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Glutamate metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346230/glutaminase-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibitors-suppress-pyrimidine-synthesis-and-vhl-deficient-renal-cancers
#1
Arimichi Okazaki, Paulo A Gameiro, Danos Christodoulou, Laura Laviollette, Meike Schneider, Frances Chaves, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Stephanie A Yazinski, Richard Lee, Gregory Stephanopoulos, Lee Zou, Othon Iliopoulos
Many cancer-associated mutations that deregulate cellular metabolic responses to hypoxia also reprogram carbon metabolism to promote utilization of glutamine. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), cells deficient in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene use glutamine to generate citrate and lipids through reductive carboxylation (RC) of α-ketoglutarate (αKG). Glutamine can also generate aspartate, the carbon source for pyrimidine biosynthesis, and glutathione for redox balance. Here we have shown that VHL-/- RCC cells rely on RC-derived aspartate to maintain de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344405/biochemical-components-of-seminal-plasma-and-their-correlation-to-the-fresh-seminal-characteristics-in-marwari-stallions-and-poitou-jacks
#2
Thirumala Rao Talluri, Gorakh Mal, Sanjay Kumar Ravi
AIM: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344131/specific-patterns-of-spinal-metabolites-underlying-%C3%AE-me-5-ht-evoked-pruritus-compared-with-histamine-and-capsaicin-assessed-by-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#3
Taotao Liu, Zhigang He, Xuebi Tian, Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Zhixiao Li, Zeyuan Liu, Huili Liu, Fuqiang Xu, Jie Wang, Hongbing Xiang
The mechanism behind itching is not well understood. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopic analysis of spinal cord extracts provides a quick modality for evaluating the specific metabolic activity of α-Me-5-HT-evoked pruritus mice. In the current study, four groups of young adult male C57Bl/6 mice were investigated; one group treated with saline, while the other groups intradermally injected with α-Me-5-HT (histamine independent pruritogen), histamine (histamine dependent pruritogen) and capsaicin (algogenic substance), respectively...
March 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342942/the-nature-of-early-astroglial-protection-fast-activation-and-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Julianna Kardos, László Héja, Katalin Jemnitz, Richárd Kovács, Miklós Palkovits
Our present review is focusing on the uniqueness of balanced astroglial signaling. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory signaling within the CNS is mainly determined by sharp synaptic transients of excitatory glutamate (Glu) and inhibitory γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) acting on the sub-second timescale. Astroglia is involved in excitatory chemical transmission by taking up i) Glu through neurotransmitter-sodium transporters, ii) K(+) released due to presynaptic action potential generation, and iii) water keeping osmotic pressure...
March 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342331/drought-stress-obliterates-the-preference-for-ammonium-as-an-n-source-in-the-c4-plant-spartina-alterniflora
#5
Kamel Hessini, Herbert J Kronzucker, Chedly Abdelly, Cristina Cruz
The C4 grass Spartina alterniflora is known for its unique salt tolerance and strong preference for ammonium (NH4(+)) as a nitrogen (N) source. We here examined whether Spartina's unique preference for NH4(+) results in improved performance under drought stress. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were carried out to measure the effects of variable water availability and inorganic N sources on plant performance (growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant, and N metabolism). Drought strongly reduced leaf number and area, plant fresh and dry weight, and photosynthetic activity on all N sources, but the reduction was most pronounced on NH4(+)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340481/metabolic-profiling-of-tyrosine-tryptophan-and-glutamate-in-human-urine-using-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-single-spe-cleanup
#6
Hyun Ju Shin, Na Hyun Park, Wonwoong Lee, Man Ho Choi, Bong Chul Chung, Jongki Hong
The tyrosine, tryptophan, and glutamate metabolic pathways play key roles on pathological state of neuronal functions and the change of their levels in biological systems reflects the progress degree of neuronal diseases. Comprehensive profiling of these metabolites is important to find new biomarkers for diagnosis or prognosis of various neuronal diseases. However, the overall profiling analysis of various neurochemicals in biological sample is confronted with several limitations due to their low concentration and physicochemical properties and the coexistence of matrices...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337772/anti-fatigue-activity-of-sea-cucumber-peptides-prepared-from-stichopus-japonicas-in-an-endurance-swimming-rat-model
#7
Jing Ye, Shen Caihong, Huang Yayan, Xueqin Zhang, Xiao Meitian
BACKGROUND: Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is a well-known nutritious and luxurious seafood in Asia which has attracted increasing attention because of its nutrition and bioactivities in recent years. In this study, the anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) prepared from Stichopus japonicas was evaluated in a load-induced endurance swimming model. RESULTS: The SCP prepared in this study was mainly made up of low-molecular-weight peptides (<2 kDa)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331578/trophic-discrimination-factor-of-nitrogen-isotopes-within-amino-acids-in-the-dobsonfly-protohermes-grandis-megaloptera-corydalidae-larvae-in-a-controlled-feeding-experiment
#8
Naoto F Ishikawa, Fumio Hayashi, Yoko Sasaki, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi
The trophic discrimination factor (TDF) of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids, between a stream-dwelling dobsonfly larva (Protohermes grandis: Megaloptera; Corydalidae) and its diet (chironomid larvae), was determined in controlled feeding experiments. Last-instar larvae of P. grandis were collected from the Yozawa-gawa River, central Japan, and reared in the laboratory. After fed to satiation for 1 month, one group of larvae was each fed one living chironomid larva per day for 4 weeks, while a second group was starved for 8 weeks...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331060/proximal-tubule-glutamine-synthetase-expression-is-necessary-for-the-normal-response-to-dietary-protein-restriction
#9
Hyun-Wook Lee, Gunars Osis, Mary E Handlogten, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and ¬decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of NH4+ and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327992/cyst-fluid-from-cystic-malignant-brain-tumors-a-reservoir-of-nutrients-including-growth-factor-like-nutrients-for-tumor-cells
#10
Daniel Dahlberg, Eduard A Struys, Erwin E Jansen, Lars Mørkrid, Øivind Midttun, Bjørnar Hassel
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors may have cysts, whose content of nutrients could influence tumor cell microenvironment and growth. OBJECTIVE: To measure nutrients in cyst fluid from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: Quantification of nutrients in cyst fluid from 12 to 18 GBMs and 4 to 10 metastatic brain tumors. RESULTS: GBM cysts contained glucose at 2.2 mmol/L (median value; range <0.8-3...
January 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327577/metabolic-profiling-of-idh-mutation-and-malignant-progression-in-infiltrating-glioma
#11
Llewellyn E Jalbert, Adam Elkhaled, Joanna J Phillips, Evan Neill, Aurelia Williams, Jason C Crane, Marram P Olson, Annette M Molinaro, Mitchel S Berger, John Kurhanewicz, Sabrina M Ronen, Susan M Chang, Sarah J Nelson
Infiltrating low grade gliomas (LGGs) are heterogeneous in their behavior and the strategies used for clinical management are highly variable. A key factor in clinical decision-making is that patients with mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) oncogenes are more likely to have a favorable outcome and be sensitive to treatment. Because of their relatively long overall median survival, more aggressive treatments are typically reserved for patients that have undergone malignant progression (MP) to an anaplastic glioma or secondary glioblastoma (GBM)...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327303/molecular-physiology-reveals-ammonium-uptake-and-related-gene-expression-in-the-seagrass-zostera-muelleri
#12
Mathieu Pernice, Sutinee Sinutok, Gaurav Sablok, Audrey S Commault, Martin Schliep, Peter I Macreadie, Michael A Rasheed, Peter J Ralph
Seagrasses are important marine foundation species, which are presently threatened by coastal development and global change worldwide. The molecular mechanisms that drive seagrass responses to anthropogenic stresses, including elevated levels of nutrients such as ammonium, remains poorly understood. Despite the evidence that seagrasses can assimilate ammonium by using glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (glutamine-oxoglutarate amidotransferase or GOGAT) cycle, the regulation of this fundamental metabolic pathway has never been studied at the gene expression level in seagrasses so far...
December 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326087/arabidopsis-nac-transcription-factor-jungbrunnen1-exerts-conserved-control-over-gibberellin-and-brassinosteroid-metabolism-and-signaling-genes-in-tomato
#13
Sara Shahnejat-Bushehri, Annapurna D Allu, Nikolay Mehterov, Venkatesh P Thirumalaikumar, Saleh Alseekh, Alisdair R Fernie, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Salma Balazadeh
The Arabidopsis thaliana NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (AtJUB1) regulates growth by directly repressing GA3ox1 and DWF4, two key genes involved in gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis, respectively, leading to GA and BR deficiency phenotypes. AtJUB1 also reduces the expression of PIF4, a bHLH transcription factor that positively controls cell elongation, while it stimulates the expression of DELLA genes, which are important repressors of growth. Here, we extend our previous findings by demonstrating that AtJUB1 induces similar GA and BR deficiency phenotypes and changes in gene expression when overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324172/enzymes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-in-humans
#14
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Laura López-Maside, Cristóbal Donapetry-García, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Cristina Sixto-Leal
Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are structurally related to branched-chain fatty acids. Leucine is 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid, isoleucine is 2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid, and valine is 2-amino-3-methyl-butanoic acid. Similar to fatty acid oxidation, leucine and isoleucine produce acetyl-coA. Additionally, leucine generates acetoacetate and isoleucine yields propionyl-coA. Valine oxidation produces propionyl-coA, which is converted into methylmalonyl-coA and succinyl-coA. Branched-chain aminotransferase catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, a reversible transamination that converts branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain ketoacids...
March 21, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323206/ligands-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-promote-glutamate-transporter-1-endocytosis-in-astrocytes
#15
Hui-Ting Huang, Chih-Kai Liao, Wen-Tai Chiu, Shun-Fen Tzeng
Astrocytes, a stellate-shape glial population in the central nervous system (CNS), maintain glutamate homeostasis in adult CNS by undergoing glutamate uptake at the synapse through their glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) can be activated by endogenous saturated fatty acids to regulate astrocytic lipid metabolism and functions. However, it is unclear if PPARα can exert the regulatory action on GLT-1 expression in astrocytes. This study showed that treatment with palmitic acid (PA) and the other two PPARα agonists (GW 7647 and WY 14,643) caused no change in the morphology of astrocytes, whereas membranous GLT-1 protein levels in astrocytes were significantly decreased by PA and PPARα agonists...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322077/enteral-nutrition-increases-interstitial-brain-glucose-levels-in-poor-grade-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-patients
#16
Mario Kofler, Alois J Schiefecker, Ronny Beer, Maxime Gaasch, Paul Rhomberg, John Stover, Bettina Pfausler, Claudius Thomé, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321368/plant-growth-promoting-endophytic-bacteria-versus-pathogenic-infections-an-example-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-rwl-1-and-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lycopersici-in-tomato
#17
Raheem Shahzad, Abdul Latif Khan, Saqib Bilal, Sajjad Asaf, In-Jung Lee
Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321230/integrated-transcriptome-and-metabolic-analyses-reveals-novel-insights-into-free-amino-acid-metabolism-in-huangjinya-tea-cultivar
#18
Qunfeng Zhang, Meiya Liu, Jianyun Ruan
The chlorotic tea variety Huangjinya, a natural mutant, contains enhanced levels of free amino acids in its leaves, which improves the drinking quality of its brewed tea. Consequently, this chlorotic mutant has a higher economic value than the non-chlorotic varieties. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased levels of free amino acids in this mutant are mostly unknown, as are the possible effects of this mutation on the overall metabolome and biosynthetic pathways in tea leaves. To gain further insight into the effects of chlorosis on the global metabolome and biosynthetic pathways in this mutant, Huangjinya plants were grown under normal and reduced sunlight, resulting in chlorotic and non-chlorotic leaves, respectively; their leaves were analyzed using transcriptomics as well as targeted and untargeted metabolomics...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320958/p97-vcp-promotes-degradation-of-crbn-substrate-glutamine-synthetase-and-neosubstrates
#19
Thang Van Nguyen, Jing Li, Chin-Chun Jean Lu, Jennifer L Mamrosh, Gang Lu, Brian E Cathers, Raymond J Deshaies
Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an essential role in metabolism by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. Our recent study showed that CRBN, a direct protein target for the teratogenic and antitumor activities of immunomodulatory drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide, recognizes an acetyl degron of GS, resulting in ubiquitylation and degradation of GS in response to glutamine. Here, we report that valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 promotes the degradation of ubiquitylated GS, resulting in its accumulation in cells with compromised p97 function...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317926/in-vivo-evaluation-of-mg-6zn-and-titanium-alloys-on-collagen-metabolism-in-the-healing-of-intestinal-anastomosis
#20
Xiao-Hu Wang, Jian-Shu Ni, Nai-Long Cao, Song Yu, Yi-Gang Chen, Shao-Xiang Zhang, Bao-Jun Gu, Jun Yan
There is a great clinical need for biodegradable materials, which were used as pins of circular staplers, for gastrointestinal reconstruction in medicine. In this work we compared the effects of the Mg-6Zn and the titanium alloys on collagen metabolism in the healing of the intestinal tract in vivo. The study included Sprague-Dawley rats and their effect was compared on rat's intestinal tract, using serum magnesium, radiology, and immunohistochemistry in vivo. Radiographic and scanning electron microscope evaluation confirmed the degradation by Mg-6Zn alloy during the implantation period...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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