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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539363/identification-of-karyopherins-involved-in-the-nuclear-import-of-rna-exosome-subunit-rrp6-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Fernando A Gonzales-Zubiate, Ellen K Okuda, Julia Pc Da Cunha, Carla Columbano Oliveira
The exosome is a conserved multiprotein complex essential for RNA processing and degradation. The nuclear exosome is a key factor for pre-rRNA processing through the activity of its catalytic subunits, Rrp6 and Rrp44. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rrp6 is exclusively nuclear and has been shown to interact with exosome cofactors. With the aim of analyzing proteins associated with the nuclear exosome, in this work, we purified the complex with Rrp6-TAP, identified the co-purified proteins by mass spectrometry, and found karyopherins to be one of the major groups of proteins enriched in the samples...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536329/-multilateral-strategies-utilizing-exosomes-for-cancer-therapy
#2
Nao Nishida-Aoki, Takahiro Ochiya
Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles which transfer their components such as RNA, DNA, and proteins from one cell to another cell. The components are released to the cytoplasm of the recipient cells, having an effect on the cells. Cancerderived exosomes promote cancer progression, invasion, gain of drug resistance, and metastasis. Recently, according to their characteristics, it is expected to apply exosomes to cancer therapies, such as utilizing exosomes as drug delivery systems(DDS) for anticancer drugs and as cancer vaccines to enhance immunity to cancer cells...
May 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536328/-microrna-in-various-aspects-of-cancer-development
#3
Sho Nambara, Koshi Mimori
MicroRNAs(miRNAs)are small(18-25 nucleotides)noncoding RNA molecules that bind to partially complementary mRNA sequences, resulting in target degradation or translation inhibition. A single miRNA can influence the expression of hundreds of target genes, and miRNAs have been implicated as key molecules in various diseases, including cancer. Many studies have shown that the miRNAs play an important role in cancer cells and tumor microenvironment and may be biomarkers for early detection and therapeutic targets for various cancers...
May 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536264/exosomes-from-uninfected-cells-activate-transcription-of-latent-hiv-1
#4
Robert A Barclay, Angela Schwab, Catherine DeMarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Benjamin Lepene, Seble Kassaye, Sergey Iordanskiy, Fatah Kashanchi
HIV-1 infection causes AIDS, infecting millions worldwide. The virus can persist in a state of chronic infection due to its ability to become latent. We have previously shown a link between HIV-1 infection and exosome production. Specifically, we have reported that exosomes transport viral proteins and RNA from infected cells to neighboring uninfected cells. These viral products could then elicit an innate immune response, leading to activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NF-κB pathways. In this study, we asked whether exosomes from uninfected cells could activate latent HIV-1 in infected cells...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531338/placental-exosomes-as-early-biomarker-of-preeclampsia-potential-role-of-exosomal-micrornas-across-gestation
#5
Carlos Salomon, Dominic Guanzon, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Sherri Longo, Paula Correa, Sebastian E Illanes, Gregory E Rice
Context: There is a need to develop strategies for early prediction of patients who will develop preeclampsia (PE), in order to establish preventive strategies to reduce the prevalence and severity of the disease and their associated complications. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether exosomes and their microRNA cargo present in maternal circulation can be used as early biomarker for PE. Design, Setting, Patients, and Interventions: A retrospective stratified study design was used to quantify total exosomes (EXO) and placenta-derived exosomes (PdE) present in maternal plasma of normal (n=32 per time point) and PE (n=15 per time point) pregnancies...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526928/exosomes-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Iain M Dykes
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that mediate intercellular transport of a cytosolic cargo. Exosomal transfer of micro-RNA can modify gene expression in targeted cells. Exosome-based endocrine/paracrine signaling has been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes including those associated with cardiovascular injury and disease, but remains relatively poorly understood. Exosomes offer great potential to the clinical field, with applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521391/role-of-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-cancer
#7
Junyi Wu, Zhen Qu, Zi-Wei Fei, Jun-Hua Wu, Chun-Ping Jiang
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane- enclosed vesicles that contain a variety of molecules, including proteins, DNA, mRNA and non-coding RNA; these vesicles have been defined as new tools for intercellular communication between cells. Numerous types of cells, including stem cells, secrete exosomes into the extracellular environment, and are significant communicators in the tumor microenvironment. Stem cells are a unique cell population defined by their ability to indefinitely self-renew, differentiate into a variety of cell lines, and form clonal cell populations...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520934/the-smap1-2-proteins-of-the-crenarchaeon-sulfolobus-solfataricus-interact-with-the-exosome-and-stimulate-a-rich-tailing-of-transcripts
#8
Birgit Märtens, Linlin Hou, Fabian Amman, Michael T Wolfinger, Elena Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Udo Bläsi
The conserved Sm and Sm-like proteins are involved in different aspects of RNA metabolism. Here, we explored the interactome of SmAP1 and SmAP2 of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) to shed light on their physiological function(s). Both, SmAP1 and SmAP2 co-purified with several proteins involved in RNA-processing/modification, translation and protein turnover as well as with components of the exosome involved in 3΄ to 5΄ degradation of RNA. In follow-up studies a direct interaction with the poly(A) binding and accessory exosomal subunit DnaG was demonstrated...
May 18, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515288/motor-recovery-beginning-23-years-after-ischemic-stroke
#9
Peter Sörös, Robert Teasell, Daniel F Hanley, J David Spence
It is widely believed that most stroke recovery occurs within 6 months, with little benefit of physiotherapy or other modalities beyond a year. We report a remarkable case of stroke recovery beginning 23 years after a severe stroke due to embolization from the innominate artery and subclavian artery, resulting from compression of the right subclavian artery by a cervical rib. The patient had a large right fronto-parietal infarction with severe left hemiparesis, and a totally non-functional spastic left hand...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514744/characterization-of-mouse-serum-exosomal-small-rna-content-the-origins-and-their-roles-in-modulating-inflammatory-response
#10
Xin Zhou, Zinan Jiao, Juling Ji, Shuyuan Li, Xiaodi Huang, Xiaoshuang Lu, Heng Zhao, Jingwen Peng, Xinya Chen, Qiuhong Ji, Yuhua Ji
In the last decade, although studies on exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from serum and other body fluids have increased dramatically; the contents and biological significance of serum exosomes under normal conditions remain unclear. In the present study, we profiled the small RNA content of mouse serum exosomes (mSEs) using small RNAseq and found that fragments of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and miRNAs were the two predominant exosomal RNA species, accounting for approximately 60% and 10% of mapped reads, respectively...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500324/labeling-extracellular-vesicles-for-nanoscale-flow-cytometry
#11
Aizea Morales-Kastresana, Bill Telford, Thomas A Musich, Katherine McKinnon, Cassandra Clayborne, Zach Braig, Ari Rosner, Thorsten Demberg, Dionysios C Watson, Tatiana S Karpova, Gordon J Freeman, Rosemarie H DeKruyff, George N Pavlakis, Masaki Terabe, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Jay A Berzofsky, Jennifer C Jones
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are 30-800 nm vesicles that are released by most cell types, as biological packages for intercellular communication. Their importance in cancer and inflammation makes EVs and their cargo promising biomarkers of disease and cell-free therapeutic agents. Emerging high-resolution cytometric methods have created a pressing need for efficient fluorescent labeling procedures to visualize and detect EVs. Suitable labels must be bright enough for one EV to be detected without the generation of label-associated artifacts...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499455/bovis-bacillus-calmette-guerin-bcg-infection-induces-exosomal-mirna-release-by-human-macrophages
#12
Shamila D Alipoor, Esmaeil Mortaz, Payam Tabarsi, Parissa Farnia, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Johan Garssen, Masoud Movassaghi, Ian M Adcock
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health concern and its diagnosis is challenging due to the limitations in the specificity and sensitivity of the current diagnostic tests. Exosomes are bioactive 30-100 nm vesicles produced by most cell types and are found in almost all human body fluids. Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) can transfer biological information between cells and tissues and may act as potential biomarkers in many diseases. In this pilot study, we assessed the miRNA profile of exosomes released from human monocyte-derived macrophages upon infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494740/nucleic-acids-based-nanotherapeutics-crossing-the-blood-brain-barrier
#13
Noha Nafee, Noha Gouda
The restless endeavors revealing the molecular pathways underlying many neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors have paved the way for the introduction of the selective exogenous gene-based therapeutics. The implicated active biomolecules encompass mainly negatively-charged nucleic acids ranging from DNA, mRNA, non-coding RNAs (small-interfering RNA, siRNA, and microRNA, miRNA), to antisense oligonucleotides. They selectively interfere with the genes translational and/or transcriptional processes. Although many reviews previously addressed brain targeting, a thorough correlation between the molecular properties of these biomacromolecules, the nature of blood brain barrier (BBB) in the accompanying pathological condition, the intracellular targets, as well as the design of the delivery system which will transport the bioactive cargo to the target cells attempting efficient delivery to the active sites in the brain will be appraised...
May 10, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490541/exosomes-as-mediators-of-the-systemic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise
#14
Adeel Safdar, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Habitual endurance exercise training is associated with multisystemic metabolic adaptations that lower the risk of inactivity-associated disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Identification of complex systemic signaling networks responsible for these benefits are of great interest because of their therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases; however, specific signals that modulate the multisystemic benefits of exercise in multiple tissues and organs are only recently being discovered...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490497/protein-composition-of-the-hepatitis-a-virus-quasi-envelope
#15
Kevin L McKnight, Ling Xie, Olga González-López, Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Xian Chen, Stanley M Lemon
The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of RNA viruses including many pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Classically considered "nonenveloped," recent studies show that some picornaviruses, notably hepatitis A virus (HAV; genus Hepatovirus) and some members of the Enterovirus genus, are released from cells nonlytically in membranous vesicles. To better understand the biogenesis of quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of eHAV purified from cell-culture supernatant fluids by isopycnic ultracentrifugation...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483690/characterization-of-the-lipid-envelope-of-exosome-encapsulated-hev-particles-protected-from-the-immune-response
#16
Sabine Chapuy-Regaud, Martine Dubois, Célia Plisson-Chastang, Tiffany Bonnefois, Sébastien Lhomme, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Bruno You, Steve Simoneau, Pierre-Emmanuel Gleizes, Benoît Flan, Florence Abravanel, Jacques Izopet
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Although HEV is a small, naked RNA virus, HEV particles become associated with lipids in the blood of infected patients and in the supernatant of culture systems. The egress of these particles from cells implies the exocytosis pathway but the question of the role of the resulting HEV RNA containing exosomes and the nature of the lipids they contain has not been fully addressed. We determined the lipid proportions of exosomes from uninfected and HEV-infected cells and their role in HEV spreading...
May 5, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481180/trophoblast-glycoprotein-tpgb-5t4-in-human-placenta-expression-regulation-and-presence-in-extracellular-microvesicles-and-exosomes
#17
S M K Alam, S Jasti, S K Kshirsagar, D S Tannetta, R A Dragovic, C W Redman, I L Sargent, H C Hodes, T L Nauser, T Fortes, A M Filler, K Behan, D R Martin, T A Fields, B K Petroff, M G Petroff
BACKGROUND: Many parallels exist between growth and development of the placenta and that of cancer. One parallel is shared expression of antigens that may have functional importance and may be recognized by the immune system. Here, we characterize expression and regulation of one such antigen, Trophoblast glycoprotein (TPGB; also called 5T4), in the placenta across gestation, in placentas of preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies, and in purified microvesicles and exosomes. METHODS: Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475896/the-rna-exosome-syncs-iav-rnapii-transcription-to-promote-viral-ribogenesis-and-infectivity
#18
Alexander Rialdi, Judd Hultquist, David Jimenez-Morales, Zuleyma Peralta, Laura Campisi, Romain Fenouil, Natasha Moshkina, Zhen Zhen Wang, Brice Laffleur, Robyn M Kaake, Michael J McGregor, Kelsey Haas, Evangelos Pefanis, Randy A Albrecht, Lars Pache, Sumit Chanda, Joanna Jen, Jordi Ochando, Minji Byun, Uttiya Basu, Adolfo García-Sastre, Nevan Krogan, Harm van Bakel, Ivan Marazzi
The nuclear RNA exosome is an essential multi-subunit complex that controls RNA homeostasis. Congenital mutations in RNA exosome genes are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the role of the RNA exosome in the cellular response to pathogens. Here, using NGS and human and mouse genetics, we show that influenza A virus (IAV) ribogenesis and growth are suppressed by impaired RNA exosome activity. Mechanistically, the nuclear RNA exosome coordinates the initial steps of viral transcription with RNAPII at host promoters...
May 4, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471299/interleukin-10-deficiency-impairs-reparative-properties-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cell-exosome-function
#19
Yujia Yue, Venkata Ns Garikipati, Suresh K Verma, David A Goukassian, Raj Kishore
Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based therapy has immense potential to promote cardiac neovascularization and to attenuate ischemic injury. Functional benefits of EPCs and other adult stem cell therapies largely involve paracrine mechanisms and exosomes secreted by stem cells are emerging as pivotal paracrine entity of stem/progenitor cells. However, modest outcomes after EPC/stem cells based clinical trials suggest that stem cell/exosome function might be modulated by stimuli they encounter in ischemic tissues including systemic inflammation...
May 4, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469780/the-relationship-between-amniotic-fluid-mirnas-and-congenital-obstructive-nephropathy
#20
Juntao Xie, Yi Zhou, Wenzong Gao, Zuoqing Li, Zhe Xu, Li Zhou
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with size of 30-100 nm, which were found in bodily fluids including amniotic fluid and saliva. The biological materials in exosomes, such as proteins and RNA, can be used as novel potential biomarkers for diagnostic assays. The purpose of this study was to assess whether exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) could be used as biomarkers to prenatally diagnose congenital hydronephrosis and to evaluate fetal kidney function. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometry (FACS), and western-blot were applied to identify exosomes in the amniotic fluid from fetuses with congenital hydronephrosis and healthy controls...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
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