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Glutamate metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098946/negative-association-between-mr-spectroscopic-glutamate-markers-and-gray-matter-volume-after-alcohol-withdrawal-in-the-hippocampus-a-translational-study-in-humans-and-rats
#1
Ulrich Frischknecht, Derik Hermann, Nuran Tunc-Skarka, Guo-Ying Wang, Markus Sack, Julia van Eijk, Traute Demirakca, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Bertram Krumm, Sandra Dieter, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Gabriele Ende, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: Both chronic alcohol consumption and alcohol withdrawal lead to neural tissue damage which partly recovers during abstinence. This study investigated withdrawal-associated changes in glutamatergic compounds, markers of neuronal integrity, and gray matter volumes during acute alcohol withdrawal in the hippocampus, a key region in development and maintenance of alcohol dependence in humans and rats. METHODS: Alcohol-dependent patients (N = 39) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements within 24 hours after the last drink and after 2 weeks of abstinence...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097517/in-utero-exposure-of-hyperlipidemic-mice-to-diesel-exhaust-lack-of-effects-on-atherosclerosis-in-adult-offspring-fed-a-regular-chow-diet
#2
Jenna Harrigan, Divya Ravi, Jerry Ricks, Michael E Rosenfeld
Uterine stress is associated with an increased risk of later life metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure in utero on adult susceptibility to atherosclerosis in genetically hyperlipidemic mice. Pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient mice received either DE exposure (~250-300 μg/m(3) PM2.5 for 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (FA) throughout gestation. Treatment effects on litter size and gender distribution were recorded. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096234/glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase-enables-anaplerotic-refilling-of-tca-cycle-intermediates-in-stroke-affected-brain
#3
Cameron Rink, Surya Gnyawali, Richard Stewart, Seth Teplitsky, Hallie Harris, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen, Savita Khanna
Ischemic stroke results in excessive release of glutamate, which contributes to neuronal cell death. Here, we test the hypothesis that otherwise neurotoxic glutamate can be productively metabolized by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to maintain cellular energetics and protect the brain from ischemic stroke injury. The GOT-dependent metabolism of glutamate was studied in primary neural cells and in stroke-affected C57-BL6 mice using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC-MS. Extracellular Glu sustained cell viability under hypoglycemic conditions and increased GOT-mediated metabolism in vitro Correction of stroke-induced hypoxia using supplemental oxygen in vivo lowered Glu levels as measured by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095303/gd-dtpa-induced-dynamic-metabonomic-changes-in-rat-biofluids
#4
Chuanling Wan, Youyang Zhan, Rong Xue, Yijie Wu, Xiaojing Li, Fengkui Pei
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were (1) to detect the dynamic metabonomic changes induced by gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) and (2) to investigate the potential metabolic disturbances associated with the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) at the early stage. METHODS: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary and serum metabolic changes induced by a single tail vein injection of Gd-DTPA (dosed at 2 and 5mmol/kg body weight) in rats...
January 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094305/association-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-with-the-development-of-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#5
Martin S Zinkernagel, Denise C Zysset-Burri, Irene Keller, Lieselotte E Berger, Alexander B Leichtle, Carlo R Largiadèr, Georg M Fiedler, Sebastian Wolf
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of blindness in the elderly. There is evidence that nutrition, inflammation and genetic risk factors play an important role in the development of AMD. Recent studies suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiome is associated with metabolic diseases through modulation of inflammation and host metabolism. To investigate whether compositional and functional alterations of the intestinal microbiome are associated with AMD, we sequenced the gut metagenomes of patients with AMD and controls...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090149/multiplexed-and-fully-automated-detection-of-metabolic-biomarkers-using-microdialysis-probe
#6
Champak Das, Guochun Wang, Qian Sun, Bradley Ledden
We report here, the design and development of an automated near real-time continuous detection system for lactate, glutamate, pyruvate and glucose using microdialysis probe. The system developed can automatically push perfusate through microdialysis probe (20, 100 and 1000 kDa MWCO cutoff probe) at low to medium flow rate of 0.5-2 μL/min with almost 100% fluid recovery. The microdialysate collected from the probe is analyzed automatically for these four metabolite biomarkers. It operates in a continuous mode with measurements of all four biomarkers once every 20 min...
January 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089749/pyroglutamate-5-oxoproline-measured-with-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-hilic-tandem-mass-spectrometry-in-acutely-ill-patients
#7
Carel J Pretorius, Michael C Reade, Chris Warnholtz, Brett McWhinney, Meng Mei Phua, Jeffrey Lipman, Jacobus P J Ungerer
BACKGROUND: Pyroglutamic acid (PGA) is challenging to quantify in plasma and is a rare cause of metabolic acidosis that is associated with inherited disorders or acquired after exposure to drugs. METHOD: We developed a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a short analysis time. We established a reference interval and then measured PGA in acutely ill patients to investigate associations with clinical, pharmaceutical and laboratory parameters...
January 12, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089748/bioaccumulation-of-lead-and-non-specific-immune-responses-in-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-to-pb-exposure
#8
Yu-Sheng Wu, Shih-Ling Huang, Hsin-Chieh Chung, Fan-Hua Nan
In this study, we investigated organ accumulation and nonspecific immune response in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were exposed to various concentrations of lead (Pb) solution. The concentrations of Pb in the hepatopancreas, haemolymph, and muscle were measured moreover the total heamocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, O2(-) and physiological factors such as glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and haemolymph glucose were detected. The results showed that the hepatopancreas was the main organ of accumulation of Pb in white shrimp and the cumulative concentration of each organ was positively correlated with the experimental Pb concentration and immersion time...
January 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088422/effects-of-clay-after-an-aflatoxin-challenge-on-aflatoxin-clearance-milk-production-and-metabolism-of-holstein-cows
#9
S A Sulzberger, S Melnichenko, F C Cardoso
Oral supplementation of clay to dairy cattle has been reported to reduce toxicity of aflatoxin (AF) in contaminated feed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 3 concentrations of dietary clay supplementation in response to an AF challenge. Ten multiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± SD) = 669 ± 20 kg and 146 ± 69 d in milk], were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design balanced to measure carryover effects. Periods (21 d) were divided in an adaptation phase (d 1 to 14) and a measurement phase (d 15 to 21)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087461/low-glucose-stress-decreases-cellular-nadh-and-mitochondrial-atp-in-colonic-epithelial-cancer-cells-influence-of-mitochondrial-substrates
#10
Magdalena L Circu, Ronald E Maloney, Tak Yee Aw
In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NADH/NAD(+)) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation imposed by glucose deprivation or supplementation with mitochondrial substrates, succinate and malate/glutamate (M/G). Our results showed that low glucose caused cellular NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance that diminished lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and resulted in lower lactate contents. The concurrent activation of malic enzyme (ME) suggested a role for malate in preserving cellular pyruvate that remained unchanged at low glucose...
January 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#11
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074299/dioxygen-activation-by-nonheme-iron-enzymes-with-the-2-his-1-carboxylate-facial-triad-that-generate-high-valent-oxoiron-oxidants
#12
REVIEW
Subhasree Kal, Lawrence Que
The 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad is a widely used scaffold to bind the iron center in mononuclear nonheme iron enzymes for activating dioxygen in a variety of oxidative transformations of metabolic significance. Since the 1990s, over a hundred different iron enzymes have been identified to use this platform. This structural motif consists of two histidines and the side chain carboxylate of an aspartate or a glutamate arranged in a facial array that binds iron(II) at the active site. This triad occupies one face of an iron-centered octahedron and makes the opposite face available for the coordination of O2 and, in many cases, substrate, allowing the tailoring of the iron-dioxygen chemistry to carry out a plethora of diverse reactions...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072830/protective-effects-of-dexrazoxane-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-a-metabolomic-study
#13
Yang QuanJun, Yang GenJin, Wan LiLi, Han YongLong, Huo Yan, Li Jie, Huang JinLu, Lu Jin, Gan Run, Guo Cheng
Cardioprotection of dexrazoxane (DZR) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity is contentious and the indicator is controversial. A pairwise comparative metabolomics approach was used to delineate the potential metabolic processes in the present study. Ninety-six BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two supergroups: tumor and control groups. Each supergroup was divided into control, DOX, DZR, and DOX plus DZR treatment groups. DOX treatment resulted in a steady increase in 5-hydroxylysine, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-oxoglutarate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and decrease in glucose, glutamate, cysteine, acetone, methionine, asparate, isoleucine, and glycylproline...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070799/metabolic-alterations-and-the-protective-effect-of-punicalagin-against-glutamate-induced-oxidative-toxicity-in-ht22-cells
#14
Kavitha Pathakoti, Lavanya Goodla, Manjunath Manubolu, Tewin Tencomnao
Oxidative stress is involved in many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Punicalagin (PC) is a hydrolysable polyphenol derived from Punica granatum and a potent antioxidant. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of PC on glutamate-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT22. PC treatment protected HT22 cells from glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner, potentially attenuated glutamate-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and restored the mitochondrial membrane depolarization...
January 9, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070703/nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-brain-region-specific-metabolic-alterations-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-with-cognitive-dysfunction
#15
Hong Zheng, Qiuting Lin, Dan Wang, Pengtao Xu, Liangcai Zhao, Wenyi Hu, Guanghui Bai, Zhihan Yan, Hongchang Gao
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cognitive dysfunction, but its potential metabolic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the metabolite profiling in eight different brain regions of the normal rats and the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats accompanied by cognitive dysfunction using a (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach. A mixed linear model analysis was performed to assess the effects of DM, brain region and their interaction on metabolic changes. We found that different brain regions in rats displayed significant metabolic differences...
January 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070151/imaging-of-glutamate-concentration-in-sturge-weber-syndrome
#16
COMMENT
Tracy S Gertler, Cynthia V Stack
Investigators from Wayne State University studied a cohort of children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) and epilepsy using both glucose-based positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to evaluate metabolic activity and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to evaluate glutamate turnover.
January 2017: Pediatric neurology briefs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068058/extensive-turnover-of-compatible-solutes-in-cyanobacteria-revealed-by-deuterium-oxide-d2o-stable-isotope-probing
#17
Richard Baran, Rebecca Lau, Benjamin P Bowen, Spencer Diamond, Nick Jose, Ferran Garcia-Pichel, Trent R Northen
Cyanobacteria are important primary producers of organic matter in diverse environments on a global scale. While mechanisms of CO2 fixation are well understood, the distribution of the flow of fixed organic carbon within individual cells and complex microbial communities is less well characterized. To obtain a general overview of metabolism, we describe the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) to measure deuterium incorporation into the intracellular metabolites of two physiologically diverse cyanobacteria: a terrestrial filamentous strain (Microcoleus vaginatus PCC 9802) and a euryhaline unicellular strain (Synechococcus sp...
January 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067279/impaired-novelty-acquisition-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-congenital-hyperammonemia-caused-by-hepatic-glutamine-synthetase-deficiency
#18
Aisa N Chepkova, Olga A Sergeeva, Boris Görg, Helmut L Haas, Nikolaj Klöcker, Dieter Häussinger
Genetic defects in ammonia metabolism can produce irreversible damage of the developing CNS causing an impairment of cognitive and motor functions. We investigated alterations in behavior, synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum of transgenic mice with systemic hyperammonemia resulting from conditional knockout of hepatic glutamine synthetase (LGS-ko). These mice showed reduced exploratory activity and delayed habituation to a novel environment. Field potential recordings from LGS-ko brain slices revealed significantly reduced magnitude of electrically-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in both CA3-CA1 hippocampal and corticostriatal synaptic transmission...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067049/amniotic-fluid-and-maternal-serum-metabolic-signatures-in-the-2nd-trimester-associated-with-pre-term-delivery
#19
Christina Virgiliou, Helen G Gika, Michael Witting, Anna A Bletsou, Apostolos Athanasiadis, Menelaos Zafrakas, Nikolaos S Thomaidis, Nikolaos Raikos, Georgios Makrydimas, Georgios A Theodoridis
Pre-term delivery (PTD) represents a major health problem which occurs in one in ten births. The hypothesis of the present study was that the metabolic profile of different biological fluids, obtained from pregnant women during the 2nd trimester of gestation, could allow useful correlations with pregnancy outcome. Holistic and targeted metabolomics approaches were applied for the complementary assessment of the metabolic content of prospectively collected amniotic fluid (AF) and paired maternal blood serum samples from 35 women who delivered preterm (between 29weeks+0days and 36weeks +5 days gestation) and 35 women delivered at term...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065856/hypoxia-promotes-mitochondrial-glutamine-metabolism-through-hif1%C3%AE-gdh-pathway-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#20
Zi-Feng Jiang, Min Wang, Jian-Lin Xu, Ya-Jing Ning
Drug-resistance is common in human lung cancer therapy. Hypoxia remarkably contributes to drug-resistance in lung cancer but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia-induced glutamine metabolism is involved in drug resistance in lung cancer cells. Hypoxia increases glutamine up-take, glutamate to α-ketoglutarate flux and the generation of ATP in lung cancer cells by up-regulating the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Hypoxia-induced expression of GDH relies on the up-regulation of HIF1α but not HIF2α...
January 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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