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Glutamate metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143095/areca-nut-chewing-is-associated-with-common-mental-disorders-a-population-based-study
#1
Tzu-Yu Lin, Huan-Cheng Chang, Kuang-Hung Hsu
INTRODUCTION: Forms of habitual substance use including cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have been documented as risk factors of common mental disorders (CMDs). The effects of areca nut chewing on biophysiological tests, metabolic syndromes, and liver function have been reported previously; however, the relationship between areca nut chewing and CMDs remains unclear. This study examined the association between areca nut chewing and CMDs and explored the relationships between areca nut chewing and biophysiological indicators...
November 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140419/dietary-glutamine-glutamate-and-mortality-two-large-prospective-studies-in-us-men-and-women
#2
Wenjie Ma, Yoriko Heianza, Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Dianjianyi Sun, Yan Zheng, Frank B Hu, Kathryn M Rexrode, JoAnn E Manson, Lu Qi
Background: Emerging studies have related circulating glutamine metabolites to various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer; diet is the major source of nutrients involved in glutamine metabolism. However, it remains unknown whether dietary intakes of glutamine, glutamate,and their ratio are related to total and cause-specific mortality. Methods: We followed 74 082 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and 42 303 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138306/key-metabolites-and-mechanistic-changes-for-salt-tolerance-in-an-experimentally-evolved-sulfate-reducing-bacterium-desulfovibrio-vulgaris
#3
Aifen Zhou, Rebecca Lau, Richard Baran, Jincai Ma, Frederick von Netzer, Weiling Shi, Drew Gorman-Lewis, Megan L Kempher, Zhili He, Yujia Qin, Zhou Shi, Grant M Zane, Liyou Wu, Benjamin P Bowen, Trent R Northen, Kristina L Hillesland, David A Stahl, Judy D Wall, Adam P Arkin, Jizhong Zhou
Rapid genetic and phenotypic adaptation of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt stress was observed during experimental evolution. In order to identify key metabolites important for salt tolerance, a clone, ES10-5, which was isolated from population ES10 and allowed to experimentally evolve under salt stress for 5,000 generations, was analyzed and compared to clone ES9-11, which was isolated from population ES9 and had evolved under the same conditions for 1,200 generations...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138116/in-silico-identification-of-genes-involved-in-chronic-metabolic-acidosis
#4
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Adeel Malik, Sameera F M AlBasri, Mohd A Beg
AIMS: Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) refers to increased plasma acidity due to disturbed acid-base equilibrium in human body. CMA leads to many dysfunctions including disorders of intestinal metabolism and barrier functions. The human body responds to these intestinal dysfunctions by creating a compensatory mechanism at genomic level in intestinal epithelial cells. This study was to identify the molecular pathways involved in metabolic dysfunction and compensatory adaptations in intestinal epithelium during CMA...
November 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137620/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutation-in-vibrio-anguillarum-results-in-virulence-attenuation-and-immunoprotection-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#5
Xiangyu Mou, Edward J Spinard, Shelby L Hillman, David R Nelson
BACKGROUND: Vibrio anguillarum is an extracellular bacterial pathogen that is a causative agent of vibriosis in finfish and crustaceans with mortality rates ranging from 30% to 100%. Mutations in central metabolism (glycolysis and the TCA cycle) of intracellular pathogens often result in attenuated virulence due to depletion of required metabolic intermediates; however, it was not known whether mutations in central metabolism would affect virulence in an extracellular pathogen such as V...
November 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136153/reverse-ncx-attenuates-cellular-sodium-loading-in-metabolically-compromised-cortex
#6
Niklas J Gerkau, Cordula Rakers, Simone Durry, Gabor C Petzold, Christine R Rose
In core regions of ischemic stroke, disruption of blood flow causes breakdown of ionic gradients and, ultimately, calcium overload and cell death. In the surrounding penumbra, cells may recover upon reperfusion, but recovery is hampered by additional metabolic demands imposed by peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs). There is evidence that sodium influx drives PIDs, but no data exist on PID-related sodium accumulations in vivo. Here, we found that PIDs in mouse neocortex are associated with propagating sodium elevations in neurons and astrocytes...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134686/selective-proton-observed-carbon-edited-selpoce-mrs-method-for-measurement-of-glutamate-and-glutamine-13-c-labeling-in-the-human-frontal-cortex
#7
Henk M De Feyter, Raimund I Herzog, Bart R Steensma, Dennis W J Klomp, Peter B Brown, Graeme F Mason, Douglas L Rothman, Robin A de Graaf
PURPOSE: (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with infusion of (13) C-labeled substrates has led to unique insights into human brain metabolism and neurotransmitter cycling. However, the low sensitivity of direct (13) C MRS and high radiofrequency power requirements has limited (13) C MRS studies to predominantly data acquisition in large volumes of the occipital cortex. The purpose of this study is to develop an MRS technique for localized detection of (13) C-labeling of glutamate and glutamine in the human frontal lobe...
November 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130499/combined-metabolomic-and-correlation-networks-analyses-reveal-fumarase-insufficiency-altered-amino-acids-metabolism
#8
Entai Hou, Xian Li, Zerong Liu, Fuchang Zhang, Zhongmin Tian
Fumarase catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate and L-malate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fumarase insufficiencies were associated with increased level of fumarate and decreased level of malate and exacerbated salt-induced hypertension. To gain insights into the metabolism profiles that induced by fumarase insufficiency and identify key regulatory metabolites, we applied a GC-MS based metabolomics platform coupled with a network approach to analyze fumarase insufficient HUVEC cells and negative controls...
November 11, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125492/towards-an-understanding-of-energy-impairment-in-huntington-s-disease-brain
#9
Janet M Dubinsky
This review systematically examines the evidence for shifts in flux through energy generating biochemical pathways in Huntington's disease (HD) brains from humans and model systems. Compromise of the electron transport chain (ETC) appears not to be the primary or earliest metabolic change in HD pathogenesis. Rather, compromise of glucose uptake facilitates glucose flux through glycolysis and may possibly decrease flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), limiting subsequent NADPH and GSH production needed for antioxidant protection...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122443/identification-of-serum-metabolites-associated-with-obesity-and-traditional-risk-factors-for-metabolic-disease-in-chinese-adults
#10
S M Wang, R Y Yang, M Wang, F S Ji, H X Li, Y M Tang, W X Chen, J Dong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is a major worldwide health problem and is often associated with many metabolic diseases. Levels of several serum-specific metabolites may be altered in patients with these metabolic diseases. We aimed to investigate the associations of serum metabolite levels with obesity and traditional risk factors for metabolic disease in Chinese individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six-hundred Chinese individuals undergoing annual physical exams were recruited and categorized into overweight/obese and control groups (1:1 ratio)...
October 3, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120073/astrocytic-and-neuronal-oxidative-metabolism-are-coupled-to-the-rate-of-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-in-the-tree-shrew-visual-cortex
#11
Sarah Sonnay, Jordan Poirot, Nathalie Just, Anne-Catherine Clerc, Rolf Gruetter, Gregor Rainer, João M N Duarte
Astrocytes play an important role in glutamatergic neurotransmission, namely by clearing synaptic glutamate and converting it into glutamine that is transferred back to neurons. The rate of this glutamate-glutamine cycle (VNT ) has been proposed to couple to that of glucose utilization and of neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that glutamatergic neurotransmission is also coupled to the TCA cycle rate in astrocytes. For that we investigated energy metabolism by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the primary visual cortex of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) under light isoflurane anesthesia at rest and during continuous visual stimulation...
November 9, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116024/systematic-analyses-of-glutamine-and-glutamate-metabolisms-across-different-cancer-types
#12
Yuan Tian, Wei Du, Sha Cao, Yue Wu, Ning Dong, Yan Wang, Ying Xu
BACKGROUND: Glutamine and glutamate are known to play important roles in cancer biology. However, no detailed information is available in terms of their levels of involvement in various biological processes across different cancer types, whereas such knowledge could be critical for understanding the distinct characteristics of different cancer types. Our computational study aimed to examine the functional roles of glutamine and glutamate across different cancer types. METHODS: We conducted a comparative analysis of gene expression data of cancer tissues versus normal control tissues of 11 cancer types to understand glutamine and glutamate metabolisms in cancer...
November 7, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115831/bacilotetrins-a-and-b-anti-staphylococcal-cyclic-lipotetrapeptides-from-a-marine-derived-bacillus-subtilis
#13
Fakir Shahidullah Tareq, Hee Jae Shin
LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy guided metabolic profiling and dereplication of a crude extract obtained from the fermentation of a marine-derived bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, followed by chromatographic isolation yielded two new cyclic-lipotetrapeptides, bacilotetrins A (1) and B (2). Based on extensive 1D and 2D NMR and high-resolution ESIMS data analysis, the structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated, revealing the unique structures of these lipopeptides consisting of three leucines and a glutamic acid residue cyclized with a lipophilic 3-hydroxy fatty acid...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113156/identification-of-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-gliomas-by-bioinformatics-analysis
#14
Ke Ma, Zhihua Cheng, Liqun Sun, Haibo Li
Gliomas are primary tumors that originate in the brain or spinal cord and develop from supportive glial cells. The present study aimed to identify potential candidate molecular markers for the treatment of gliomas, and to explore the underlying mechanisms of this disease. The gene expression profile data GSE50021, which consisted of 10 specimens of normal brain tissues and 35 specimens of glioma tissues, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The methylation microarray data GSE50022, consisting of 28 glioma specimens, was also downloaded from GEO...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109543/penicillin-induces-alterations-in-glutamine-metabolism-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#15
Jessica Y El Khoury, Nancy Boucher, Michel G Bergeron, Philippe Leprohon, Marc Ouellette
Penicillin is a bactericidal antibiotic that inhibits the synthesis of the peptidoglycan by targeting penicillin-binding proteins. This study aimed to assess through transcriptional profiling the stress response of S. pneumoniae strains after exposure to lethal penicillin concentrations to understand further the mode of action of penicillin. Two experimental designs (time-course and dose-response) were used for monitoring the effect of penicillin on the transcriptional profile. The expression of some genes previously shown to be modulated by penicillin was altered, including ciaRH, pstS and clpL...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106899/vinpocetine-protects-inner-retinal-neurons-with-functional-nmda-glutamate-receptors-against-retinal-ischemia
#16
Lisa Nivison-Smith, Pauline Khoo, Monica L Acosta, Michael Kalloniatis
Retinal ischemia is involved in the pathogenesis of many major vision threatening diseases. Vinpocetine is a natural drug, which has a range of neuroprotective actions against retinal ischemia including modulating cation flow, improving metabolic activity and preventing apoptosis. The exact mechanism behind these actions remains unknown but may involve glutamate receptors, major components of the ischemic cascade. This study examined the effects of vinpocetine in association with specific ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate...
November 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106770/probing-the-cardiac-malate-aspartate-shuttle-non-invasively-using-hyperpolarized-1-2-13-c2-pyruvate
#17
Albert P Chen, Angus Z Lau, Yi-Ping Gu, Marie A Schroeder, Jennifer Barry, Charles H Cunningham
Previous studies have demonstrated that using hyperpolarized [2-(13) C]pyruvate as a contrast agent can reveal (13) C signals from metabolites associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, the metabolites detectable from TCA cycle-mediated oxidation of [2-(13) C]pyruvate are the result of several metabolic steps. In the instance of the [5-(13) C]glutamate signal, the amplitude can be modulated by changes to the rates of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux, TCA cycle flux and metabolite pool size...
November 6, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106383/s-sulfocysteine-nmda-receptor-dependentsignaling-underlies-neurodegeneration-in-molybdenum-cofactor-deficiency
#18
Avadh Kumar, Borislav Dejanovic, Florian Hetsch, Marcus Semtner, Debora Fusca, Sita Arjune, Jose Angel Santamaria-Araujo, Aline Winkelmann, Scott Ayton, Ashley I Bush, Peter Kloppenburg, Jochen C Meier, Guenter Schwarz, Abdel Ali Belaidi
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by neurodegeneration and death in early childhood. The rapid and progressive neurodegeneration in MoCD presents a major clinical challenge and may relate to the poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. Recently, we reported that treating patients with cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP) is a successful therapy for a subset of infants with MoCD and prevents irreversible brain damage. Here, we studied S-sulfocysteine (SSC), a structural analog of glutamate that accumulates in the plasma and urine of patients with MoCD, and demonstrated that it acts as an N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) agonist, leading to calcium influx and downstream cell signaling events and neurotoxicity...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104034/distribution-of-the-branched-chain-%C3%AE-ketoacid-dehydrogenase-complex-e1%C3%AE-subunit-and-glutamate-dehydrogenase-in-the-human-brain-and-their-role-in-neuro-metabolism
#19
Jonathon Hull, Marcela Usmari Moraes, Emma Brookes, Seth Love, Myra E Conway
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, with the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) acting as key nitrogen donors for de novo glutamate synthesis. Despite the importance of these major metabolites, their metabolic pathway in the human brain is still not well characterised. The metabolic pathways that influence the metabolism of BCAAs have been well characterised in rat models. However, the expression of key proteins such as the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex and glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (GDH) in the human brain is still not well characterised...
November 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103689/a-metabolomic-investigation-into-the-effects-of-temperature-on-streptococcus-agalactiae-from-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-based-on-uplc-ms-ms
#20
Wen-Ting Hu, Wei-Liang Guo, Ai-Yun Meng, Yun Sun, Shi-Feng Wang, Zhen-Yu Xie, Yong-Can Zhou, Chaozu He
Streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most serious diseases in farmed tilapia, and temperature is one of the most important environmental factors related to its outbreak. To elucidate the influence of temperature variation on the pathogen from a metabolic perspective, the global metabolomics of 2 pathogenic strains of S. agalactiae from sick tilapia were analyzed at 35°C and 25°C using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) combined with pattern recognition approaches and pathway analysis...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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