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exosome RNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346528/a-novel-stromal-lncrna-signature-reprograms-fibroblasts-to-promote-the-growth-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-lncrna-caf-interleukin-33
#1
Liang Ding, Jing Ren, Dongya Zhang, Yi Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Qingang Hu, Hui Wang, Yuxian Song, Yanhong Ni, Yayi Hou
Stromal carcinoma-related fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main type of non-immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). CAFs interact with cancer cells to promote tumor proliferation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis of cancer cells, but their role in stromal cells is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature during the transformation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We uncovered an uncharacterized lncRNA, FLJ22447, which was remarkably up-regulated in CAFs, referred to LncRNA-CAF (Lnc-CAF) hereafter...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330297/characterization-and-evidence-of-the-mir-888-cluster-as-a-novel-cancer-network-in-prostate
#2
Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Garrison Glavich, Mary Pahuski, Aleena M Short, Oliver John Semmes, Lifang Yang, Vitold Galkin, Richard R Drake, Aurora Esquela-Kerscher
Prostate cancer afflicts 1 in 7 men and is the second leading cause of male cancer-related deaths in the United States. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), an extensive class of ~22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs, are often aberrantly expressed in tissues and fluids from prostate cancer patients but the mechanism of how specific miRNAs regulate prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis are poorly understood. Here, miR-888 was identified as a novel prostate factor that promotes proliferation and migration. miR-888 resides within a genomic cluster of 7 miRNA genes (mir-892c, mir-890, mir-888, mir-892a, mir-892b, mir-891b, mir-891a) on human chromosome Xq27...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326054/size-based-separation-methods-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#3
Si-Jie Hao, Yuan Wan, Yi-Qiu Xia, Xin Zou, Si-Yang Zheng
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) originate from the primary tumor mass and enter into the peripheral bloodstream. Compared to other "liquid biopsy" portfolios such as exosome, circulating tumor DNA/RNA (ctDNA/RNA), CTCs have incomparable advantages in analyses of transcriptomics, proteomics, and signal colocalization. Hence, CTCs hold the key to understanding the biology of metastasis and play a vital role in cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prognosis. Size-based enrichment featureS prominently in CTC isolation...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323722/exosomal-mirnas-as-novel-cancer-biomarkers-challenges-and-opportunities
#4
Mahsa Salehi, Mohammadreza Sharifi
A biomarker with high specificity and sensitivity, is a basic requirement for non-invasive cancer diagnosis. Exosomes are a type of lipid bilayer extracellular vesicles (EVs), containing different components, including proteins, lipids, DNA, messenger RNA (mRNA) and non-coding RNAs. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleic acids are protected by exosome lipid membrane. These vesicles are almost released from all cell types, into biological fluids. In cancer, the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), located in the tumor cell-derived exosomes, is deregulated and it could be led to metastasis and therapy resistance...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321591/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-changes-cargo-composition-of-exosome-released-from-airway-epithelial-cells
#5
Harendra Singh Chahar, Tiziana Corsello, Andrzej S Kudlicki, Narayana Komaravelli, Antonella Casola
Exosomes are microvesicles known to carry biologically active molecules, including RNA, DNA and proteins. Viral infections can induce profound changes in exosome composition, and exosomes have been implicated in viral transmission and pathogenesis. No information is current available regarding exosome composition and function during infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. In this study, we characterized exosomes released from RSV-infected lung carcinoma-derived A549 cells...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316942/comparison-of-membrane-affinity-based-method-with-size-exclusion-chromatography-for-isolation-of-exosome-like-vesicles-from-human-plasma
#6
Ruzena Stranska, Laurens Gysbrechts, Jens Wouters, Pieter Vermeersch, Katarzyna Bloch, Daan Dierickx, Graciela Andrei, Robert Snoeck
BACKGROUND: Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs), especially exosome-like vesicles (ELVs), are being increasingly explored as a source of potential noninvasive disease biomarkers. The discovery of blood-based biomarkers associated with ELVs requires methods that isolate high yields of these EVs without significant contamination with highly abundant plasma proteins and lipoproteins. The rising interest in blood-based EV-associated biomarkers has led to the rapid development of novel EV isolation methods...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310950/expression-and-clinical-role-of-long-non-coding-rna-in-high-grade-serous-carcinoma
#7
Natalie Filippov-Levy, Hallel Cohen-Schussheim, Claes G Tropé, Thea E Hetland Falkenthal, Yoav Smith, Ben Davidson, Reuven Reich
OBJECTIVE: To profile long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression at the various anatomic sites of high-grades serous carcinoma (HGSC) and in effusion-derived exosomes. METHODS: LncRNA profiling was performed on 60 HGSC specimens, including 10 ovarian tumors, 10 solid metastases and 10 malignant effusions, as well as exosomes from 30 effusion supernatants. Anatomic site-related expression of ESRG, Link-A, GAS5, MEG3, GATS, PVT1 H19, Linc-RoR, HOTAIR and MALAT1 was validated by quantitative PCR and assessed for clinical relevance in a series of 77 HGSC effusions, 40 ovarian carcinomas, 21 solid metastases and 42 supernatant exosomes...
January 5, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300779/exosomes-serve-as-novel-modes-of-tick-borne-flavivirus-transmission-from-arthropod-to-human-cells-and-facilitates-dissemination-of-viral-rna-and-proteins-to-the-vertebrate-neuronal-cells
#8
Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Biswas Neupane, Fengwei Bai, Michael B Sherman, Kyung H Choi, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana
Molecular determinants and mechanisms of arthropod-borne flavivirus transmission to the vertebrate host are poorly understood. In this study, we show for the first time that a cell line from medically important arthropods, such as ticks, secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes that mediate transmission of flavivirus RNA and proteins to the human cells. Our study shows that tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a model pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), profusely uses arthropod exosomes for transmission of viral RNA and proteins to the human- skin keratinocytes and blood endothelial cells...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298432/characterizing-zc3h18-a-multi-domain-protein-at-the-interface-of-rna-production-and-destruction-decisions
#9
Kinga Winczura, Manfred Schmid, Claudia Iasillo, Kelly R Molloy, Lea Mørch Harder, Jens S Andersen, John LaCava, Torben Heick Jensen
Nuclear RNA metabolism is influenced by protein complexes connecting to both RNA-productive and -destructive pathways. The ZC3H18 protein binds the cap-binding complex (CBC), universally present on capped RNAs, while also associating with the nuclear exosome targeting (NEXT) complex, linking to RNA decay. To dissect ZC3H18 function, we conducted interaction screening and mutagenesis of the protein, which revealed a phosphorylation-dependent isoform. Surprisingly, the modified region of ZC3H18 associates with core histone proteins...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297241/exosomal-small-rna-sequencing-uncovers-the-microrna-dose-markers-for-power-frequency-electromagnetic-field-exposure
#10
Hualiang Li, Lin Lin, Li Li, Liang Zhou, Ying Zhang, Shuai Hao, Zhenhua Ding
PURPOSE: The potential health risks caused by power frequency electromagnetic field (PFEMF) have led to increasing public health concerns. However, the diagnosis and prognosis remain challenging in determination of exact dose of PFEMF exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were exposed to different magnetic doses of PFEMF for the following isolation of serum exosomes, microRNAs (miRNAs) extraction and small RNA sequencing. After small RNA sequencing, bioinformatic analysis and qRT-PCR validation, serum exosomal miRNA biomarkers were determined...
January 3, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290800/exosomes-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-accelerate-cutaneous-wound-healing-through-mir-21-3p-mediated-promotion-of-angiogenesis-and-fibroblast-function
#11
Yin Hu, Shan-Shan Rao, Zhen-Xing Wang, Jia Cao, Yi-Juan Tan, Juan Luo, Hong-Ming Li, Wei-She Zhang, Chun-Yuan Chen, Hui Xie
The application of blood plasma for soft tissue wound healing is receiving much more attention recently. Exosomes are critical paracrine mediators that can be obtained from biological fluids including plasma and be able to induce regenerative effects by transferring bioactive molecules such as microRNAs (miRNAs). This study aimed to investigate the effects of exosomes from human umbilical cord blood plasma (UCB-Exos) on wound healing and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods: UCB-Exos were isolated by ultracentrifugation and subcutaneously injected into full-thickness skin wounds in mice...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290766/integrated-analysis-of-long-non-coding-rna-and-mrna-expression-profile-in-pancreatic-cancer-derived-exosomes-treated-dendritic-cells-by-microarray-analysis
#12
Jionghuang Chen, Shaowen Wang, Shengnan Jia, Guoping Ding, Guixing Jiang, Liping Cao
Background: Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with a low five-year survival rate. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are the most potent antigen-presenting cells in the human body, play a pivotal role in the immune response. However, few studies have investigated the role of pancreatic cancer-derived exosomes (PEXs) in DC-meditated immune escape. The expression profiles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs of PEX-treated dendritic cells are unknown. Methods: We used integrated lncRNA and mRNA microarrays to determine the expression profiles of PEX-treated DCs and normal DCs derived from five healthy donors...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290284/oral-cancer-derived-exosomal-nap1-enhances-cytotoxicity-of-natural-killer-cells-via-the-irf-3-pathway
#13
Yingnan Wang, Xing Qin, Xueqin Zhu, Wanjun Chen, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral cancer-derived exosomes (OCEXs) on natural killer (NK) cells and to explore the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCEXs were isolated from the cell culture supernatant of oral cancer (OC) cells using ultrafiltration and affinity chromatography and were identified using electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and immunoblotting. The effects of OCEXs on NK cells were analyzed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and several functional assays of NK cells...
January 2018: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288268/identification-and-characterization-of-circular-rnas-as-a-new-class-of-putative-biomarkers-in-diabetes-retinopathy
#14
Shu-Jie Zhang, Xue Chen, Chao-Peng Li, Xiu-Miao Li, Chang Liu, Bai-Hui Liu, Kun Shan, Qin Jiang, Chen Zhao, Biao Yan
Purpose: To reveal the expression profile and clinical significance of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Circular RNA microarrays were performed to identify DR-related circRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and KEGG analysis was performed to determine the biologic modules and signaling pathway. TargetScan and miRana program was used to predict circRNA/miRNA interaction. Quantitative PCR assays were performed to detect circRNA expression pattern in clinical samples...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282861/biological-functions-and-current-advances-in-isolation-and-detection-strategies-for-exosome-nanovesicles
#15
REVIEW
Kseniia Boriachek, Md Nazmul Islam, Andreas Möller, Carlos Salomon, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Yusuke Yamauchi, Muhammad J A Shiddiky
Exosomes are nanoscale (≈30-150 nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin that are shed by most types of cells and circulate in bodily fluids. Exosomes carry a specific composition of proteins, lipids, RNA, and DNA and can work as cargo to transfer this information to recipient cells. Recent studies on exosomes have shown that they play an important role in various biological processes, such as intercellular signaling, coagulation, inflammation, and cellular homeostasis. These functional roles are attributed to their ability to transfer RNA, proteins, enzymes, and lipids, thereby affecting the physiological and pathological conditions in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative, infectious, and autoimmune diseases (e...
December 28, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282313/exploring-the-rna-landscape-of-endothelial-exosomes
#16
Jennifer Perez-Boza, Michelle Lion, Ingrid Struman
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles of around 100nm of diameter produced by most cell types. These vesicles carry nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules and function as carriers of biological information in processes of extracellular communication. The content of exosomes is regulated by the external and internal microenvironment of the parent cell, but the intrinsic mechanisms of loading of molecules into exosomes is still not completely elucidated. In this study, by the use of next generation sequencing we have characterized in depth the RNA composition of healthy endothelial cells and exosomes and provided an accurate profile of the different coding and non-coding RNA species found per compartment...
December 27, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273013/a-next-generation-sequencing-based-approach-to-identify-extracellular-vesicle-mediated-mrna-transfers-between-cells
#17
Jialiang Yang, Jacob Hagen, Kalyani V Guntur, Kimaada Allette, Sarah Schuyler, Jyoti Ranjan, Francesca Petralia, Stephane Gesta, Robert Sebra, Milind Mahajan, Bin Zhang, Jun Zhu, Sander Houten, Andrew Kasarskis, Vivek K Vishnudas, Viatcheslav R Akmaev, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Niven R Narain, Eric E Schadt, Carmen A Argmann, Zhidong Tu
BACKGROUND: Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as an important mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. However, previous studies either did not fully resolve what genetic materials were shuttled by exosomes or only focused on a specific set of miRNAs and mRNAs. A more systematic method is required to identify the genetic materials that are potentially transferred during cell-to-cell communication through EVs in an unbiased manner. RESULTS: In this work, we present a novel next generation of sequencing (NGS) based approach to identify EV mediated mRNA exchanges between co-cultured adipocyte and macrophage cells...
December 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246022/tumor-derived-exosomes-in-colorectal-cancer-progression-and-their-clinical-applications
#18
REVIEW
Jianbiao Zhou, Xiao-Lan Li, Zhi-Rong Chen, Wee-Joo Chng
Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks as the third leading cause of cancer mortality in both of men and women worldwide due to its metastatic properties and resistance to current treatment. Recent studies have shown that tumor-derived exosomes play emerging roles in the development of cancer. Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain lipids, proteins, DNAs, and RNA species (mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA). These exosomal cargos can be transferred locally and systemically, after taken by recipient cells, so exosomes represent a new form of intercellular communication...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244760/impact-of-methods-on-the-measurement-of-mrna-turnover
#19
REVIEW
Takeo Wada, Attila Becskei
The turnover of the RNA molecules is determined by the rates of transcription and RNA degradation. Several methods have been developed to study RNA turnover since the beginnings of molecular biology. Here we summarize the main methods to measure RNA half-life: transcription inhibition, gene control, and metabolic labelling. These methods were used to detect the cellular activity of the mRNAs degradation machinery, including the exo-ribonuclease Xrn1 and the exosome. On the other hand, the study of the differential stability of mature RNAs has been hampered by the fact that different methods have often yielded inconsistent results...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231896/differential-expression-of-serum-micrornas-supports-cd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-differentiation-into-th2-th17-cells-in-severe-equine-asthma
#20
Alicja Pacholewska, Matthias F Kraft, Vincent Gerber, Vidhya Jagannathan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and may be exported from cells via exosomes or in partnership with RNA-binding proteins. MiRNAs in body fluids can act in a hormone-like manner and play important roles in disease initiation and progression. Hence, miRNAs are promising candidates as biomarkers. To identify serum miRNA biomarkers in the equine model of asthma we investigated small RNA derived from the serum of 34 control and 37 asthmatic horses. These samples were used for next generation sequencing, novel miRNA identification and differential miRNA expression analysis...
December 12, 2017: Genes
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