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Pituitary gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542730/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-regulates-the-tumoral-suppressor-pten-to-modulate-pituitary-cell-growth
#1
Pablo Anibal Perez, Juan Pablo Petiti, Florencia Picech, Carolina Beatriz Guido, Liliana Del Valle Sosa, Ezequiel Grondona, Jorge Humberto Mukdsi, Ana Lucia De Paul, Alicia Ines Torres, Silvina Gutierrez
In this study, we focused on ERβ regulation in the adenohypophysis under different estrogenic milieu, by analyzing whether ER modulates the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression and its subcellular localization on anterior pituitary glands from Wistar rats and GH3 lactosomatotroph cells that over-expressed ERβ. ERβ was regulated in a cyclic manner, and underwent dynamic changes throughout the estrous cycle, with decreased ERβ+ cells in estrus and under E2 treatment, but increased in ovariectomized rats...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542000/ketamine-and-etomidate-down-regulate-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-an-endotoxemic-mouse-model
#2
Emmanuel Besnier, Thomas Clavier, Marie-Christine Tonon, Jean Selim, Antoine Lefevre-Scelles, Fabrice Morin, Fabienne Tamion, Bertrand Dureuil, Hélène Castel, Vincent Compere
BACKGROUND: We compared the effects of etomidate and ketamine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during sepsis. METHODS: Mice (n = 5/group) were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) and 6 h later randomized to receive ketamine (100 mg/kg), etomidate (30 mg/kg), or saline. At two time points (12 and 48 h), messenger RNA levels of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary proopiomelanocortin, and four adrenal enzymes (P450 side-chain cleavage, 3β-hydroxysteroid deshydrogenase, 21-hydroxylase, and 11β-hydroxylase) were measured by in situ hybridization (results are presented as optical density), and plasma levels of corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin hormones were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mean ± SD)...
May 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537768/hypopituitarism-after-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-pituitary-adenoma
#3
Karin Zibar Tomšić, Tina Dušek, Ivana Kraljević, Zdravko Heinrich, Mirsala Solak, Ana Vučinović, David Ozretić, Sergej Mihailović Marasanov, Hrvoje Hršak, Darko Kaštelan
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for hypopituitarism after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for pituitary adenoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the pituitary function of 90 patients who underwent GKRS for pituitary adenoma at the University Hospital Centre Zagreb between 2003 and 2014. Twenty seven of them met the inclusion criteria and the others were excluded from the study due to pituitary insufficiency which was present before GKRS...
May 24, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527569/estrogen-hormone-biology
#4
Katherine J Hamilton, Sylvia C Hewitt, Yukitomo Arao, Kenneth S Korach
The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Various transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been identified as the mode of action for estrogen, mainly the classical mechanism with direct DNA binding but also a nongenomic mode of action and one using tethered or indirect binding...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527171/lymphocytic-hypophysitis-mimicking-pituitary-macroadenoma
#5
Tarun Kumar Ralot, Jitesh Aggarwal, Raghavendra Haniadka, Kushal Gehlot, Nikhil Dongre, Swapnil Patil
Lymphocytic hypophysitis is an inflammatory /autoimmune disorder that primarily involves the pituitary gland and the pituitary stalk. The common clinical presentations include headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, features of hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus as well as diplopia, orbital pain and bitemporal hemianopia. We report a case of lymphocytic hypophysitis which presented as hemichorea. Neuroimaging showed a mass in the sella tursica region which, on histopathological examination was suggestive of lymphocytic hypophysitis...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526958/-ectopic-suprasellar-type-iia-prl-secreting-pituitary-adenoma
#6
REVIEW
Heng-Jun Zhou, De-Sheng Pan, Xiao-Qun Ba, Ren-Ya Zhan, Xiu-Jue Zheng, Yue-Hui Ma
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pituitary adenomas (EPAs) are rare, and the suprasellar cistern seems to be the most common location. At this time, no detailed original classification, diagnosis, or treatment protocols for suprasellar pituitary adenomas (SPAs) have been described. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 19-year-old man showed visual disturbances and lack of libido for 3 years, he suffered a sharp decline in vision with only light perception in the last week. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a large suprasellar cystic lesion with a normal pituitary in the sella turcica...
May 19, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525324/in-vitro-effect-of-leptin-on-anterior-pituitary-cells-lh-secretory-activity-during-early-pregnancy-in-pig
#7
G Siawrys, A Gajewska
Leptin modulates reproductive activity but its potential influence on LH secretion from anterior pituitary (AP) cells during implantation period in pigs (days 14-16 of pregnancy) remained unexplored. This study focused on determination whether leptin affects basal and GnRH-induced LH secretion and intracellular accumulation and whether leptin receptor (OB-Rb) mRNA is expressed in the AP gland during implantation in pigs. Four individual AP glands were developed into separate primary cultures. 2×105 cells/ml were preincubated (72 h) and next, for 3...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522881/notch-signaling-and-maintenance-of-sox2-expression-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-cells
#8
Khongorzul Batchuluun, Morio Azuma, Ken Fujiwara, Takashi Yashiro, Motoshi Kikuchi
After publication of reports describing the presence of stem/progenitor cells among non-hormone-producing cells in the pituitary, the mechanism responsible for proliferation and differentiation generated considerable interest. Several studies have suggested that Notch signaling is involved. In the present study, we examined the histochemical relationship between Notch signaling molecules and the transcription factor SOX2 in rat pituitary. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that Notch2 mRNA and SOX2 were co-expressed at embryonic day 14...
April 27, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522036/transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-function-in-the-reproductive-axis
#9
REVIEW
Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Andreas Beck, Ulrich Boehm
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play important functional roles in the signal transduction machinery of hormone-secreting cells and have recently been implicated in reproductive physiology. While expression studies have demonstrated TRP channel expression at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) axis, functional details about TRP channel action at the level of the individual cells controlling reproduction are just beginning to emerge. Canonical TRP (TRPC) channels are prominently expressed in the reproductive center of the neuroendocrine brain, i...
May 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520591/stem-cell-therapy-and-its-potential-role-in-pituitary-disorders
#10
Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Ronald Reimer, Whitney W Woodmansee, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pituitary gland is one of the key components of the endocrine system. Congenital or acquired alterations can mediate destruction of cells in the gland leading to hormonal dysfunction. Even though pharmacological treatment for pituitary disorders is available, exogenous hormone replacement is neither curative nor sustainable. Thus, alternative therapies to optimize management and improve quality of life are desired. RECENT FINDINGS: An alternative modality to re-establish pituitary function is to promote endocrine cell regeneration through stem cells that can be obtained from the pituitary parenchyma or pluripotent cells...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516747/the-history-of-growth-hormone-treatment-for-ghd-in-japan
#11
Susumu Yokoya, Toshiaki Tanaka
In Japan, treatment of growth hormone deficiency with pituitary-extracted human growth hormone (phGH) was covered by health insurance for the first time in 1975. However, because of the shortage of phGH, the Foundation for Growth Science (FGS) was founded in 1977 to control the use of the product by its registration system and to collect pituitary glands in Japan. In 1986, recombinant human growth hormone was first approved. Since then, the FGS has been involved in the harmonization of growth hormone measurement, assessment for treatment eligibility according to the diagnostic criteria by the research group of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and database generation and its utilization...
March 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515211/functional-equivalence-of-the-sox2-and-sox3-transcription-factors-in-the-developing-mouse-brain-and-testes
#12
Fatwa Adikusuma, Daniel Pederick, Dale McAninch, James Hughes, Paul Thomas
Gene duplication provides spare genetic material that evolution can craft into new functions. Sox2 and Sox3 are evolutionarily-related genes with overlapping and unique sites of expression during embryogenesis. It is currently unclear whether SOX2 and SOX3 have identical or different functions. Here we use CRISPR/Cas9-assisted mutagenesis to perform a gene-swap, replacing the Sox3 ORF with the Sox2 ORF to investigate their functional equivalence in the brain and testes. We show that increased expression of SOX2 can functionally replace SOX3 in the development of the infundibular recess/ventral diencephalon and largely rescues pituitary gland defects that occur in Sox3 null mice...
May 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509313/decreased-expression-of-survivin-2b-in-human-pituitary-adenomas-a-preliminary-study
#13
Joanna Waligorska-Stachura, Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Maciej Zabel, Wlodzimierz Liebert, Pawel Gut, Agata Czarnywojtek, Marek Ruchala
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate survivin and its splice variants DEx3 and 2B expressions in pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary glands using immunohistochemistry. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of eight pituitary adenomas: five of non-functional tumors, two of GH-secreting tumors, and one PRL-secreting tumor. Eight healthy pituitary tissue samples obtained after autopsy served as controls. RESULTS: Survivin expression was found in 87...
2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508612/the-longevity-hormone-klotho-is-a-new-player-in-the-interacion-of-the-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-axis
#14
Tami Rubinek, Ido Wolf, Dalit Modan-Moses
Klotho was first discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. Mice that do not express klotho die prematurely with multiple symptoms of aging, several of which are also characteristic of decreased GH/IGF-1 axis activity. Klotho is highly expressed in the brain, the kidney, and parathyroid and pituitary glands, but can also serve as a circulating hormone by its shedding, forming soluble klotho (sKlotho) that can be detected in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Several lines of evidence suggest an association between klotho levels and activity of the GH/IHG-1 axis: The GH-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary of klotho-deficient mice are hypotrophic; klotho levels are altered in subjects with pathologies of the GH/IGF-1 axis; and accumulating data indicate that klotho is a direct regulator of GH secretion...
September 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506993/mapk-pathway-activation-in-the-embryonic-pituitary-results-in-stem-cell-compartment-expansion-differentiation-defects-and-provides-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-papillary-craniopharyngioma
#15
S Haston, S Pozzi, G Carreno, S Manshaei, L Panousopoulos, J M Gonzalez-Meljem, J R Apps, A Virasami, S Thavaraj, A Gutteridge, T Forshew, R Marais, S Brandner, T S Jacques, C L Andoniadou, J P Martinez-Barbera
Despite the importance of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in normal physiology and disease of numerous organs, its role during pituitary development and tumourigenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that the over-activation of the MAPK pathway, through conditional expression of the gain-of-function alleles BrafV600E and KrasG12D in the developing mouse pituitary, results in severe hyperplasia and abnormal morphogenesis of the gland by the end of gestation. Cell-lineage commitment and terminal differentiation are disrupted, leading to a significant reduction in numbers of most of the hormone-producing cells before birth, with the exception of corticotrophs...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500835/hypophysis-from-outgrowth-to-ocular-disorder-to-pituitary-gland
#16
Konstantinos Laios, George Androutsos, Maria Piagkou, Marilita M Moschos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500832/combined-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-in-a-girl-with-48-xxxx-and-rathke-s-cleft-cyst
#17
Surabhi Uppal, Youn Hee Jee, Marissa Lightbourne, Joan C Han, Constantine A Stratakis
BACKGROUND: Tetrasomy X is a rare chromosomal aneuploidy seen in girls, associated with facial dysmorphism, premature ovarian insufficiency and intellectual disability. A Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is a remnant of Rathke's pouch which may cause multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies by exerting pressure on the pituitary gland in the sella. METHODS/RESULTS: The patient was diagnosed with tetrasomy X by karyotyping during infancy. Brain MRI and multiple endocrine stimulation tests revealed RCC and combined pituitary hormone deficiency (growth hormone deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency and central hypothyroidism) likely due to RCC...
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500083/hepatic-thyroid-signaling-of-heat-stressed-late-pregnant-and-early-lactating-cows
#18
Joachim Weitzel, Thorsten Viergutz, Dirk Albrecht, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Marion Schmicke, Armin Tuchscherer, Franziska Koch, Björn Kuhla
During the transition between late gestation and early lactation dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress as occurring with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metabolism and welfare. The thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of body temperature, energy intake and metabolic adaptation to heat...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495945/role-of-high-resolution-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-with-golden-angle-radial-sparse-parallel-reconstruction-to-identify-the-normal-pituitary-gland-in-patients-with-macroadenomas
#19
R Sen, C Sen, J Pack, K T Block, J G Golfinos, V Prabhu, F Boada, O Gonen, D Kondziolka, G Fatterpekar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preoperative localization of the pituitary gland with imaging in patients with macroadenomas has been inadequately explored. The pituitary gland enhancing more avidly than a macroadenoma has been described in the literature. Taking advantage of this differential enhancement pattern, our aim was to evaluate the role of high-resolution dynamic MR imaging with golden-angle radial sparse parallel reconstruction in localizing the pituitary gland in patients undergoing trans-sphenoidal resection of a macroadenoma...
May 11, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494130/visualization-of-stereoscopic-anatomic-models-of-the-paranasal-sinuses-and-cervical-vertebrae-from-the-surgical-and-procedural-perspective
#20
Jian Chen, Andrew D Smith, Majid A Khan, Allan R Sinning, Marianne L Conway, Dongmei Cui
Recent improvements in three-dimensional (3D) virtual modeling software allows anatomists to generate high-resolution, visually appealing, colored, anatomical 3D models from computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, high-resolution CT images of a cadaver were used to develop clinically relevant anatomic models including facial skull, nasal cavity, septum, turbinates, paranasal sinuses, optic nerve, pituitary gland, carotid artery, cervical vertebrae, atlanto-axial joint, cervical spinal cord, cervical nerve root, and vertebral artery that can be used to teach clinical trainees (students, residents, and fellows) approaches for trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery and cervical spine injection procedure...
May 11, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
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