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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641404/ph-rather-than-nitrification-and-urease-inhibitors-determines-the-community-of-ammonia-oxidizers-in-a-vegetable-soil
#1
Ruijiao Xi, Xi-En Long, Sha Huang, Huaiying Yao
Nitrification inhibitors and urease inhibitors, such as nitrapyrin and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), can improve the efficiencies of nitrogen fertilizers in cropland. However, their effects on ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) across different soil pH levels are still unclear. In the present work, vegetable soils at four pH levels were tested to determine the impacts of nitrification and urease inhibitors on the nitrification activities, abundances and diversities of ammonia oxidizers at different pHs by real-time PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone sequence analysis...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641388/recognition-of-the-component-odors-in-mixtures
#2
Marion E Frank, Dane B Fletcher, Thomas P Hettinger
Natural olfactory stimuli are volatile-chemical mixtures in which relative perceptual saliencies determine which odor-components are identified. Odor identification also depends on rapid selective adaptation, as shown for 4 odor stimuli in an earlier experimental simulation of natural conditions. Adapt-test pairs of mixtures of water-soluble, distinct odor stimuli with chemical features in common were studied. Identification decreased for adapted components but increased for unadapted mixture-suppressed components, showing compound identities were retained, not degraded to individual molecular features...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641227/presence-distribution-and-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-rice-wheat-continuous-cropping-soils-close-to-five-industrial-parks-of-suzhou-china
#3
Yong Li, Ling Long, Jing Ge, Li-Xuan Yang, Jin-Jin Cheng, Ling-Xiang Sun, Changying Lu, Xiang-Yang Yu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in agricultural soils are likely to threaten human health and ecosystem though the food chain, therefore, it is worth to pay more attention to soil contamination by PAHs. In this study, the presence, distribution and risk assessment of 16 priority PAHs in rice-wheat continuous cropping soils close to industrial parks of Suzhou were firstly investigated. The concentrations of the total PAHs ranged from 125.99 ng/g to 796.65 ng/g with an average of 352.94 ng/g...
June 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641183/size-partitioning-and-mixing-behavior-of-trace-metals-and-dissolved-organic-matter-in-a-south-china-estuary
#4
Wenhao Wang, Min Chen, Laodong Guo, Wen-Xiong Wang
The Jiulong River estuary, located in the southeastern China, suffered from metal pollution due to industrial effluent releases. Mixing of effluent and estuarine water may have significantly affected the size distribution of trace metals and their environmental fate. In the present study, colloidal size distribution of organic matter and selected metals were quantified using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and ICP-MS. We demonstrated a dominance of dissolved metals in the 1-10kDa fraction, and metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and Mn were mostly regulated by terrestrial fulvic acid...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641116/mechanisms-for-selective-single-cell-reactivation-during-offline-sharp-wave-ripples-and-their-distortion-by-fast-ripples
#5
Manuel Valero, Robert G Averkin, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Juan Aguilar, Diego Lopez-Pigozzi, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, Elena Cid, Gabor Tamas, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Memory traces are reactivated selectively during sharp-wave ripples. The mechanisms of selective reactivation, and how degraded reactivation affects memory, are poorly understood. We evaluated hippocampal single-cell activity during physiological and pathological sharp-wave ripples using juxtacellular and intracellular recordings in normal and epileptic rats with different memory abilities. CA1 pyramidal cells participate selectively during physiological events but fired together during epileptic fast ripples...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641112/molecular-mechanism-of-mdga1-regulation-of-neuroligin-2-neurexin-trans-synaptic-bridges
#6
Shanti Pal Gangwar, Xiaoying Zhong, Suchithra Seshadrinathan, Hui Chen, Mischa Machius, Gabby Rudenko
Neuroligins and neurexins promote synapse development and validation by forming trans-synaptic bridges spanning the synaptic cleft. Select pairs promote excitatory and inhibitory synapses, with neuroligin 2 (NLGN2) limited to inhibitory synapses and neuroligin 1 (NLGN1) dominating at excitatory synapses. The cell-surface molecules, MAM domain-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 1 (MDGA1) and 2 (MDGA2), regulate trans-synaptic adhesion between neurexins and neuroligins, impacting NLGN2 and NLGN1, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641088/application-of-zeolite-hydrous-zirconia-composite-as-a-novel-sediment-capping-material-to-immobilize-phosphorus
#7
Yi Fan, Yiwen Li, Deyi Wu, Chunjie Li, Hainan Kong
A unique sediment-capping agent consisting of a zeolite/hydrous zirconia composite (ZHZ) was developed and tested for P-immobilization in the overlying water and sediment cores from a freshwater pond. In the ZHZ, NaP1 zeolite was covered with hydrous zirconia, which existed as an amorphous phase. Experimental results in pond water indicated that ZHZ could efficiently remove soluble reactive phosphorus. The 28-day sediment incubation experiments showed that capping sediment with ZHZ resulted in a more efficient, rapid and sustained decrease in P concentration when compared with the traditional alum treatment method...
June 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640892/novel-resistance-to-cydia-pomonella-granulovirus-cpgv-in-codling-moth-shows-autosomal-and-dominant-inheritance-and-confers-cross-resistance-to-different-cpgv-genome-groups
#8
Annette J Sauer, Eva Fritsch, Karin Undorf-Spahn, Petr Nguyen, Frantisek Marec, David G Heckel, Johannes A Jehle
Commercial Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) products have been successfully applied to control codling moth (CM) in organic and integrated fruit production for more than 30 years. Since 2005, resistance against the widely used isolate CpGV-M has been reported from different countries in Europe. The inheritance of this so-called type I resistance is dominant and linked to the Z chromosome. Recently, a second form (type II) of CpGV resistance in CM was reported from a field population (NRW-WE) in Germany. Type II resistance confers reduced susceptibility not only to CpGV-M but to most known CpGV isolates and it does not follow the previously described Z-linked inheritance of type I resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640870/dominance-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-in-a-maternity-hospital
#9
Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen causing healthcare- and community- acquired infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize MRSA isolated at the Maternity Hospital between 2006 and 2011 for their genetic relatedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRSA isolates were investigated using a combination of antibiogram, Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) and spa typing to determine their relatedness to MRSA isolated in other Kuwait hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640851/ligand-mediated-and-tertiary-interactions-cooperatively-stabilize-the-p1-region-in-the-guanine-sensing-riboswitch
#10
Christian A Hanke, Holger Gohlke
Riboswitches are genetic regulatory elements that control gene expression depending on ligand binding. The guanine-sensing riboswitch (Gsw) binds ligands at a three-way junction formed by paired regions P1, P2, and P3. Loops L2 and L3 cap the P2 and P3 helices and form tertiary interactions. Part of P1 belongs to the switching sequence dictating the fate of the mRNA. Previous studies revealed an intricate relationship between ligand binding and presence of the tertiary interactions, and between ligand binding and influence on the P1 region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640826/allele-specific-caps-marker-development-and-characterization-of-chalcone-synthase-gene-in-indian-mulberry-morus-spp-family-moraceae
#11
Vivek Arora, M K Ghosh, Soumili Pal, Gaurab Gangopadhyay
Chalcone synthase (CHS) is an essential enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway that catalyzes the first step in flavonoid biosynthesis in plants under diverse environmental stress. We have used CHS as a candidate gene in mulberry and developed Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) based co-dominant Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) marker associated with the CHS locus. The segregation pattern of the marker was studied in an F1 population derived from a hybridization program between two mulberry genotypes showing polymorphism for the CHS locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640811/comparing-bee-species-responses-to-chemical-mixtures-common-response-patterns
#12
Alex Robinson, Helen Hesketh, Elma Lahive, Alice A Horton, Claus Svendsen, Agnes Rortais, Jean Lou Dorne, Jan Baas, Matthew S Heard, David J Spurgeon
Pollinators in agricultural landscapes can be exposed to mixtures of pesticides and environmental pollutants. Existing mixture toxicity modelling approaches, such as the models of concentration addition and independent action and the mechanistic DEBtox framework have been previously shown as valuable tools for understanding and ultimately predicting joint toxicity. Here we apply these mixture models to investigate the potential to interpret the effects of semi-chronic binary mixture exposure for three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis within potentiation and mixture toxicity experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640809/development-of-elisas-for-diagnosis-of-acute-typhoid-fever-in-nigerian-children
#13
Jiin Felgner, Aarti Jain, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Algis Jasinskas, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Joseph M Vinetz, Fabio Miyajima, Munir Pirmohamed, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Dominic Umoru, Binta Wudil Jibir, Safiya Gambo, Kudirat Olateju, Philip L Felgner, Stephen Obaro, D Huw Davies
Improved serodiagnostic tests for typhoid fever (TF) are needed for surveillance, to facilitate patient management, curb antibiotic resistance, and inform public health programs. To address this need, IgA, IgM and IgG ELISAs using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hemolysin E (t1477) protein were conducted on 86 Nigerian pediatric TF and 29 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cases, 178 culture-negative febrile cases, 28 "other" (i.e., non-Salmonella) pediatric infections, and 48 healthy Nigerian children...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640758/consecutive-ultra-short-term-heart-rate-variability-to-track-dynamic-changes-in-autonomic-nervous-system-during-and-after-exercise
#14
Xiang Chen, Ruijie Yao, Gezhen Yin, Jin Li
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative measurement of the dynamic changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) during and after exercise has great significance in clinical, sports training and other fields. A consecutive ultra-short-term (30 s, UST) heart rate variability (HRV) method was proposed to track the exercise-induced autonomic control of heart rate (HR). APPROACH: Twenty-three healthy young men participated in the study. The first four stages of the Modified Bruce Protocol (S0-S3) were performed...
June 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640651/association-of-the-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-ser447ter-polymorphism-with-hypertension-and-blood-pressure-variation-evidence-from-an-updated-meta-analysis
#15
June Wang, Shenlin Du, Jiamin Wang, Man Zhu, Xue Wen, Weiqing Yang
The polymorphism of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene Ser447Ter (S447X) has long been linked to hypertension and blood pressure variation, but the established data remained controversial. To better elucidate this inconsistency, a meta-analysis was conducted. We comprehensively searched electronic databases, including Pubmed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Web of Science, for all literatures with the last update on February 2016. The strength of association was calculated by using odds ratios (ORs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
June 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640611/lattice-hydride-mechanism-in-electrocatalytic-co2%C3%A2-reduction-by-structurally-precise-copper-hydride-nanoclusters
#16
Qing Tang, Yongjin Lee, Dai-Ying Li, Woojun Choi, C W Liu, Dongil Lee, De-En Jiang
Copper electrocatalysts can reduce CO2 to hydrocarbons at high overpotentials. However, mechanistic understanding of CO2 reduction on nanostructured Cu catalysts has been lacking. Herein we show that the structurally precise ligand-protected Cu-hydride nanoclusters, such as Cu32H20L12 (L is a dithiophosphate ligand), offer unique selectivity for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction at low overpotentials. Our density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that the presence of the negatively charged hydrides in the copper cluster plays a critical role in determining the selectivity of the reduction product, yielding HCOOH over CO with a lower overpotential...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640603/changes-in-light-absorptivity-of-molecular-weight-separated-brown-carbon-due-to-photolytic-aging
#17
Jenny Pui Shan Wong, Athanasios Nenes, Rodney J Weber
Brown carbon (BrC) are those organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols that absorb solar radiation and may play an important role on planetary radiative forcing and climate. However, little is known about the production and loss mechanisms of BrC in the atmosphere. Here, we study how the light absorptivity of BrC from wood smoke and secondary BrC generated from reaction of ammonium sulfate with methylglyoxal changes under photolytic aging by UVA radiation in the aqueous phase. Owing to its chemical complexity, BrC is separated by molecular weight using size exclusion chromatography and the response of each molecular weight fraction to aging is studied...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640598/structural-and-light-absorption-characteristics-of-complex-water-insoluble-organic-mixtures-in-urban-submicron-aerosols
#18
Qingcai Chen, Fumikazu Ikemori, Yuua Nakamura, Petr Vodicka, Kimitaka Kawamura, Michihiro Mochida
Submicrometer aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Nagoya, Japan, were collected in late winter and early spring, and the water-insoluble organic matter (WISOM) in the samples were fractionated into six subfractions based on their polarities by using solvent and normal-phase solid-phase extractions: non-polar (F1), low-polar (F2 and F3), and medium-polar (F4, F5, and F6) fractions. The overall structural characteristics of these subfractions were then analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640597/positive-charge-functionalized-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-as-nanocarriers-for-controlled-2-4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic-acid-sodium-salt-release
#19
Lidong Cao, Zhaolu Zhou, Shujun Niu, Chong Cao, Xiuhuan Li, Yongpan Shan, Qiliang Huang
Due to its relatively high water solubility and mobility, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) has a high leaching potential threatening the surface water and groundwater. Controlled release formulations of 2,4-D could alleviate the adverse effects on the environment. In the present study, positive-charge functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were facilely synthesized by incorporating trimethylammonium (TA) groups onto MSNs via a post-grafting method. 2,4-D sodium salt, the anionic form of 2,4-D, was effectively loaded into these positively charged MSN-TA nanoparticles...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640577/laser-ablation-molecular-isotopic-spectrometry-for-molecules-formation-chemistry-in-fs-laser-ablated-plasmas
#20
Huaming Hou, Xianglei Mao, Vassilia Zorba, Richard E Russo
Recently, laser ablated molecular isotopic spectrometry (LAMIS) has expanded its capability to explore molecules formation mechanism in laser induced plasma in addition to isotope analysis. LAMIS is powerful tool for tracking the origination of atoms that involved in formation of investigated molecules by labeling atoms with its isotopic substitution. The evolutionary formation pathways of organic molecules, especially of C2 dimers and CN radicals, were frequently reported. However, very little is known about the formation pathways for metallic radicals and heterodimers in laser ablated plasma...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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