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Glutamate metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431321/atherogenicity-of-amino-acids-in-the-lipid-laden-macrophage-model-system-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-mice-a-key-role-for-triglyceride-metabolism
#1
Oren Rom, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Mahmoud Najjar, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Nina Volkova, Dalit Esther Dar, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
Atherosclerosis-related research has focused mainly on the effects of lipids on macrophage foam cell formation and atherogenesis, whereas the role of amino acids (AAs) was understudied. The current study aimed to identify anti- or pro-atherogenic AA in the macrophage model system and to elucidate the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J774A.1 cultured macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of each 1 of the 20 AAs. Macrophage atherogenicity was assessed in terms of cellular toxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular cholesterol or triglyceride content...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429737/the-glutamate-cystine-xct-antiporter-antagonizes-glutamine-metabolism-and-reduces-nutrient-flexibility
#2
Chun-Shik Shin, Prashant Mishra, Jeramie D Watrous, Valerio Carelli, Marilena D'Aurelio, Mohit Jain, David C Chan
As noted by Warburg, many cancer cells depend on the consumption of glucose. We performed a genetic screen to identify factors responsible for glucose addiction and recovered the two subunits of the xCT antiporter (system xc(-)), which plays an antioxidant role by exporting glutamate for cystine. Disruption of the xCT antiporter greatly improves cell viability after glucose withdrawal, because conservation of glutamate enables cells to maintain mitochondrial respiration. In some breast cancer cells, xCT antiporter expression is upregulated through the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 and contributes to their requirement for glucose as a carbon source...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429309/%C3%AE-ketoadipic-acid-and-%C3%AE-aminoadipic-acid-cause-disturbance-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-and-induction-of-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-in-brain-of-adolescent-rats
#3
Janaína Camacho da Silva, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Cristiane Cecatto, Alessandro Wajner, Kálita Dos Santos Godoy, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Aline de Mello Gonçalves, Ângela Zanatta, Mateus Struecker da Rosa, Samanta Oliveira Loureiro, Carmen Regla Vargas, Guilhian Leipnitz, Diogo Onofre Gomes de Souza, Moacir Wajner
Tissue accumulation of α-ketoadipic (KAA) and α-aminoadipic (AAA) acids is the biochemical hallmark of α-ketoadipic aciduria. This inborn error of metabolism is currently considered a biochemical phenotype with uncertain clinical significance. Considering that KAA and AAA are structurally similar to α-ketoglutarate and glutamate, respectively, we investigated the in vitro effects of these compounds on glutamatergic neurotransmission in the brain of adolescent rats. Bioenergetics and redox homeostasis were also investigated because they represent fundamental systems for brain development and functioning...
April 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427419/tnf-%C3%AE-promotes-extracellular-vesicle-release-in-mouse-astrocytes-through-glutaminase
#4
Kaizhe Wang, Ling Ye, Hongfang Lu, Huili Chen, Yanyan Zhang, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C Zheng
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-α promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expression and the functionality of glutaminase in astrocytes during neuroinflammation remain unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426073/ameliorative-effects-of-pepsin-digested-chicken-liver-hydrolysates-on-development-of-alcoholic-fatty-livers-in-mice
#5
Yi-Ling Lin, Szu-Yun Tai, Jr-Wei Chen, Chung-Hsi Chou, Shih-Guei Fu, Yi-Chen Chen
With developments in economics and increasing work loads, alcohol abuse becomes more and more severe, leading to occurrences of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Pepsin-digested chicken liver hydrolysates (CLHs) contain high amounts of glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, and alanine while the contents of taurine, anserine, and carnosine are also elevated after pepsin hydrolyzation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the protective effects of CLHs against chronic alcohol consumption. The results indicated that the enlarged (p < 0...
April 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425701/the-effects-of-glutamate-receptor-activation-on-local-oxygen-changes
#6
Lindsay Walton, Nick G Boustead, Susan Carroll, R Mark Wightman
Glutamate is ubiquitous throughout the brain and serves as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Neurons require energy to fire, and energetic substrates (i.e., O2, glucose) are renewed via cerebral blood flow (CBF) to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Magnetic resonance brain functionality studies rely on the assumption that CBF and neuronal activity are coupled consistently throughout the brain; however, the origin of neuronal activity does not always coincide with signals indicative of energy consumption (e...
April 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424047/deciphering-mechanisms-underlying-the-genetic-variation-of-general-production-and-liver-quality-traits-in-the-overfed-mule-duck-by-pqtl-analyses
#7
Yoannah François, Alain Vignal, Caroline Molette, Nathalie Marty-Gasset, Stéphane Davail, Laurence Liaubet, Christel Marie-Etancelin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the mechanisms that underlie phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTL) in overfed mule ducks by identifying co-localized proteomic QTL (pQTL). The QTL design consisted of three families of common ducks that were progeny-tested by using 294 male mule ducks. This population of common ducks was genotyped using a genetic map that included 334 genetic markers located across 28 APL chromosomes (APL for Anas platyrhynchos). Mule ducks were phenotyped for 49 traits related to growth, metabolism, overfeeding ability and meat and fatty liver quality, and 326 soluble fatty liver proteins were quantified...
April 19, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423341/glutathione-primes-t-cell-metabolism-for-inflammation
#8
Tak W Mak, Melanie Grusdat, Gordon S Duncan, Catherine Dostert, Yannic Nonnenmacher, Maureen Cox, Carole Binsfeld, Zhenyue Hao, Anne Brüstle, Momoe Itsumi, Christian Jäger, Ying Chen, Olaf Pinkenburg, Bärbel Camara, Markus Ollert, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Chiara Gorrini, Philipp A Lang, Michael Lohoff, Isaac S Harris, Karsten Hiller, Dirk Brenner
Activated T cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which trigger the antioxidative glutathione (GSH) response necessary to buffer rising ROS and prevent cellular damage. We report that GSH is essential for T cell effector functions through its regulation of metabolic activity. Conditional gene targeting of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc) blocked GSH production specifically in murine T cells. Gclc-deficient T cells initially underwent normal activation but could not meet their increased energy and biosynthetic requirements...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422217/increased-substrate-affinity-in-the-escherichia-coli-l28r-dihydrofolate-reductase-mutant-causes-trimethoprim-resistance
#9
Haleh Abdizadeh, Yusuf Talha Tamer, Omer Acar, Erdal Toprak, Ali Rana Atilgan, Canan Atilgan
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a ubiquitous enzyme with an essential role in cell metabolism. DHFR catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, which is a precursor for purine and thymidylate synthesis. Several DHFR targeting antifolate drugs including trimethoprim, a competitive antibacterial inhibitor, have therefore been developed and are clinically used. Evolution of resistance against antifolates is a common public health problem rendering these drugs ineffective. To combat the resistance problem, it is important to understand resistance-conferring changes in the DHFR structure and accordingly develop alternative strategies...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421658/transcriptional-signatures-of-connectomic-subregions-of-the-human-striatum
#10
Linden Parkes, Ben Fulcher, Murat Yücel, Alex Fornito
Functionally distinct regions of the brain are thought to possess a characteristic connectional fingerprint - a profile of incoming and outgoing connections that defines the function of that area. This observation has motivated efforts to subdivide brain areas using their connectivity patterns. However, it remains unclear whether these connectomically-defined subregions can be distinguished at the molecular level. Here, we combine high-resolution diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with transcriptomic data to show that connectomically-defined subregions of the striatum carry distinct transcriptional signatures...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421200/detection-of-urine-metabolites-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-before-and-after-exercise
#11
Changzhuan Shao, Yiming Ren, Zinan Wang, Chenzhe Kang, Hongke Jiang, Aiping Chi
Purpose. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) via an analysis of urine metabolites prior to and following exercise in a rat model. Methods. A rat model of CFS was established using restraint-stress, forced exercise, and crowded and noisy environments over a period of 4 weeks. Behavioral experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the model. Urine metabolites were analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis before and after exercise...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420730/structure-and-characterization-of-a-class-3b-proline-utilization-a-ligand-induced-dimerization-and-importance-of-the-c-terminal-domain-for-catalysis
#12
David Korasick, Thameesha T Gamage, Shelbi Christgen, Kyle M Stiers, Lesa J Beamer, Michael T Henzl, Donald F Becker, John J Tanner
The bifunctional flavoenzyme proline utilization A (PutA) catalyzes the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate using separate proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and L-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH) active sites. Because PutAs catalyze sequential reactions, they are good systems for studying how metabolic enzymes communicate via substrate channeling. Although mechanistically similar, PutAs vary widely in domain architecture, oligomeric state, and quaternary structure, and these variations represent different structural solutions to the problem of sequestering a reactive metabolite...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420467/-study-of-plasma-amino-acid-related-metabolites-of-septic-rats-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#13
Jin Su, Yimin Zhu, Yu Jiang, Lianhong Zou, Xiaoliang Liu, Yixiao Xu
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the pathophysiological changes of sepsis, the plasma metabonomics of septic rats was determined and differential metabolites were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). METHODS: Male Spraguee-Dawley (SD) rats about 8 weeks were randomly divided into sham group (n = 18) and sepsis group (n = 24). Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to build sepsis model, while cecum was kept intact only in the sham group. 6 hours after the operation, rats were anesthetized, and blood was harvested through heart thoracotomy...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418922/novel-impact-of-the-dnmt3a-r882h-mutation-on-gsh-metabolism-in-a-k562-cell-model-established-by-talens
#14
Li Yang, Ya'Nan Liu, Na Zhang, Xiao'Yi Ding, Wei Zhang, Ke'Feng Shen, Liang Huang, Jian'Feng Zhou, Sen Cui, Zun'Min Zhu, Zheng Hu, Min Xiao
DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) mutations occurred in 18%~23% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, and were considered to be an adverse prognostic factor for adult de novo AML cases. However, the relevant molecular mechanism of the mutation in AML pathogenesis remains obscure. In this study, we established K562 and SKM1 cell model carrying the DNMT3A R882H mutation via transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, and discovered that mutated DNMT3A could promote the proliferative capability of malignant cell clones...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417224/erratum-to-glutamate-and-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-key-players-in-glioma-metabolism
#15
Andreas Maus, Godefridus J Peters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416628/impaired-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-the-vmh-may-contribute-to-defective-counterregulation-in-recurrently-hypoglycemic-rats
#16
Golam M I Chowdhury, Peili Wang, Alisha Ciardi, Ramanaiah Mamillapalli, Justin Johnson, Wanling Zhu, Tore Eid, Kevin Behar, Owen Chan
The objectives of this study were to understand the role of ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) glutamatergic neurotransmission in response to hypoglycemia and to elucidate the effects of recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) on this neurotransmitter. We measured 1) changes in interstitial VMH glutamate levels using microdialysis and biosensors, 2) identified the receptors that mediate glutamate's stimulatory effects on the counterregulatory responses, 3) quantified glutamate metabolic enzyme levels in the VMH, 4) examined astrocytic glutamate reuptake mechanisms and 5) used (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy to evaluate the effects of RH on neuronal glutamate metabolism...
April 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415762/metabonomics-studies-on-serum-and-urine-of-patients-with-breast-cancer-using-1h-nmr-spectroscopy
#17
Jianping Zhou, Yanxia Wang, Xinli Zhang
The aim of this study was to describe a metabolomic study of breast cancer using 1H-NMR combined with bioinformatics analysis. 1H-NMR spectroscopy combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis was used to cluster the groups (serum and urine samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls) and establish a breast-cancer-specific metabolites phenotype. Orthogonalpartial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was capable of distinguishing serum and urine samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls and establishing a breast-cancer-specific metabolite profile...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411553/cerium-dioxide-nanoparticles-possess-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-the-conditions-of-the-obesity-associated-nafld-in-rats
#18
Nazarii Kobyliak, Oleksandr Virchenko, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Maryana Kondro, Tetyana Beregova, Petro Bodnar, Oleksandr Shcherbakov, Rostyslav Bubnov, Martin Caprnda, Delian Delev, Jan Sabo, Peter Kruzliak, Luis Rodrigo, Radka Opatrilova, Mykola Spivak
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The disease is associated with impairment of pro/antioxidant equilibrium and the inflammation in liver tissue. The aim of the work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of the nanocrystalline cerium dioxide (nCeO2) on the rat model of NAFLD associated with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. METHODS: The study was carried out on three groups of rats: control, MSG- and MSG+nCeO2...
April 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407895/test-for-l-glutamate-inhibition-of-growth-of-alternaria-alternata-by-inducing-resistance-in-tomato-fruit
#19
Jiali Yang, Cui Sun, Da Fu, Ting Yu
Although numerous studies have reported the involvement of glutamate in plant abiotic stress, relatively little is known about the role of glutamate in plant defence against pathogens. To gain further knowledge, we investigated the effect of glutamate on Alternaria alternata in tomato fruit. A multidisciplinary approach was pursued, combining exogenous glutamate applications, enzymatic activity measurements and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The results showed glutamate significantly reduced the disease incidence in tomato caused by A...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406063/metabolites-predict-lesion-formation-and-severity-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Antoine M Klauser, Oliver T Wiebenga, Anand Jc Eijlers, Menno M Schoonheim, Bernard Mj Uitdehaag, Frederik Barkhof, Petra Jw Pouwels, Jeroen Jg Geurts
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is characterized by white matter lesions, which are visualized with conventional T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Little is known about local metabolic processes preceding the appearance and during the pathological development of new lesions. OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolite changes preceding white matter (WM) lesions and pathological severity of lesions over time. METHODS: A total of 59 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were scanned four times, with 6-month intervals...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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