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prospective studies

Kevin D Martin, Jeffrey Wake, Laura Dawson, J Preston Van Buren
Background: The prevalence of Achilles tendon (AT) pathology is common and can result in disability. Understanding normal AT properties can improve our ability to prevent AT injuries. We examined the cross-sectional area of the AT at multiple levels in an asymptomatic population of Army Rangers. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study composed of 41 voluntarily recruited United States Army Rangers deployed in a combat theater. All subjects were members of the Ranger Regiment participating in more than 20 h of intense bipedal non-sport weekly training with no history of AT pathology...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Anna Wallerstedt, Peter Strom, Henrik Gronberg, Tobias Nordstrom, Martin Eklund
Background: Studies have shown that 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) decrease the risk for low-grade prostate cancer (PC), but results are conflicting concerning high-grade PCs. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the association between 5-ARI treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms and the risk for PC. Methods: This is a population-based prospective study on all men age 40 years and older with at least one prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in Stockholm County from January 2007 until December 2015...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Jiannan Dai, Lei Xing, Haibo Jia, Yinchun Zhu, Shaotao Zhang, Sining Hu, Lin Lin, Lijia Ma, Huimin Liu, Maoen Xu, Xuefeng Ren, Huai Yu, Lulu Li, Yanan Zou, Shaosong Zhang, Gary S Mintz, Jingbo Hou, Bo Yu
Aims: Plaque erosion is a significant substrate of acute coronary thrombosis. This study sought to determine in vivo predictors of plaque erosion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results: A prospective series of 822 STEMI patients underwent pre-intervention optical coherence tomography. Using established diagnostic criteria, 209 had plaque erosion (25.4%) and 564 had plaque rupture (68.6%). Plaque erosion was more frequent in women <50 years when compared with those ≥50 years of age (P = 0...
March 13, 2018: European Heart Journal
Daniella C Parravano, Daniel A Ciampi, Erich T Fonoff, Bernardo Monaco, Jessie Navarro, Lin T Yeng, Manoel J Teixeira, Clement Hamani
BACKGROUND: Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is routinely used for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain but its effect on quality of life remains uncertain. OBEJCTIVE: To systematically review the published literature on MCS and quality of life and report the effects of this therapy in a series of patients prospectively followed in our center. METHODS: The systematic literature review was conducted using the search words "motor cortex stimulation and pain and neurosurgery" and "motor cortex stimulation and pain and quality of life...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Dan Rusinaru, Yohann Bohbot, Anne Ringle, Sylvestre Maréchaux, Momar Diouf, Christophe Tribouilloy
Aims: In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), low flow (LF) is currently defined using Doppler-echocardiography by a stroke volume index (SVi)<35 mL/m2. However, the relationship between LF and outcome remains unclear as data on normal reference values defining LF are scarce, and previous studies did not explore the risk associated with other SVi cut-points. We analysed the relationship between LF and mortality in severe AS to establish prognostic LF values associated with mortality risk...
March 13, 2018: European Heart Journal
Huanhuan Hu, Naoko Sasaki, Takayuki Ogasawara, Satsue Nagahama, Shamima Akter, Keisuke Kuwahara, Takeshi Kochi, Masafumi Eguchi, Ikuko Kashino, Taizo Murakami, Makiko Shimizu, Akihiko Uehara, Makoto Yamamoto, Tohru Nakagawa, Toru Honda, Shuichiro Yamamoto, Ai Hori, Chihiro Nishiura, Hiroko Okazaki, Teppei Imai, Akiko Nishihara, Toshiaki Miyamoto, Kentaro Tomita, Isamu Kabe, Tetsuya Mizoue, Naoki Kunugita, Seitaro Dohi
Introduction: We aimed to determine the prospective association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of hearing loss in a large Japanese cohort. Methods: The cohort study included 50195 employees, who were aged 20-64 years and free of hearing loss at baseline. Participants were followed up for a maximum of 8 years. Pure-tone audiometric testing was performed annually to identify hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and hearing loss...
March 14, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Steven M Falowski, Ashwini Sharan, James McInerney, Darren Jacobs, Lalit Venkatesan, Filippo Agnesi
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a common intervention for managing intractable pain. Generally, leads are implanted in a minimally invasive procedure with verbal feedback regarding the location and nature of generated paresthesias by active stimulation; in this way their optimal location can be confirmed. However, lead placement under general anesthesia can have additional benefits. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of awake vs asleep lead placement procedures...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Christian B Theodotou, George M Ghobrial, Andrew L Middleton, Michael Y Wang, Allan D Levi
BACKGROUND: Cervical facet dislocations are among the most common traumatic spinal injuries. Posterior, anterior, and combined surgical approaches have been described and are widely debated. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate efficacy in anterior-only surgical management for subaxial cervical facet dislocations. METHODS: A consistent surgical algorithm for cervical facet dislocation was applied over a 19-yr period and analyzed retrospectively in adults with acute unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation of the subaxial cervical spine...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Douglas P Beall, M R Chambers, Sam Thomas, John Amburgy, James R Webb, Bradly S Goodman, Devin K Datta, Richard W Easton, Douglas Linville, Sanjay Talati, John B Tillman
BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) are common and painful, threatening quality of life and increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. Balloon kyphoplasty is a percutaneous option for treating painful cancer- and osteoporosis-related VCFs, supported by 2 randomized trials demonstrating efficacy benefits of BKP over nonsurgical care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate 12-mo disability, quality of life, and safety outcomes specifically in a Medicare-eligible population, representing characteristic patients seen in routine clinical practice...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Shana J Kim, Tomasz Huzarski, Jacek Gronwald, Christian F Singer, Pål Møller, Henry T Lynch, Susan Armel, Beth Y Karlan, William D Foulkes, Susan L Neuhausen, Leigha Senter, Andrea Eisen, Charis Eng, Seema Panchal, Tuya Pal, Olufunmilayo Olopade, Dana Zakalik, Jan Lubinski, Steven A Narod, Joanne Kotsopoulos
Background: Although evidence suggests that larger body size in early life confers lifelong protection from developing breast cancer, few studies have investigated the relationship between body size and breast cancer risk among BRCA mutation carriers. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of body size and the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers. Methods: Current height and body mass index (BMI) at age 18 were determined from baseline questionnaires...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Lisette Wintgens, Aleksandr Romanov, Karen Phillips, Gabriel Ballesteros, Martin Swaans, Richard Folkeringa, Ignacio Garcia-Bolao, Evgeny Pokushalov, Lucas Boersma
Aims: Long-term freedom from atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation (CA) and consequently the potential for stroke reduction remain unpredictable. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is an effective mechanical alternative to oral anticoagulation (OAC) for stroke prevention in AF patients. This study aims to evaluate long-term clinical results of combined CA and LAAC in one single procedure. Methods and results: Patients with non-valvular AF who underwent combined CA and LAAC procedure were included in the retrospective compilation of independent prospective general LAAC registries at the individual centres...
March 13, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Christine A DeForest, Virginia Blackman, John E Alex, Lauren Reeves, Alejandra Mora, Crystal Perez, Joseph Maddry, Domenique Selby, Benjamin Walrath
Introduction: Military prehospital and en route care (ERC) directly impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Provider knowledge and skills are critical variables in the effectiveness of ERC. No Navy doctrine defines provider choice for patient transport or requires standardized provider training. Frequently, Search and Rescue Medical Technicians (SMTs) and Navy Nurses (ERC RNs) are tasked with this mission though physicians have also been used. Navy ERC provider training varies greatly by professional role...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ceana H Nezhat, Samantha Pfeifer, Bala Bhagavath, Steven R Lindheim, John C Petrozza, Peter T K Chan, Steven F Palter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Elena Kilian, Jan S Suchodolski, Katrin Hartmann, Ralf S Mueller, Gerhard Wess, Stefan Unterer
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important viral cause of acute canine enteritis leading to severe damage of the intestinal barrier. It has been speculated that dogs might develop chronic disorders after surviving CPV infection. However, no studies regarding the long-term implications of CPV infection have been published to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dogs that have survived CPV infection will have an increased risk for developing chronic gastroenteritis, atopic dermatitis, or cardiac disease...
2018: PloS One
Ki-Woong Nam, Tae Jung Kim, Chi Kyung Kim, Heejung Mo, Han-Yeong Jeong, Min Kyoung Kang, Moon-Ku Han, Sang-Bae Ko, Byung-Woo Yoon
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke patients with active cancer frequently experience early neurological deterioration (END); however, the predictors of END are not well studied. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has recently been described as a predictor of poor outcomes in cancer and stroke. However, its role in cancer-related stroke has not been addressed. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the association between the NLR and END in cancer-related stroke patients. METHODS: We included 85 cryptogenic stroke patients with active cancer...
2018: PloS One
Huaqi Zhang, Song Lin, Tianlin Gao, Feng Zhong, Jing Cai, Yongye Sun, Aiguo Ma
The associations between sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-obese middle-aged and older adults remain controversial. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall prevalence of MetS and the correlations between sarcopenia and MetS in middle-aged and older non-obese adults. We performed a systematic searched strategy using PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for relevant observational studies investigating sarcopenia and MetS up to 11 May 2017. The polled prevalence of MetS and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI), as well as subgroup analyses were calculated using a random effects model...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Robert Beaulieu, Kaden Andre, Ronald Mancini
PURPOSE: To determine if frontalis muscle contraction can be induced by manipulating visual and eyelid proprioceptive inputs through simulating visual deprivation and ptosis. METHODS: Volunteers without prior eyelid or forehead pathologic study were recruited for this nonrandomized, prospective study. Baseline and study phase brow positions were documented. The first phase was to simulate visual deprivation and the second to simulate ptosis. The dominant eye was used for each phase...
March 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Benjamin H Goot, Jon Kaufman, Zhaoxing Pan, David W A Bourne, Francis Hickey, Mark Twite, Jeffrey Galinkin, Uwe Christians, Jeannie Zuk, Eduardo M da Cruz
OBJECTIVES: To assess if morphine pharmacokinetics are different in children with Down syndrome when compared with children without Down syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective single-center study including subjects with Down syndrome undergoing cardiac surgery (neonate to 18 yr old) matched by age and cardiac lesion with non-Down syndrome controls. Subjects were placed on a postoperative morphine infusion that was adjusted as clinically necessary, and blood was sampled to measure morphine and its metabolites concentrations...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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