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Pituitary gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938470/genetic-disruption-of-21-hydroxylase-in-zebrafish-causes-interrenal-hyperplasia
#1
Helen Eachus, Andreas Zaucker, James A Oakes, Aliesha Griffin, Meltem Weger, Tülay Güran, Angela Taylor, Abigail Harris, Andy Greenfield, Jonathan L Quanson, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Vincent T Cunliffe, Ferenc Müller, Nils Krone
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of common inherited disorders leading to glucocorticoid deficiency. Most cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). The systemic consequences of imbalanced steroid hormone biosynthesis due to severe 21OHD remains poorly understood. Therefore, we have developed a zebrafish model for 21OHD, which focuses on the impairment of glucocorticoid biosynthesis. A single 21-hydroxylase gene (cyp21a2) is annotated in the zebrafish genome based on sequence homology. Our in silico analysis of the Cyp21a2 protein sequence suggests a sufficient degree of similarity for the usage of zebrafish cyp21a2 to model aspects of human 21OHD in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938441/canonical-wnt-signaling-regulates-the-pituitary-organizer-and-pituitary-gland-formation
#2
Allison M Osmundsen, Jessica L Keisler, M Mark Taketo, Shannon W Davis
The pituitary organizer is a domain within the ventral diencephalon that expresses Bmp4, Fgf8, and Fgf10, which induces the formation of the pituitary precursor, Rathke's pouch, from the oral ectoderm. The WNT signaling pathway regulates this pituitary organizer such that loss of Wnt5a leads to an expansion of the pituitary organizer and an enlargement of Rathke's pouch. WNT signaling is classified into canonical signaling, which is mediated by β-CATENIN, and non-canonical signaling, which operates independently of β-CATENIN...
August 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927875/dynamic-responses-of-prolactin-growth-hormone-and-their-receptors-to-hyposmotic-acclimation-in-the-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#3
Mingzhe Yuan, Qianqian Jia, Ting Wang, Qi Lu, Langlang Tang, Youji Wang, Weiqun Lu
Prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) play important roles in regulating salt and water balance through osmoregulatory organs in vertebrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes of GH/PRL hormone gene expressions in the pituitary gland and their receptors in gill and kidney, as well as the plasma osmolality when the olive flounder fish Paralichthys olivaceus were acclimated in freshwater (FW) conditions. After transfer from seawater (SW) to freshwater (FW), the osmolality of FW-adaption fish reached the lowest level at 1d which rose slightly afterwards...
September 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921500/growth-hormone-therapy-for-people-with-thalassaemia
#4
REVIEW
Chin Fang Ngim, Nai Ming Lai, Janet Yh Hong, Shir Ley Tan, Amutha Ramadas, Premala Muthukumarasamy, Meow-Keong Thong
BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia is a recessively-inherited blood disorder that leads to anaemia of varying severity. In those affected by the more severe forms, regular blood transfusions are required which may lead to iron overload. Accumulated iron from blood transfusions may be deposited in vital organs including the heart, liver and endocrine organs such as the pituitary glands which can affect growth hormone production. Growth hormone deficiency is one of the factors that can lead to short stature, a common complication in people with thalassaemia...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920935/spinal-cord-injury-induced-immunodeficiency-is-mediated-by-a-sympathetic-neuroendocrine-adrenal-reflex
#5
Harald Prüss, Andrea Tedeschi, Aude Thiriot, Lydia Lynch, Scott M Loughhead, Susanne Stutte, Irina B Mazo, Marcel A Kopp, Benedikt Brommer, Christian Blex, Laura-Christin Geurtz, Thomas Liebscher, Andreas Niedeggen, Ulrich Dirnagl, Frank Bradke, Magdalena S Volz, Michael J DeVivo, Yuying Chen, Ulrich H von Andrian, Jan M Schwab
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) causes systemic immunosuppression and life-threatening infections, thought to result from noradrenergic overactivation and excess glucocorticoid release via hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation. Instead of consecutive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, we report that acute SCI in mice induced suppression of serum norepinephrine and concomitant increase in cortisol, despite suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone, indicating primary (adrenal) hypercortisolism...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919299/the-retrotransposon-gag-domain-containing-protein-rgag4-is-an-ikaros-target-in-the-pituitary
#6
Zhongyi Shen, Sylvia L Asa, Shereen Ezzat
Previous studies have established the common and critical involvement of the zinc finger protein Ikaros in lymphoid and pituitary cell development and expansion. Key to the assembly of several transcriptional networks, we have demonstrated up-regulation of Ikaros and its interacting partner the C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) in response to hypoxia. This prompted us to explore common transcriptional targets using a chromatin immunoprecipitate (ChIP) screen of DNA from pituitary corticotroph cells. This strategy yielded a finite list of targets common to both transcription factors that included the metalloprotease ADAMTS10...
September 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917091/recovery-from-diabetes-insipidus-and-preservation-of-thyroid-function-after-craniopharyngioma-removal-and-pituitary-stalk-sectioning
#7
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
OBJECTIVES: Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor, but long-term tumor control with maintenance of quality of life is sometimes very difficult to achieve, and hypothalamic disturbance should be strictly avoided in the treatment. However, management of the pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk varies among surgeons and institutions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective review identified 44 patients, 24 males and 20 females with craniopharyngiomas who were initially treated by surgery through the extended transsphenoidal approach with pituitary stalk sectioning at a single institute...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915655/notch-system-is-differentially-expressed-and-activated-in-pituitary-adenomas-of-distinct-histotype-tumor-cell-lines-and-normal-pituitaries
#8
Sofia Perrone, Lautaro Zubeldia-Brenner, Elias Gazza, Gianina Demarchi, Leticia Baccarini, Agustin Baricalla, Freya Mertens, Guillermina Luque, Hugo Vankelecom, Silvia Berner, Damasia Becu-Villalobos, Carolina Cristina
Pituitary adenomas are among the most frequent intracranial neoplasms and treatment depends on tumor subtype and clinical features. Unfortunately, non responder cases occur, then new molecular targets are needed. Notch system component expression and activation data are scarce in pituitary tumorigenesis, we therefore aimed to characterize Notch system in pituitary tumors of different histotype. In human pituitary adenomas we showed NOTCH1-4 receptors, JAGGED1 ligand and HES1 target gene expression with positive correlations between NOTCH1,2,4 and HES1, and NOTCH3 and JAGGED1 denoting Notch system activation in a subset of tumors...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915118/delayed-diagnosis-of-proopiomelanocortin-pomc-deficiency-with-type-1-diabetes-in-a-9-year-old-girl-and-her-infant-sibling
#9
Elif Ozsu, Allison Bahm
BACKGROUND: Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) protein, encoded by the POMC gene, is the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that is released from the anterior pituitary gland. Homozygous mutations in the POMC gene is associated with hyperphagia, severe and early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, hypopigmentation of the skin and red hair. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year-old girl from a consanguineous family of Iraqi origin was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911201/gene-expression-profiling-of-puberty-associated-genes-reveals-abundant-tissue-and-sex-specific-changes-across-postnatal-development
#10
Huayun Hou, Liis Uusküla-Reimand, Maisam Makarem, Christina Corre, Shems Saleh, Ariane Metcalf, Anna Goldenberg, Mark R Palmert, And Michael D Wilson
The timing of human puberty is highly variable, sexually dimorphic, and associated with adverse health outcomes. Over 20 genes carrying rare mutations have been identified in known pubertal disorders, many of which encode critical components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 candidate genes at loci associated with age at menarche or voice breaking in males. We know little about the spatial, temporal or postnatal expression patterns of the majority of these puberty-associated genes...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904276/a-case-of-acromegaly-in-which-a-pituitary-gland-tumor-was-reduced-significantly-by-administering-octreotide-long-acting-release-lar-and-could-be-removed-surgically
#11
Tadashi Arao, Yosuke Okada, Fumi Uemura, Shigeru Nishizawa, Yoshiya Tanaka
A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for detailed examination of acromegaly because she noticed bilateral hand and finger swelling at the age of 43 and plantar thickening, facial changes and unclear articulation at the age of 49. She had prominent brow ridges, mandibular protrusion, and enlargement of the hands, feet, nasal wings, lips and tongue. Her growth hormone (GH) level was 39.8 ng/ml, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level was 717 ng/ml, GH level was not suppressed (22.9 ng/ml) during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903440/evaluation-of-pituitary-uptake-incidentally-identified-on-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-scan
#12
Huijun Ju, Jinxin Zhou, Yu Pan, Jing Lv, Yifan Zhang
The clinical significance of pituitary uptake on routine whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) is not completely characterized. We seek to assess the potential differential diagnosis/underlying etiology of pituitary FDG uptake incidentally identified on routine PET/CT scans. A total of 24,007 PET/CT whole body scans in recent 5 years were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) > 4.1 in the pituitary glands were identified...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902350/trophic-and-neurotrophic-factors-in-human-pituitary-adenomas-review
#13
Marialuisa Spoletini, Samanta Taurone, Mario Tombolini, Antonio Minni, Giancarlo Altissimi, Venceslao Wierzbicki, Felice Giangaspero, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Marco Artico, Lia Bardella, Enzo Agostinelli, Francesco Saverio Pastore
The pituitary gland is an organ that functionally connects the hypothalamus with the peripheral organs. The pituitary gland is an important regulator of body homeostasis during development, stress, and other processes. Pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors arising from the pituitary gland: they may be subdivided in functional or non-functional, depending on their hormonal activity. Some trophic and neurotrophic factors seem to play a key role in the development and maintenance of the pituitary function and in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity...
October 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895465/paraneoplastic-cushing-syndrome-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Annelies Deldycke, Christel Haenebalcke, Youri Taes
OBJECTIVES: Paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome is a rare condition, representing a small fraction of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent cases of Cushing syndrome Methods: Four case descriptions and literature review, highlighting the diagnostic challenges and treatment options are presented. RESULTS: Different tumor types can be associated with ectopic ACTH secretion. The most common types are bronchial carcinoids and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)...
September 12, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894900/interaction-between-luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone-and-gm1-doped-cholesterol-sphingomyelin-vesicles-a-spectroscopic-study
#15
Zarrin Shahzadi, Chaitali Mukhopadhyay
Understanding the role of neural membrane in translocation and action of neurohormone is of great importance. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a neuropeptide hormone and it acts as a final signaling molecule by stimulating the synthesis of LH and FSH to maintain reproduction in all vertebrates. The receptors of LHRH are found in breast tumors and pituitary gland in the brain. Moreover, neural plasma membrane is also found to contain specific binding site for LHRH. The mechanism by which LHRH binds to membrane before it binds to the receptors is a very critical step and can have a profound impact upon the translation of peptide across the membrane...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894751/peripheral-inhibitor-of-ache-neostigmine-prevents-the-inflammatory-dependent-suppression-of-gnrh-lh-secretion-during-the-follicular-phase-of-the-estrous-cycle
#16
Andrzej P Herman, Janina Skipor, Agata Krawczyńska, Joanna Bochenek, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Hanna Antushevich, Anna Herman, Kamila Paczesna, Katarzyna Romanowicz, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the periphery by Neostigmine (0.5 mg/animal) will be sufficient to prevent inflammatory dependent suppression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinising hormone (LH) secretion in ewes in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, and this effect will be comparable with the systemic AChE inhibitor, Donepezil (2.5 mg/animal). An immune/inflammatory challenge was induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885086/enlarging-pediatric-ectopic-rathke-s-cleft-cyst-in-the-prepontine-cistern-case-report
#17
Takamasa Kamei, Masahiro Nonaka, Yoshiko Uemura, Yasuo Yamanouchi, Yumiko Komori, Ryoichi Iwata, Junichi Takeda, Tetsuo Hashiba, Kunikazu Yoshimura, Akio Asai
Rathke's cleft cyst is a cystic disease that occurs in the sella turcica or, occasionally, in the suprasellar area. An ectopic Rathke's cleft cyst is extremely rare, and its nature is less well understood. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with a growing cystic lesion in the prepontine cistern, immediately behind the dorsum sellae. Preoperative imaging and intraoperative investigation showed part of the cyst wall continuing into the dorsum sellae, to the pituitary gland. The cisternal portion of the cyst wall was totally resected via a right subtemporal approach...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882060/mri-assessment-of-pituitary-iron-accumulation-by-using-pituitary-r2-in-%C3%AE-thalassemia-patients
#18
Mustafa Bozdağ, Selen Bayraktaroğlu, Yeşim Aydınok, Mehmet Cem Çallı
Background Patients with thalassemia major (TM) require repeated blood transfusions, which leads to accumulation of iron in a wide variety of tissues. Accumulation of iron in the pituitary gland can lead to irreversible hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in this group of patients. Purpose To investigate the reliability of pituitary-R2 as a marker to estimate the extent of pituitary iron load by comparing the pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings with hepatic iron load and serum ferritin levels...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879214/chicken-domestication-changes-expression-of-stress-related-genes-in-brain-pituitary-and-adrenals
#19
Pia Løtvedt, Amir Fallahshahroudi, Lejla Bektic, Jordi Altimiras, Per Jensen
Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875319/kisspeptin-expression-features-in-the-arcuate-and-anteroventral-periventricular-nuclei-of-hypothalamus-of-letrozole-induced-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-in-rats
#20
Elham Aliabadi, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Keywan Mortezaee, Heidar Toolee, Sara Keshtgar, Hossein Mirkhani, Mohammad Akbari, Tayebeh Rastegar, Somayeh Solhjoo
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of the reproductive system characterized by polycystic ovaries and androgen excess. Letrozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that is used in experimental research to induce PCOS. Kisspeptin is an essential protein in regulation of cyclicity. Kisspeptin receptor is expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands, and kisspeptin containing neurons are affected from sex steroid hormones. We aimed to investigate the number of kisspeptin-positive cells in the arcuate (Arc) and anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV) of hypothalamus in the letrozole-induced PCOS...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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