of respiratory inflammatory diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously investigated the intracellular mechanisms that mediate the immune response in the context of influenza virus/Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) co-infection using a model of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214060/interstitial-lung-disease-the-diagnostic-role-of-bronchoscopy
#8
REVIEW
Jad Kebbe, Tony Abdo
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) form one of the most fascinating fields in pulmonary medicine. They also pose one of the greatest challenges for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. Even within the recommended and warranted multidisciplinary approach, differentiating between one disease and another may lead to frustration, especially when proper lung tissue is not available for adequate pathological review. A surgical lung biopsy (SLB) might render enough tissue for histopathology, but this could come at the expense of high morbidity and even mortality, as in the case of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208015/molecular-etiological-profile-of-atypical-bacterial-pathogens-viruses-and-coinfections-among-infants-and-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-admitted-to-a-national-hospital-in-lima-peru
#9
Juana Del Valle-Mendoza, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Angela Cornejo-Tapia, Fiorella Orellana-Peralta, Eduardo Verne, Claudia Ugarte, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, María Del Carmen De Lama-Odría, Ronald Nazario-Fuertes, Mónica Esquivel-Vizcarra, Verónica Casabona-Ore, Pablo Weilg, Luis J Del Valle
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to detect the presence of 14 respiratory viruses and atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae), via polymerase chain reaction in patients under 18 years old hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from Lima, Peru. RESULTS: Atypical pathogens were detected in 40% (58/146); viral etiologies in 36% (52/146) and coinfections in 19% (27/146). The most common etiological agent was M...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201637/two-patients-with-daptomycin-induced-eosinophilic-pneumonia-with-different-presentations-and-treatment
#10
Yonas Raru, Fuad Zeid, Shannon Browning, Elizabeth Saunders
We present two cases of daptomycin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia with characteristic chest x ray, CT scan and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings. It is not a commonly seen complication of Daptomycin but when it happens, it could cause a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Patients could present acutely with hypoxic respiratory failure or a less dramatic chronic presentation is also possible. Our two patients presented with acute hypoxic respiratory failure and presentation resembles that of an infectious etiology...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201635/successful-use-of-guanfacine-in-a-patient-with-chronic-refractory-cough-a-case-report
#11
Gregory W Kirschen, Howard Kirschen, Edward Gabalski, Jonathan M Waxner, Agnes Wohl
Chronic idiopathic cough is a common and often frustrating complaint for patients as well as providers. When common etiologies of cough are ruled out and/or do not respond to usual treatments, neurogenic cough should be considered as a diagnosis of exclusion. Here, we report on a 58-year-old woman with an 8-year history of chronic, treatment-refractory cough of unknown etiology that we diagnosed as neurogenic cough and successfully treated with guanfacine monotherapy, with rapid and durable improvement in symptoms...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187842/low-microbial-diversity-and-abnormal-microbial-succession-is-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#12
Priscila T Dobbler, Renato S Procianoy, Volker Mai, Rita C Silveira, Andréa L Corso, Bruna S Rojas, Luiz F W Roesch
Despite increased efforts, the diverse etiologies of Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) have remained largely elusive. Clinical predictors of NEC remain ill-defined and currently lack sufficient specificity. The development of a thorough understanding of initial gut microbiota colonization pattern in preterm infants might help to improve early detection or prediction of NEC and its associated morbidities. Here we compared the fecal microbiota successions, microbial diversity, abundance and structure of newborns that developed NEC with preterm controls...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184760/rhabdomyolysis-with-different-etiologies-in-childhood
#13
Demet Alaygut, Meral Torun Bayram, Belde Kasap, Alper Soylu, Mehmet Türkmen, Salih Kavukcu
AIM: To investigate different etiologies and management of the rhabdomyolysis in children. METHODS: Eight pediatric rhabdomyolysis cases who applied to the Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Nephrology with different etiologies between January 2004 and January 2012 were evaluated in terms of age, gender, admission symptoms, physical examination findings, factors provoking rhabdomyolysis, number of rhabdomyolysis attacks, laboratory results, family history and the final diagnosis received after the treatment...
November 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181956/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2015
#14
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178851/bacterial-profile-of-ocular-infections-a-systematic-review
#15
Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Hailay Gebreyesus, Ataklti Hailu Atsbaha, Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom, Muthupandian Saravanan
BACKGROUND: Bacteria are the major contributor of ocular infections worldwide. Ocular infections, if left untreated, can damage the structures of the eye with possible blindness and visual impairments. This work was aimed to review the bacterial profile of ocular infections. METHODS: Literature search was made in different electronic databases; the review was systematically made to get concrete findings. RESULTS: As far as this review, Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the leading isolates in ocular infections...
November 25, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173442/clinical-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-pleuroparenchymal-fibroelastosis-a-retrospective-multicenter-study
#16
Yasunori Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Yasuomi Satake, Hiromitsu Sumikawa, Takeshi Johkoh, Thomas V Colby, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Masato Karayama, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Naoki Inui, Toshihide Iwashita, Shigeki Kuroishi, Koshi Yokomura, Naoki Koshimizu, Mikio Toyoshima, Shiro Imokawa, Takashi Yamada, Toshihiro Shirai, Hiroshi Hayakawa, Takafumi Suda
BACKGROUND: Although the accurate diagnosis of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) requires pathologic evaluation, this diagnosis is often suggested when the radiologic findings are consistent with typical PPFE and when pulmonary apical cap, which radiologically and pathologically mimics PPFE, can be excluded by confirming disease progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PPFE. METHODS: We recruited 44 patients with idiopathic PPFE according to our modified diagnostic criteria: 1) a radiologic PPFE pattern (i...
December 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173358/bacterial-etiology-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-and-their-antimicrobial-susceptibility
#17
Maduakor Uzoamaka, Onyemelukwe Ngozi, Ogboi Sonny Johnbull, Ohanu Martin
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is one of the common major health problems in Nigeria causing morbidity and mortality. The study was conducted to determine the current trends of bacterial etiology of LRTIs among patients who attended the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile with special interest on pandrug resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between February 2014 and June 2016 in the bacteriology laboratory of UNTH...
November 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171871/cytokine-responses-microbial-etiology-and-short-term-outcome-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
William W Siljan, Jan C Holter, Ståle H Nymo, Einar Husebye, Thor Ueland, Pål Aukrust, Tom E Mollnes, Lars Heggelund
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory response in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is orchestrated through activation of cytokine networks and the complement system. We examined the association of multiple cytokines and the terminal complement complex (TCC) with microbial etiology, disease severity and short-term outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma levels of 27 cytokines and TCC were analyzed in blood samples obtained at hospital admission, clinical stabilization and 6-weeks follow up from 247 hospitalized adults with CAP...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169658/-symmetrical-peripheral-gangrene-4%C3%A2-cases
#19
F Smaoui, M Koubaa, K Rekik, Y Mejdoub, S Mezghani, I Maaloul, A Hammami, C Marrakchi, M Ben Jemaa
BACKGROUND: Symmetric peripheral gangrene (SPG) is a symmetrical distal ischemic lesion on at least 2 or more extremities in the absence of proximal arterial obstruction and vasculitis. It is a rare and severe clinical entity. The aim of this study was to describe clinical symptoms, etiological agents and the management of SPG through a series of 4 cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included all cases of SPG hospitalized between 2000 and 2014. The inclusion criterion was the presence of distal ischemic damage at two or more sites in the absence of large vessel obstruction...
November 20, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165506/-extremely-elevated-erythrosedimentation-in-an-adult-population-in-the-city-of-buenos-aires
#20
Victoria Otero-Castro, Belén Bonella, Nancy Cristaldo, Fernando Fiorentini, Diego Giunta, Brenda Massimino, Valeria Sarapura, Agustín Matías Muñoz, Agustina Perusini, Lucas Quirós, Vanina Wainsztein, Fernando Warley, Fernando Binder, Gabriel Darío Waisman, Bruno Leonel Ferreyro
BACKGROUND: An extremely elevated erythrosedimentation rate (ESR), defined as equal or higher than 100 mm/h, has been linked to serious underlying conditions, such as infections, connective tissue and oncologic disease. AIM: To analyze a group of patients in order to determine the underlying diagnosis and the characteristics associated with extremely elevated ESR in our environment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adult patients, who presented with at least one ESR equal or higher than 100 mm/h at Hospital Italiano, in Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires, Argentina) between January 2002 and August 2014...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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