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Pituitary gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636949/cloning-expression-and-nutritional-regulation-of-the-glutamine-synthetase-gene-in-ctenopharyngodon-idellus
#1
Rong Hu, Fufa Qu, Jianzhou Tang, Qiong Zhao, Jinpeng Yan, Zhigang Zhou, Yi Zhou, Zhen Liu
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is considered a master enzyme that catalyses ATP-dependent biosynthesis of glutamine from glutamate. In the present study, the GS gene was cloned from the intestine of grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The full-length cDNA sequence of GS encodes a 371-amino-acid polypetide. Phylogenetic analysis of the C. idellus GS sequence reveals common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as its closest neighbor. GS mRNA was differentially expressed in different tissues, with high to low gradient expression the intestine, brain, muscle, heart, gill, liver, pituitary gland, and spleen...
June 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634910/the-complex-biology-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-its-role-in-the-pituitary-gland
#2
REVIEW
Robert Formosa, Josanne Vassallo
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor best known for its ability to mediate the effects of environmental toxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through the initiation of transcription of a number of metabolically active enzymes. Therefore, the AHR has been studied mostly in the context of xenobiotic signaling. However, several studies have shown that the AHR is constitutively active and plays an important role in general cell physiology, independently of its activity as a xenobiotic receptor and in the absence of exogenous ligands...
June 20, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634745/prolactin-function-and-putative-expression-in-the-brain
#3
REVIEW
Erika Alejandra Cabrera-Reyes, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Nadia Alejandra Rivero-Segura, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Marco Cerbón
INTRODUCTION: Prolactin is a peptide hormone mainly synthetized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, but also by extrapituitary tissues, such as mammary gland, decidua, prostate, skin, and possibly the brain. Similarly, prolactin receptor is expressed in the pituitary gland, many peripheral tissues, and in contrast to prolactin, its receptor has been consistently detected in several brain regions, such as cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, among others...
June 20, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631588/spawning-performance-of-clarias-gariepinus-burchell-1822-induced-with-ethanol-preserved-and-fresh-catfish-pituitary-extract
#4
V T Okomoda, L O Tiamiyu, D Kwaghger
This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of preserved and fresh pituitary extract of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) to induced spawning in the same species. Growth performance of fry was also monitored for 15 days to determine the possible effect of natural hormone treatment on the fry. Pituitary glands (PG) were obtained from 12 male broodstocks, six extracted PG were preserved in 96% ethanol 24 h before injection, while the other were extracted and used in their fresh state. The PG solutions (1 g ml-1 of saline water) were injected at 1 ml kg-1 of the female broodstock...
June 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631110/expression-of-hsp27-and-hsp70-and-vacuolization-in-the-pituitary-glands-in-cases-of-fatal-hypothermia
#5
Elke Doberentz, Philipp Markwerth, Rebecca Wagner, Burkhard Madea
Hypothermia causes systemic cellular stress. The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland and plays an important role in thermoregulation. When the core body temperature drops, the pituitary gland is activated by stimulation of hypothalamic hormones. In this study, we investigated morphological alterations of the pituitary gland in cases of fatal hypothermia. Several morphological alterations of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, such as hemorrhage, vacuolization, and hyperemia, have been previously described in fatal hypothermia...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630478/assessment-of-the-role-of-intracranial-hypertension-and-stress-on-hippocampal-cell-apoptosis-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-dysfunction-after-tbi
#6
Huajun Tan, Weijian Yang, Chenggang Wu, Baolong Liu, Hao Lu, Hong Wang, Hua Yan
In recent years, hypopituitarism caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been explored in many clinical studies; however, few studies have focused on intracranial hypertension and stress caused by TBI. In this study, an intracranial hypertension model, with epidural hematoma as the cause, was used to explore the physiopathological and neuroendocrine changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and hippocampus. The results demonstrated that intracranial hypertension increased the apoptosis rate, caspase-3 levels and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and showed a consistent rate of apoptosis within each group...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626085/diabetes-insipidus-is-an-unfavorable-prognostic-factor-for-response-to-glucocorticoids-in-patients-with-autoimmune-hypophysitis
#7
Isabella Lupi, Mirco Cosottini, Patrizio Caturegli, Luca Manetti, Claudio Urbani, Daniele Cappellani, Ilaria Scattina, Enio Martino, Claudio Marcocci, Fausto Bogazzi
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune hypophysitis (AH) has a variable clinical presentation and natural history; likewise, its response to glucocorticoid therapy is often unpredictable. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and radiological findings associated with response to glucocorticoids. DESIGN AND METHODS: 12 consecutive patients with AH, evaluated from 2008 to 2016. AH was the exclusion diagnosis after ruling out other pituitary masses and secondary causes of hypophysitis...
August 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622680/optimized-multi-stable-stochastic-resonance-for-the-enhancement-of-pituitary-micoadenoma-in-mri
#8
Munendra Singh, Ashish Verma, Neeraj Sharma
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice as far as imaging diagnosis of pathologies in the pituitary gland is concerned. Further, the advent of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) has enhanced the capability of this modality in detecting minute benign but endocrinologically significant tumors called microadenoma. These lesions are visible with difficulty and a low confidence level in routine MRI sequences, even after administration of intravenous gadolinium. Techniques to enhance the visualization of such foci would be an asset in improving the overall accuracy of DCE-MRI for detection of pituitary microadenomas...
June 13, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615294/pituitary-stem-cell-regulation-who-is-pulling-the-strings
#9
Benoit Cox, Heleen Roose, Annelies Vennekens, Hugo Vankelecom
The pituitary gland plays a pivotal role in the endocrine system, steering fundamental processes of growth, metabolism, reproduction and coping with stress. The adult pituitary contains resident stem cells which are highly quiescent in homeostatic conditions. However, the cells show marked signs of activation during processes of increased cell remodeling in the gland, including maturation at neonatal age, adaptation to physiological demands, regeneration upon injury, and growth of local tumors. Although functions of pituitary stem cells are slowly but gradually uncovered, their regulation largely remains virgin territory...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614220/rituximab-was-used-to-treat-recurrent-igg4-related-hypophysitis-with-ophthalmopathy-as-the-initial-presentation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Wei-Jun Gu, Qian Zhang, Jian Zhu, Jie Li, Shi-Hui Wei, Yi-Ming Mu
RATIONALE: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related hypophysitis is a type of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), which is characterized by plasma cells infiltration in the pituitary causing functional changes and (or) space-occupying effect in the pituitary. IgG4-related hypophysitis is sensitive to hormone therapy in most patients, but recurrence is very likely. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report a 57-year-old male patient with bilateral eye redness as the initial presentation...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599948/fish-pigmentation-and-the-melanocortin-system
#11
REVIEW
Laura Cal, Paula Suarez-Bregua, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, Ingo Braasch, Josep Rotllant
The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes...
June 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599454/differential-expression-of-the-notch1-receptor-and-its-ligands-dll1-dll3-and-dll4-in-distinct-human-pituitary-adenoma-subtypes
#12
Jianfu Zhang, Hua Gao, Yazhuo Zhang
Pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common type of benign tumor of the pituitary gland that is characterized by specific signs and symptoms, primarily associated with hypersecretion of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (thyroid-stimulating, growth and adrenocorticotrophic hormones, and prolactin). Surgery is the first-line treatment, although postoperative residual tissues/cells and subsequent recurrence remain notable complications. Gene therapy is an effective approach for treatment, as previous studies have demonstrated that the Notch signaling pathway participates in the pathogenesis of PA...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596011/emmenagogue-properties-of-milicia-excelsa-welw-c-c-berg-moraceae-based-at-least-in-part-on-its-ability-to-correlate-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-to-that-of-the-ovaries
#13
Marie Alfrede Mvondo, Aude Jaelle Touomo Sakock, Sylvin Benjamin Ateba, Charline Florence Awounfack, Telesphore Nanbo Gueyo, Dieudonné Njamen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg (Moraceae) is a medicinal plant recommended over tropical Africa as a cure for several ailments including amenorrhea. This is the hallmark of an ovarian lesion or a dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis which may lead to infertility, osteoporosis or endometrial cancer. However, regardless these traditional claims, no scientific report dealing with emmenagogue properties has been reported yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: To bring scientific evidence to the curative action of the plant, we proposed evaluating the effects of a root aqueous extract of Milicia excelsa on female Wistar rat sexual maturation...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593555/genetic-analysis-of-irf6-a-gene-involved-in-craniofacial-midline-formation-in-relation-to-pituitary-and-facial-morphology-of-patients-with-idiopathic-growth-hormone-deficiency
#14
Eline Starink, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega, Theo J Visser, Janneke Baan, Robin P Peeters, Laura C G de Graaff
INTRODUCTION: Growth hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland, which forms part of the craniofacial midline. IRF6 encodes a transcription factor involved in the development of the craniofacial midline and mutations in IRF6 are known to disturb craniofacial development. Craniofacial and pituitary development are closely related. After whole exome sequencing revealed a new mutation in IRF6 in a family with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD), we screened the remainder of our IGHD cohort for mutations in this gene and related their genotypes to pituitary and craniofacial morphology...
June 7, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593164/chemiluminescence-systems-do-all-lead-to-same-results-in-prolactin-analysis
#15
Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami, Mehri Aliasgharpour
BACKGROUND: Human prolactin (PRL) is a hormone that is mainly secreted by lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and is involved in many biological processes including lactation and reproduction. Prolactin level may be determined quantitatively in serum by many different systems including chemiluminescence systems. However, comparison of the measured values between systems is difficult. METHODS: The prolactin values obtained and compared in two chemiluminescence systems; AUTOBIO DIAGNOSTICS MICROPLATE LUMOMETER and LIAISON XL Analyzer using BioRad tri level serum quality control materials and serum samples from n = 44 female patients; (Age mean & range) = (33: 21-65) years...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591833/a-new-fully-human-recombinant-fsh-follitropin-epsilon-two-phase-i-randomized-placebo-and-comparator-controlled-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-trials
#16
Khalid Abd-Elaziz, Ingrid Duijkers, Lars Stöckl, Bruno Dietrich, Christine Klipping, Kelvin Eckert, Steffen Goletz
STUDY QUESTION: What are the differences and similarities of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) characteristics of the novel recombinant human FSH follitropin epsilon expressed in the human cell line GlycoExpress compared with a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) derived compound and a urinary derived product? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overall follitropin epsilon, with a fully human glycosylation, shows a comparable PK profile at single-dose as well as multiple-dose administration compared to recombinant CHO-derived FSH as well as urinary derived FSH, whereas the PD properties differ from product to product with follitropin epsilon being most active in PD parameters...
June 7, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588363/blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-functional-mri-of-early-evidences-of-brain-plasticity-after-hemodialysis-session-by-helixone-membrane-of-patients-with-indices-of-adrenal-deficiency
#17
Saïd Boujraf, Rachida Belaïch, Abdelkhalek Housni, Mustapha Maaroufi, Siham Tizniti, Tarik Sqalli, Mohammed Benzagmout
BACKGROUND: Various alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function have been described in patients with chronic renal failure. Nevertheless, controversial evidences were stated about the association between adrenal function deficiency (AD) and hemodialysis (HD). PURPOSE: The goal of this paper was to estimate indirect indices of the adrenal gland dysfunction which is potentially influenced by oxidative stress (OS) that still generates brain plasticity and reorganization of the functional control...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587847/molecular-cloning-and-tissue-distribution-of-crh-and-pomc-mrna-in-the-fat-tailed-dunnart-sminthopsis-crassicaudata-an-australian-marsupial
#18
Ellyse B Noy, Melissa K Scott, Sylvia V H Grommen, Kylie A Robert, Bert De Groef
Like all vertebrates, marsupials respond to stressors with the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, peptides operating at the higher regulatory levels of this hormonal system, i.e. corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), have not been investigated in marsupials. Here we report the molecular cloning of the precursor cDNAs of CRH (prepro-CRH) and of ACTH (proopiomelanocortin; POMC) in an Australian marsupial, the fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata)...
June 3, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587427/mri-features-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-children-with-short-stature-caused-by-pituitary-lesions
#19
Chao Xu, Xinxian Zhang, Lina Dong, Bin Zhu, Tao Xin
We verified the advantages of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving the diagnostic quality of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions. Clinical data obtained from 577 GHD patients with short stature caused by pituitary lesions were retrospectively analyzed. There were 354 cases (61.3%) with anterior pituitary dysplasia; 45 cases (7.8%) of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS); 15 cases (2.6%) of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism; 38 cases (6...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586933/a-case-of-pituitary-carcinoma-initially-diagnosed-as-an-ectopic-growth-hormone-producing-pituitary-adenoma-with-a-high-ki-67-labeling-index
#20
Toshiki Endo, Yoshikazu Ogawa, Mika Watanabe, Teiji Tominaga
We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with a malignant transformation of a growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenoma that was mainly located in the clivus. The patient originally presented with left oculomotor and abducens nerve palsies. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a clival tumor separated from the normal pituitary gland, and the patient subsequently underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Analysis of the resected clival tissue revealed proliferation of tumor cells with slightly irregular nuclei but no mitosis...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
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