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Pituitary gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789643/changes-in-pituitary-gene-expression-may-underlie-multiple-domesticated-traits-in-chickens
#1
Amir Fallahshahroudi, Pia Løtvedt, Johan Bélteky, Jordi Altimiras, Per Jensen
Domesticated animals share a unique set of morphological and behavioral traits, jointly referred to as the domesticated phenotype. Striking similarities amongst a range of unrelated domesticated species suggest that similar regulatory mechanisms may underlie the domesticated phenotype. These include color pattern, growth, reproduction, development and stress response. Although previous studies have focused on the brain to find mechanisms underlying domestication, the potential role of the pituitary gland as a target of domestication is highly overlooked...
May 22, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779584/imaging-endocrinology-in-animal-models-of-endocrine-disease
#2
REVIEW
Patrice Mollard, Marie Schaeffer
Endocrine organs secrete a variety of hormones involved in the regulation of a multitude of body functions. Although pancreatic islets were discovered at the turn of the 19th century, other endocrine glands remained commonly described as diffuse endocrine systems. Over the last two decades, development of new imaging techniques and genetically-modified animals with cell-specific fluorescent tags or specific hormone deficiencies have enabled in vivo imaging of endocrine organs and revealed intricate endocrine cell network structures and plasticity...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778320/simultaneously-avoiding-the-hippocampus-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-a-planning-study
#3
Xing-Wen Fan, Juan-Qi Wang, Jun-Lan Wu, Hong-Bing Wang, Kai-Liang Wu
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the preferred treatment for multiple brain metastases, and patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer undergo prophylactic cranial irradiation after complete remission. However, neurotoxicity remains a complication. In addition to protecting the hippocampus from irradiation to preserve cognitive function, it is also critical to avoid irradiating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to preserve endocrine and immune function. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of delivering WBRT while protecting the hippocampus and hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
May 16, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777417/effects-of-dietary-microencapsulated-cymbopogon-flexuosus-essential-oil-on-reproductive-related-parameters-in-male-rhamdia-quelen
#4
Carine de Freitas Souza, Cristine Rampelotto, Bruno Bianchi Loureiro, Fernanda Alves Pereira, Adriane Erbice Bianchini, Carine Dahl Corcini, Antonio Sergio Varela Junior, Tatiana Emanuelli, Leila Picolli da Silva, Sílvio Teixeira da Costa, Kalyne Bertolin, Monique Tomazele Rovani, Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves, Berta Maria Heinzmann, Bernardo Baldisserotto
In aquaculture, nutrition and supplemented diets have been shown to affect broodstock reproductive performance. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil (CFEO) microcapsules on reproductive-related parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) male broodfish. Adult male broodstocks were separated into three groups according to the concentrations of supplemented CFEO (0.0 = control; 1.0 or 3.0 mL per kg of diet). After 20 days under experimental conditions, the animals were euthanized and the gonads were harvested for gonadosomatic index, sperm analysis, oxidative stress, and histopathology; testosterone levels were measured in the plasma; gene expression of prl, smtl, pomca, and pomcb was assessed in the pituitary gland by real-time PCR...
May 18, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775567/characterization-of-the-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-system-in-the-neotropical-teleost-steindachneridion-parahybae-during-the-annual-reproductive-cycle-in-captivity
#5
Renato Massaaki Honji, Danilo Caneppele, Matias Pandolfi, Fabiana Laura Lo Nostro, Renata Guimarães Moreira
This study evaluated by immunohistochemical and western blot methods, the distribution of two distinct gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), corresponding to catfish GnRH (cfGnRH or GnRH1) and chicken-II GnRH (cGnRH-II or GnRH2), in Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, focusing these analyses on the reproductive cycle by semi-quantification of optical density (OD). Further, we found that the GnRH neuronal systems co-localized with their respective GnRH-associated peptides (GAPs). A group of neurons immunoreactive (ir) to GnRH1 were identified along the ventral region of the olfactory bulb (vOB) in the telencephalon (vTel) and in the main areas of the diencephalon (especially the medial basal hypothalamus, HBM), including fibers extending into the pituitary gland...
May 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772978/outcomes-of-the-addition-of-pasireotide-to-traditional-adrenal-directed-treatment-for-dogs-with-pituitary-dependent-hyperadrenocorticism-secondary-to-macroadenoma-9-cases-2013-2015
#6
Maya Lottati, David S Bruyette
OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinical signs, endocrine test results, and pituitary tumor size for dogs with medically managed pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and macroadenoma following 6 months of concurrent treatment with pasireotide. DESIGN Prospective case series. ANIMALS 9 client-owned dogs with PDH and macroadenoma in which PDH had been successfully managed with adrenal-directed treatment (trilostane or mitotane). PROCEDURES Dogs were given pasireotide (0.03 mg/kg [0.014 mg/lb], SC, q 12 h) for 6 months, while adrenal-directed treatment was continued...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770288/infrasellar-endoscopic-endonasal-approach-for-a-pituitary-adenoma-extending-into-the-third-ventricle-with-anterior-displacement-of-the-pituitary-gland
#7
Georgios A Zenonos, Eric W Wang, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Miranda
Objectives  The current video presents the nuances of the infrasellar endoscopic endonasal approach for a pituitary adenoma extending into the third ventricle, with anterior displacement of the pituitary gland. Design  The video analyzes the presentation, preoperative workup and imaging, surgical steps and technical nuances of the surgery, the clinical outcome, and follow-up imaging. Setting  The patient was treated by a skull base team consisting of a neurosurgeon and an ENT surgeon at a teaching academic institution...
February 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769550/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-increases-the-susceptibility-to-develop-aggressive-prolactinomas-in-the-pituitary-gland
#8
Shaima Jabbar, Kenneth Reuhl, Dipak K Sarkar
Excess alcohol use is known to promote development of aggressive tumors in various tissues in human patients, but the cause of alcohol promotion of tumor aggressiveness is not clearly understood. We used an animals model of fetal alcohol exposure that is known to promote tumor development and determined if alcohol programs the pituitary to acquire aggressive prolactin-secreting tumors. Our results show that pituitaries of fetal alcohol-exposed rats produced increased levels of intra-pituitary aromatase protein and plasma estrogen, enhanced pituitary tissue growth, and upon estrogen challenge developed prolactin-secreting tumors (prolactinomas) that were hemorrhagic and often penetrated into the surrounding tissue...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767811/peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#9
T Koenig, D Hilfiker-Kleiner, J Bauersachs
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease that occurs toward the end of pregnancy or in the months following delivery in previously heart-healthy women. The incidence varies widely depending on geographical region and ethnic background, with an estimated number of 1 in 1000-1500 pregnancies in Germany. The course of the disease ranges from mild forms with minor symptoms to severe forms with acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock. The understanding of the etiology of PPCM has evolved in recent years...
May 16, 2018: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767741/gateway-reflex-neural-activation-mediated-immune-cell-gateways-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
Daisuke Kamimura, Takuto Ohki, Yasunobu Arima, Masaaki Murakami
The neural regulation of organs can be categorized as systemic or local. Whereas systemic regulation by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland-mediated release of steroid hormones has been well studied, the mechanisms for local regulation have only recently emerged. Two types of local neural regulation are known, the gateway reflex and the inflammatory reflex. The gateway reflex describes a mechanism that converts regional neural stimulations into inflammatory outputs by changing the state of specific blood vessels...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765966/further-clinical-evidence-for-the-effect-of-igf-1-on-hair-growth-and-alopecia
#11
Ralph M Trüeb
Observations on the Laron syndrome originally offered the opportunity to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency on human hair growth and differentiation. According to its expression in the dermal hair papilla, IGF-1 is likely involved in reciprocal signaling. It has been shown to affect follicular proliferation, tissue remodeling, and the hair growth cycle, as well as follicular differentiation, identifying IGF-1 signaling as an important mitogenic and morphogenetic regulator in hair follicle biology...
April 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764284/role-of-glucocorticoid-negative-feedback-in-the-regulation-of-hpa-axis-pulsatility
#12
Julia K Gjerstad, Stafford L Lightman, Francesca Spiga
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major neuroendocrine axis regulating homeostasis in mammals. Glucocorticoid hormones are rapidly synthesized and secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. In addition, under basal conditions glucocorticoids are released rhythmically with both a circadian and an ultradian (pulsatile) pattern. These rhythms are important not only for normal function of glucocorticoid target organs, but also for the HPA axis responses to stress. Several studies have shown that disruption of glucocorticoid rhythms is associated with disease both in humans and in rodents...
May 15, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763897/does-the-pituitary-gland-volume-change-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
Sezen Bozkurt Koseoglu, Funda Dinc Elibol
AIMS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of menstrual irregularity and hirsutism during reproductive age. We hypothesized in the alterations in the pituitary gland in PCOS. METHODS: We measured the volume of the pituitary gland in 39 PCOS patients and 42 age-matched healthy controls using 0.35 mm thick T1-weighted sagittal cranial images. Serum levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured on days 3-5 of the menstrual cycle of the participants...
May 15, 2018: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763783/sex-differences-in-the-acth-and-cortisol-response-to-pharmacological-probes-are-stressor-specific-and-occur-regardless-of-alcohol-dependence-history
#14
Robert M Anthenelli, Jaimee L Heffner, Thomas J Blom, Belinda E Daniel, Benjamin S McKenna, Gary S Wand
Women and men differ in their risk for developing stress-related conditions such as alcohol use and anxiety disorders and there are gender differences in the typical sequence in which these disorders co-occur. However, the neural systems underlying these gender-biased psychopathologies and clinical course modifiers in humans are poorly understood and may involve both central and peripheral mechanisms regulating the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, triple-dummy crossover study, we juxtaposed a centrally-acting, citalopram (2 mg/unit BMI) neuroendocrine stimulation test with a peripherally-acting, dexamethasone (Dex) (1...
May 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763379/hypothyroidism-after-radiation-therapy-for-childhood-cancer-a-report-from-the-childhood-cancer-survivor-study
#15
Peter D Inskip, Lene H S Veiga, Alina V Brenner, Alice J Sigurdson, Evgenia Ostroumova, Eric J Chow, Marilyn Stovall, Susan A Smith, Rita E Weathers, Wendy Leisenring, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Charles A Sklar, Jay H Lubin
While thyroid cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation early in life are well characterized quantitatively, the association of radiation with nonmalignant, functional thyroid disorders has been less studied. Here, we report on a risk analysis study of hypothyroidism with radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis among survivors of childhood cancer. Utilizing data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a cohort of 14,364 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed at 26 hospitals in the U...
May 15, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757442/effect-of-intravenous-fluid-volumes-on-the-adrenal-glucocorticoid-response-after-burn-injury-in-swine
#16
Belinda I Gómez, Celestine He, Tony Chao, Michael A Dubick, David M Burmeister
Objective: Severe thermal injury induces metabolic and physiological stress, prompting a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential confounding effects of Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation on adrenal damage and cortisol production following burn. Methods: Anesthetized swine were instrumented with jugular catheters and sustained 40% TBSA burns from brass probes heated to 100ºC. Animals recovered to consciousness and received IV fluid resuscitation with LR at two different volumes: 15 mL/kg/day (Limited Volume; LV, n=6) or 2 mL/kg/%TBSA/day (Modified Brooke; MB, n=6)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757344/complex-integration-of-intrinsic-and-peripheral-signaling-is-required-for-pituitary-gland-development
#17
Whitney Edwards, Lori T Raetzman
The coordination of pituitary development is complicated and requires input from multiple cellular processes. Recent research has provided insight into key molecular determinants that govern cell fate specification in the pituitary. Moreover, increasing research aimed to identify, characterize and functionally describe the presumptive pituitary stem cell population has allowed for a better understanding of the processes that govern endocrine cell differentiation in the developing pituitary. The culmination of this research has led to the ability of investigators to recapitulate some of embryonic pituitary development in vitro, the first steps to developing novel regenerative therapies for pituitary diseases...
May 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755523/hypophyseal-involvement-in-immunoglobulin-g4-related-disease-a-retrospective-study-from-a-single-tertiary-center
#18
Yang Liu, Linjie Wang, Wen Zhang, Hui Pan, Hongbo Yang, Kan Deng, Lin Lu, Yong Yao, Shi Chen, Xiaofeng Chai, Feng Feng, Hui You, Zimeng Jin, Huijuan Zhu
This study aims to outline the clinical features and outcomes of IgG4-related hypophysitis (IgG4-RH) patients in a tertiary medical center. We reviewed clinical manifestations and imaging and pituitary function tests at baseline, as well as during follow-up. Ten patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis of IgG4-RH was 48.4 (16.0-64.0) years. An average of 3 (0-9) extrapituitary organs were involved. Five patients had panhypopituitarism, three had only posterior hypopituitarism, one had only anterior hypopituitarism, and one had a normal pituitary function...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751108/basal-glucocorticoid-receptor-activation-induces-proliferation-and-inhibits-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neuronal-precursor-cells
#19
Elina Nürnberg, Sandra Horschitz, Patrick Schloss, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Glucocorticoids (GC) have first been shown to originate from the adrenal glands where synthesis and release is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recently, it was shown that GC and other steroid hormones are also synthesized in the central nervous system, so-called neurosteroids. GC bind to specific GC receptors (GR) which function as ligand-activated transcription factors. GR are expressed in nearly all cell types in the brain, and therefore GC have a strong impact on neuronal development...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749277/correlations-between-clinical-hormone-change-and-pathological-features-of-pituicytoma
#20
Ting-Wei Chang, Ching-Yi Lee, Shih-Ming Jung, Hung-Yi Lai, Chun-Ting Chen, Mun-Chun Yeap, Chi-Cheng Chuang, Peng-Wei Hsu, Chen-Nen Chang, Po-Hsun Tu, Shih-Tseng Lee
PURPOSE: Pituicytoma is a rare low-grade glioma arising from the pituicytes of the posterior pituitary. To date, the clinical and pathological correlates of pituicytoma have not been investigated. This study was thus designed to examine the correlation between pituicytoma and the normal pituitary gland. METHODS: The records of patients who underwent pituitary surgery at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Linkou, Taiwan between 2000 and 2016 were reviewed. Patients who received a pathological diagnosis of pituicytoma were included; however, those with inadequate specimens for pathological study were excluded...
May 11, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
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