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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535525/expanded-hemodialysis-a-new-therapy-for-a-new-class-of-membranes
#1
Claudio Ronco, Gaetano La Manna
A wide spectrum of molecules is retained in end-stage kidney disease, normally defined as uremic toxins. These solutes have different molecular weights and radii. Current dialysis membranes and techniques only remove solutes in the range of 50-15,000 Da, with limited or no capability to remove solutes in the middle to high molecular weight range (up to 50,000 Da). Improved removal has been obtained with high cut-off (HCO) membranes, with albumin loss representing a limitation to their practical application...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535522/restenosis-in-hemodialytic-fistulas-and-chronic-kidney-disease-associated-vascular-disease-two-pathologies-driven-by-metakaryotic-stem-cells
#2
Gianandrea Pasquinelli, William G Thilly, Elena V Gostjeva, Paola Todeschini, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Claudio Ronco, Gaetano La Manna
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) exacerbating vascular disease poses a major challenge to nephrology. Surgically placed vascular fistulas, as an aid to hemodialysis prior to kidney transplant, have extended many lives, while post-surgical restenosis closure of the fistula by smooth muscle cells affects many lives. When post-surgical restenosis is developed, palliative measures are almost always surgical: there are no effective drug treatments. In this study, we offer a testable hypothesis that effects of CKD on widely distributed vascular diseases and the phenomenon of fistula restenosis are both driven by the pathologic creation of non-dividing smooth muscle cells via asymmetric division of exponentially increasing metakaryotic stem cells...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535521/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-mineral-metabolism-and-beyond
#3
Alexander Grabner, Sandro Mazzaferro, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Stefanie Krick, Irene Capelli, Silverio Rotondi, Claudio Ronco, Gaetano La Manna, Christian Faul
Patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a high risk of cardiovascular mortality that is poorly explained by traditional risk factors. There is a growing awareness about the role of derangement of mineral metabolism that is currently accepted as a trigger and sustainer of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients. The synthetic definition of CKD mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) split the concept that the indexes of mineral metabolism extend their effects beyond the bone until the vascular wall and metabolic milieu of CKD patients through complex pathways...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535520/phosphate-in-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#4
Mario Cozzolino, Denis Foque, Paola Ciceri, Andrea Galassi
A direct and independent association between serum phosphate (P) levels and mortality has been reported. High circulating P concentrations, still within the normal range, was associated with unfavourable outcomes in normal subjects as well as in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Experimental data support the notion that P overload may hamper survival expectancy, directly inducing vascular, skeletal, and renal ageing. The balance of P results from dietary intake, intestinal absorption, glomerular filtration, tubular resorption, and hormonal asset...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535253/endothelial-glycocalyx-the-battleground-for-complications-of-sepsis-and-kidney-injury
#5
Jong Wook Song, Joseph Zullo, Mark Lipphardt, Matthew Dragovich, Frank X Zhang, Bingmei Fu, Michael S Goligorsky
After briefly discussing endothelial glycocalyx and its role in vascular physiology and renal disease, this overview focuses on its degradation very early in the course of microbial sepsis. We describe our recently proposed mechanism for glycocalyx degradation induced by exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles and release of their cargo. Notably, an intermediate in nitric oxide synthesis, NG-hydroxy-l-arginine, shows efficacy in curtailing exocytosis of these organelles and improvement in animal survival...
May 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535009/microrna-let-7g-alleviates-atherosclerosis-via-the-targeting-of-lox-1-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Mingxin Liu, Guizhou Tao, Qifeng Liu, Kun Liu, Xinchun Yang
Atherosclerosis is a chronic arterial disease and the leading cause of stroke and myocardial infarction. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been reported to act as essential modulators during the progression of atherosclerosis. Although miR-let-7g has been demonstrated to contribute to maintaining endothelial function and vascular homeostasis, it is not known whether miR-let-7g exerts a therapeutic effect on experimental atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of miR-let-7g on atherosclerosis in vivo and in vitro and to explore its underlying mechanisms...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535001/standardization-of-a375-human-melanoma-models-on-chicken-embryo-chorioallantoic-membrane-and-balb-c-nude-mice
#7
Stefana Avram, Dorina-Elena Coricovac, Ioana Zinuca Pavel, Iulia Pinzaru, Roxana Ghiulai, Flavia Baderca, Codruta Soica, Danina Muntean, Daciana E Branisteanu, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Cristina Adriana Dehelean
Cutaneous melanoma is a metastatic disease characterized by high resistance to treatment, the incidence of which has alarmingly increased worldwide over the past years. A thorough characterization of tumor onset, progression and metastasis is compulsory to overcome the gaps existent in melanoma biology. The present study suggests a well‑established protocol and a detailed histological description of human melanoma models in ovo and in vivo obtained by the inoculation of A375 cells to chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and Balb/c nude mice...
May 22, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534795/choroid-neovascularization-growth-prediction-with-treatment-based-on-reaction-diffusion-model-in-3d-oct-images
#8
Shuxia Zhu, Fei Shi, Dehui Xiang, Weifang Zhu, Haoyu Chen, Xinjian Chen
Choroid neovascularization (CNV) is caused by new blood vessels growing in the choroid and penetrating the Bruch membrane. It is the major cause of vision disability in many retinal diseases. Though anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection has proved to be effective for treating CNV, treatment planning is essential to ensure the efficacy while reducing the risk. For this purpose, we propose a CNV growth model based on longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. The reaction-diffusion model is applied to simulate the growth and shrinkage of CNV volumes, and is solved by using finite element method (FEM)...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534432/gastrointestinal-microphysiological-systems
#9
Sarah E Blutt, James R Broughman, Winnie Zou, Xi-Lei Zeng, Umesh C Karandikar, Julie In, Nicholas C Zachos, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Mark Donowitz, Mary K Estes
Gastrointestinal diseases are a significant health care and economic burden. Prevention and treatment of these diseases have been limited by the available human biologic models. Microphysiological systems comprise organ-specific human cultures that recapitulate many structural, biological, and functional properties of the organ in smaller scale including aspects of flow, shear stress and chemical gradients. The development of intestinal microphysiological system platforms represents a critical component in improving our understanding, prevention, and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534318/association-between-inflammatory-skin-disease-and-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-co-morbidities-in-us-adults-analysis-of-nationwide-inpatient-sample-data
#10
Michael C Kwa, Jonathan I Silverberg
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis, atopic dermatitis or eczema (AD-E), pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid (BP), and hidradenitis are chronic inflammatory skin disorders associated with systemic immune activation, considerable symptom burden, stigma, functional disturbances, and mental health symptoms. All of these might increase cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether these inflammatory skin diseases are associated with increased cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk and/or disease...
May 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534239/analysis-of-screening-electrocardiogram-for-the-subcutaneous-defibrillator-in-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease
#11
Vincent C Thomas, Mark Peterson, Martin McDaniel, Humberto Restrepo, Abraham Rothman, Amit Jain
Candidates for the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) are screened using an electrocardiogram (S-ECG) tool to measure appropriate detection. We sought to define the S-ICD candidacy of congenital heart disease patients using the S-ECG tool. We also analyzed the reliability of the (S-ECG) tool between measurers in this population. Patients above the age of 12 and with a diagnosis associated with either a higher incidence of cardiac arrest or vascular access challenges were asked to undergo screening...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534129/insomnia-muscular-cramps-and-pruritus-have-low-intensity-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-good-dialysis-efficiency-low-inflammation-and-arteriovenous-fistula
#12
Olga Hilda Orasan, Aniela Pop Saplontai, Angela Cozma, Simona Racasan, Ina Maria Kacso, Crina Claudia Rusu, Diana Moldovan, Dacian Tirinescu, Alina Potra, Ioan Mihai Patiu, Remus Aurel Orasan
INTRODUCTION: Insomnia, muscular cramps, pruritus and postdialysis recovery time (RT) are quality-of-life parameters that affect hemodialysis (HD) patients physically and mentally. METHODS: We included 171 end-stage renal disease patients: 115 on high-flux HD and 56 on online hemodiafiltration (HDF). Patients were asked "How long does it take you to recover from a dialysis session?" and they evaluated intensity (absent, mild, medium and severe) of insomnia, muscular cramps and pruritus in the past 4 weeks...
May 22, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534121/organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-are-crucial-biopterin-transporters-involved-in-bodily-distribution-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-exclusion-of-its-excess
#13
Akiko Ohashi, Kaori Mamada, Tomonori Harada, Masako Naito, Tomihisa Takahashi, Shin Aizawa, Hiroyuki Hasegawa
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a common coenzyme of phenylalanine-, tyrosine-, and tryptophan hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and NO synthases (NOS). Synthetic BH4 is used medicinally for BH4-responsive phenylketonuria and inherited BH4 deficiency. BH4 supplementation has also drawn attention as a therapy for various NOS-related cardio-vascular diseases, but its use has met with limited success in decreasing BH2, the oxidized form of BH4. An increase in the BH2/BH4 ratio leads to NOS dysfunction. Previous studies revealed that BH4 supplementation caused a rapid urinary loss of BH4 accompanied by an increase in the blood BH2/BH4 ratio and an involvement of probenecid-sensitive but unknown transporters was strongly suggested in these processes...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534048/the-first-report-of-cadasil-in-peru-olfactory-dysfunction-on-initial-presentation
#14
Anastasia Vishnevetsky, Miguel Inca-Martinez, Karina Milla-Neyra, Danny Moises Barrientos-Iman, Ivan Cornejo-Herrera, Carlos Cosentino, Mario Cornejo-Olivas
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare, heritable, small vessel vascular disease caused by mutations in the Notch3 gene that is characterized by migraines, subcortical vascular events, cognitive decline, and mood disturbances. However, many CADASIL cases present with unusual symptoms such as status epilepticus, a movement disorder, or sensory dysfunction. This study describes the clinical, genetic, and radiologic characteristics of a Peruvian family with CADASIL in which multiple family members presented with severe olfactory deficits...
December 2016: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533932/metabolic-parameters-and-responsiveness-of-isolated-iliac-artery-in-ldlr-mice-role-of-aerobic-exercise-training
#15
Nádia F Garcia, Amanda Cs Sponton, Maria A Delbin, Juliana M Parente, Michele M Castro, Angelina Zanesco, Camila de Moraes
Physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are considered risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. There are few studies evaluating the effects of physical exercise in small-caliber artery in a model that mimics familial hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training, at moderate intensity, on metabolic parameters and iliac artery responsiveness in LDL(-/-) mice. Sedentary (SD) and trained (TR) mice performed AET (5 days/week, 60 minutes/day at 60-70% of maximum speed) during 8 weeks...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533927/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-medicinal-plants-have-potential-role-in-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Peter Adegbola, Ifewumi Aderibigbe, Wasiu Hammed, Tolulope Omotayo
Cardiovascular disease is a compound name for clusters of disorders afflicting the heart and blood vessels; it is assuming an increasing role as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Unhealthy practices such as smoking, high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, diabetes and physical inactivity are predisposing factors. The risk factors cause alteration in vascular integrity, compromised membrane integrity, increase free radical generation and reduced endogenous antioxidant system resulting in oxidative stress...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533915/mechanisms-of-ecg-signs-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Marte Strømsnes Larssen, Kjetil Steine, Janne Mykland Hilde, Ingunn Skjørten, Christian Hodnesdal, Knut Liestøl, Knut Gjesdal
OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have abnormal ECGs. Our aim was to separate the effects on ECG by airway obstruction, emphysema and right ventricular (RV) afterload in patients with COPD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 101 patients with COPD without left heart disease and 32 healthy age-matched controls. Body mass index (BMI) was measured, and pulmonary function tests, ECG, echocardiography and right heart catheterisation (only patients) were performed...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533861/-cutaneous-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-about-85-cases
#18
Amina Aounallah, Aicha Arouss, Najet Ghariani, Wafa Saidi, Badreddine Sriha, Mohamed Denguezli, Colandane Belajouza, Rafia Nouira
Clinical manifestation, etiology and outcome of leukocytoclastic vasculitis are little studied. The aim of our study was to examine epidemiological, clinical etiological, and evolutionary characteristics of this entity. We conducted a cross-sectional data collection from medical records of 85 patients with leukocytoclastic vasculitis in the Department of Dermatology at the Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse between January 2000 and December 2013. Epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical, etiological data sheets had been completed for each patient...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533541/development-of-a-novel-chronic-kidney-disease-mouse-model-to-evaluate-the-progression-of-hyperphosphatemia-and-associated-mineral-bone-disease
#19
Takashi Tani, Hideo Orimo, Akira Shimizu, Shuichi Tsuruoka
Medial arterial calcification (MAC) and renal osteodystrophy are complications of mineral bone disease (MBD) associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to develop a novel mouse model to investigate the clinical course of CKD-MBD. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 J male mice were assigned to the following groups: the control group, fed a standard chow for 6 or 12 weeks; the CKD-normal phosphorus (NP) group, fed a chow containing 0.2% adenine, with normal (0.8%) phosphorus, for 6 or 12 weeks; and the CKD-high phosphorus (HP) group, fed 6 weeks with the 0...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533333/pgc-1%C3%AE-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1-%C3%AE-overexpression-in-coronary-artery-disease-recruits-no-and-hydrogen-peroxide-during-flow-mediated-dilation-and-protects-against-increased-intraluminal-pressure
#20
Andrew O Kadlec, Dawid S Chabowski, Karima Ait-Aissa, Joseph C Hockenberry, Mary F Otterson, Matthew J Durand, Julie K Freed, Andreas M Beyer, David D Gutterman
Blood flow through healthy human vessels releases NO to produce vasodilation, whereas in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), the mediator of dilation transitions to mitochondria-derived hydrogen peroxide (mtH2O2). Excessive mtH2O2 production contributes to a proatherosclerotic vascular milieu. Loss of PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α) is implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. We hypothesized that PGC-1α suppresses mtH2O2 production to reestablish NO-mediated dilation in isolated vessels from patients with CAD...
May 22, 2017: Hypertension
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