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Chromogranin A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454385/neuroendocrine-differentiation-is-predictive-of-poor-survival-in-patients-with-stage-ii-colorectal-cancer
#1
Yue Liu, Jinjie He, Jinghong Xu, Jun Li, Yurong Jiao, Dikai Bei, Yeting Hu, Haiyan Chen, Qian Xiao, Kefeng Ding
The diagnosis of neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) is made primarily on the basis of ultrastructure and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC). Synaptophysin (Syn) and chromogranin A (CgA) are two important frequently used NED markers in colorectal cancer (CRC). The association between NED and the prognosis of stage II CRC remains controversial. Administration of adjuvant chemotherapy remains challenging for stage II CRC. Identification of reliable factors that improve the selection of patients with stage II CRC at high risk following surgery is of great importance...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454119/anti-proliferative-and-anti-secretory-effects-of-everolimus-on-human-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-primary-cultures-is-there-any-benefit-from-combination-with-somatostatin-analogs
#2
Amira Mohamed, David Romano, Alexandru Saveanu, Catherine Roche, Manuela Albertelli, Federica Barbieri, Thierry Brue, Patricia Niccoli, Jean-Robert Delpero, Stephane Garcia, Diego Ferone, Tullio Florio, Vincent Moutardier, Flora Poizat, Anne Barlier, Corinne Gerard
Therapeutic management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) is challenging. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus recently obtained approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). Despite its promising antitumor efficacy observed in cell lines, clinical benefit for patients is unsatisfactory. The limited therapeutic potential of everolimus in cancer cells has been attributed to Akt activation due to feedback loops relief following mTOR inhibition...
April 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453489/changes-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-peptides-due-to-tauopathy
#3
Petra Majerova, Peter Barath, Alena Michalicova, Stanislav Katina, Michal Novak, Andrej Kovac
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and progressive supranuclear palsy are two common neurodegenerative tauopathies, and the most common cause of progressive brain dementia in elderly affecting more than 35 million people. The tauopathies are characterized by abnormal deposition of microtubule associated protein tau into intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed mainly of the hyperphosphorylated form of the protein. The diagnosis of tauopathies is based on the presence of clinical features and pathological changes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446479/severe-chronic-diarrhoea-secondary-to-primary-lymph-node-gastrinoma
#4
Mouhanna Abu Ghanimeh, Khalil Abuamr, Esmat Sadeddin, Osama Yousef
The existence of primary lymph node (LN) gastrinoma is questionable and controversial. In fact, the presence of gastrinoma in such uncommon site raises the possibility of metastasis from another occult primary site. An extensive evaluation and careful follow-up is always warranted. A female aged 48 years presented with chronic abdominal pain and watery diarrhoea. Her serum gastrin and chromogranin were elevated, and an underlying gastrinoma was suspected. Further evaluation with an octreotide scan, an endoscopic ultrasound and a secretin stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443506/catestain-a-master-regulator-of-cardiovascular-functions
#5
Sushil K Mahata, Malapaka Kiranmayi, Nitish R Mahapatra
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of death globally, accounts for ~30% of all deaths worldwide. Hypertension is a common contributor to morbidity and mortality from CVD. The plasma concentration of chromogranin A (CgA) is elevated in patients with CVD as well as patients with established human essential hypertension and heart failure (HF). In contrast, the plasma level of the CgA-derived peptide catestatin (CST) is diminished in human essential hypertension. Low conversion of CgA-to-CST has been associated with increased mortality in patients hospitalized with acute HF...
April 24, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442394/granin-derived-peptides
#6
REVIEW
Josef Troger, Markus Theurl, Rudolf Kirchmair, Teresa Pasqua, Bruno Tota, Tommaso Angelone, Maria C Cerra, Yvonne Nowosielski, Raphaela Mätzler, Jasmin Troger, Jaur R Gayen, Vance Trudeau, Angelo Corti, Karen B Helle
The granin family comprises altogether 7 different proteins originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system and elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The family is dominated by three uniquely acidic members, namely chromogranin A (CgA), chromogranin B (CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII). Since the late 1980ies it has become evident that these proteins are proteolytically processed, intragranularly and/or extracellularly into a range of biologically active peptides; a number of them with regulatory properties of physiological and/or pathophysiological significance...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441375/primary-adrenal-angiosarcoma-a-rare-and-potentially-misdiagnosed-tumor
#7
Ariel Grajales-Cruz, Francis Baco-Viera, Ernesto Rive-Mora, Carlos Ramirez-Tanchez, David Tasso, Norma Arroyo-Portela, Elizabeth Calderon, Ilean Joan Padua-Octaviani, William Caceres-Perkins
A man aged 69 years presented with acute right flank pain secondary to a hemorrhagic large adrenal tumor. En bloc resection was performed to repair the inferior vena cava. Immunoperoxidase levels in the tumor were positive for factor VIII and CD31 and negative for S100, protein Melan-A, CD34, synaptophysin, chromogranin, desmin, muscle specific actin, ETFA (EMA), KRT20 (CK20), CDX2, TTF1, LNPEP (PLAP), inhibin, ?-fetoprotein, CD30, hepatocyte paraffin, and aberrant expression of cytokeratin 7 and pankeratin...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436665/intra-and-interskeletal-proteome-variations-in-fresh-and-buried-bones
#8
Noemi Procopio, Andrew T Chamberlain, Michael Buckley
Proteomic methods are acquiring greater importance in archaeology and palaeontology due to the longevity of proteins in skeletal remains. There are also developing interests in forensic applications, offering the potential to shed light on post-mortem intervals and age at death estimation. However, our understanding of intra- and interskeletal proteome variations is currently severely limited. Here, we evaluated the proteomes obtained from five distinct subsamples of different skeletal elements from buried pig carcasses to ascertain the extent of variation within and between individuals...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430903/co-storage-of-enteroendocrine-hormones-evaluated-at-the-cell-and-subcellular-levels-in-male-mice
#9
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Billie Hunne, David M Bravo, John B Furness
Recent studies reveal complex patterns of hormone co-expression within enteroendocrine cells (EEC), contrary to the traditional view that gut hormones are expressed individually in EEC. Moreover, different hormones have been found in separate subcellular vesicles. However, detailed analysis of relative expression of multiple hormones has not been made. Subcellular studies have been confined to peptide hormones, and have not included the indolamine, 5-HT, or the neuroendocrine protein, chromogranin A (CgA). In the present work, co-expression of 5-HT, CgA, secretin, CCK, ghrelin, and GLP-1 in mouse duodenum was quantified at a cellular and subcellular level by semi-automated cell counting and quantitative vesicle measurements...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427516/prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-neuroendocrine-tumours
#10
REVIEW
David L Chan, Stephen J Clarke, Connie I Diakos, Paul J Roach, Dale L Bailey, Simron Singh, Nick Pavlakis
Neuroendocrine tumours are extremely heterogeneous malignancies. Despite marked heterogeneity in clinical course and prognosis, few biomarkers exist to help predict prognosis and guide treatment. Many tumour-based biomarkers (Ki-67, mitotic count, genetic/epigenetic changes and microRNAs) exist, but only Ki-67 and mitotic count have strong evidence to support their routine use. Blood-based markers are easily repeatable, but currently established biomarkers (chromogranin A and urinary 5-HIAA) are difficult to measure accurately in practice...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427002/incidental-posterior-mediastinal-paraganglioma-the-safe-approach-to-management-case-report
#11
Juan A Muñoz-Largacha, Roan J Glocker, Jacob Moalem, Michael J Singh, Virginia R Litle
INTRODUCTION: Paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors arising from chromaffin cells located in sympathetic paraganglia. Mediastinal paragangliomas are extremely rare and can be classified as functional or non-functional according to their ability for secreting catecholamines. Patients can be asymptomatic and the diagnosis is usually incidental. Complete surgical resection remains the standard of care for paragangliomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a 44-year-old woman with a functional mediastinal paraganglioma incidentally found during the perioperative imaging workup for a diagnosed breast carcinoma...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406540/salivary-chromogranin-a-levels-correlate-with-disease-severity-but-do-not-reflect-anxiety-or-personality-of-adult-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#12
Sakae Kaneko, Lijuan Liu, Takeyasu Kakamu, Masako Minami-Hori, Eishin Morita
Stress-induced scratching is an issue in patients with adult atopic dermatitis (AD). Although itching and stress are believed to be intimately related, no objective index is available; therefore, most evaluations are subjective. Using saliva, which is easily collected, we investigated the degree to which AD severity and patient stress levels are reflected in stress proteins in the saliva. Here, we evaluated the severity (Scoring Atopic Dermatitis [SCORAD] score), stress (State-Trait Anxiety Index [STAI] score), personality (Tokyo University Egogram [TEG] II score) and quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] score) of 51 patients with AD who were examined in the Department of Dermatology of Shimane University between April and December 2015...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405465/effect-of-the-needle-free-intra-dermal-application-of-liquids-vaccination-on-the-welfare-of-pregnant-sows
#13
Déborah Temple, Damián Escribano, Marta Jiménez, Eva Mainau, José J Cerón, Xavier Manteca
BACKGROUND: In commercial pig production, sows are often vaccinated several times per gestation period, resulting in reduced welfare. This preliminary experiment investigated whether the needle-free IDAL vaccinator improves welfare through reduction of stress markers, improvement of behavioural and health parameters compared to traditional needle-syringe method. RESULTS: Two treatments (IDAL and NEEDLE) in 6 replicate pens of gestating sows (15 sows per pen) were evaluated using Porcilis® PRRS...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399532/metastatic-pituitary-carcinoma-to-cervical-lymph-node-diagnosis-by-fine-needle-aspiration-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Huiying Wang, Jiancong Liang, William H Yong, Peggy Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Pituitary carcinomas are rare neoplasms whose designation requires demonstration of metastatic disease. No specific morphologic features can reliably distinguish pituitary carcinomas from pituitary adenomas, rendering the diagnosis particularly challenging. Furthermore, as reports of pituitary carcinoma on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy are exceedingly rare in the literature, the cytological features of pituitary carcinoma are poorly characterized. CASE REPORT: Here we describe a case of pituitary carcinoma in a 67-year-old woman with history of recurrent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenoma who presented with a persistent left cervical nodule for 2 years...
April 12, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396845/chromogranin-a-as-a-valid-marker-in-oncology-clinical-application-or-false-hopes
#15
REVIEW
Stavros Gkolfinopoulos, Konstantinos Tsapakidis, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Demetris Papamichael, Panteleimon Kountourakis
Chromogranin A, due to its primary expression throughout the neuroendocrine system, is a widely accepted biomarker for the assessment of neuro-endocrine tumors. It has been traditionally used in the management of patients with tumors of gastro-enteropancreatic origin. Lately, it has also been implicated in various conditions and diseases, both benign and malignant. However, the paucity of data of adequate strength, as well as its relation with common physiologic conditions and its interaction with commonly prescribed medications, limit its clinical use in only a narrow spectrum...
March 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387021/diagnosing-clear-cell-neuroendocrine-tumors-on-cytological-specimens-report-of-two-cases-and-brief-literature-review
#16
Kaila Buckley, Zaibo Li
Although many of the common manifestations of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease are relatively well known, there is one particular entity which is quite rare, but which appears to show a specific predilection for VHL patients. This entity is clear cell neuroendocrine tumor (NET). It is a difficult diagnosis to make due to its cytomorphologic similarities to other entities, such as metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and paraganglioma, amongst others. These tumors, however, are characteristically positive for neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin and chromogranin, as well as cytokeratins...
April 6, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381106/atypical-cytologic-presentation-of-a-histiocytic-sarcoma-in-a-cavalier-king-charles-spaniel-dog
#17
Lorelei L Clarke, Lisa S Kelly, Bridget Garner, Cathy A Brown
A Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dog was presented because of a 10-d history of progressive vomiting, inappetence, and lethargy, with mild neurologic signs. Fine-needle aspirates of splenic nodules seen on ultrasound were suggestive of a carcinoma. On autopsy, a disseminated neoplasm was present in the lung, spleen, and adrenal glands. Additionally, there was a Chiari-like malformation of the skull with corresponding syringomyelia of the cranial spinal cord. Histologically, the neoplasm was comprised of a pleomorphic population of round cells with a high mitotic rate...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377501/the-transcription-factor-pax6-is-required-for-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-identity-glucose-regulated-atp-synthesis-and-ca2-dynamics-in-adult-mice
#18
Ryan K Mitchell, Marie-Sophie Nguyen-Tu, Pauline Chabosseau, Rebecca M Callingham, Timothy J Pullen, Rebecca Cheung, Isabelle Leclerc, David J Hodson, Guy A Rutter
Heterozygous mutations in the human paired box gene PAX6 lead to impaired glucose tolerance. Although embryonic deletion of the Pax6 gene in mice leads to the loss of most pancreatic islet cell types, the functional consequences of Pax6 loss in adults are poorly defined. Here, we developed a mouse line in which Pax6 was selectively inactivated in β cells by crossing animals with floxed Pax6 alleles to mice expressing the inducible Pdx1CreERT transgene. Pax6 deficiency, achieved by tamoxifen injection, caused progressive hyperglycemia...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375946/antisecretory-effects-of-chimeric-somatostatin-dopamine-receptor-ligands-on-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#19
Anne Couvelard, Didier Pélaprat, Safi Dokmak, Alain Sauvanet, Thierry Voisin, Alain Couvineau, Philippe Ruszniewski
OBJECTIVES: The recent finding that gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors expressed the dopaminergic D2 receptor in addition to somatostatin (sst) receptors suggested that multiple targeting approaches might decrease hormone hypersecretion more effectively than sst agonists alone. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, (i) we measured the expression of sst receptor type 2 (sst2 receptor) and D2 receptor in 11 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and (ii) we compared the ability of lanreotide, cabergoline, their combination, and sst/D2 chimeric ligands to decrease chromogranin A (CgA), gastrin, or serotonin release in primary cultures derived from these tumors...
May 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373439/characterization-of-leiomyomatoid-angiomatous-neuroendocrine-tumour-lant-like-tumour-in-the-myometrium-with-histopathological-examination
#20
Takuma Hayashi, Tomoyuki Ichimura, Mari Kasai, Kenji Sano, Dorit Zharhary, Tanri Shiozawa, Nobuo Yaegashi, Ikuo Konishi
Leiomyomatoid angiomatous neuroendocrine tumour (LANT) is possibly a new disease entity that was reported as a dimorphic neurosecretory tumour with a leiomyomatous vascular component; it was found in the pituitary. We describe uterine LANT-like malignant tumour in a 45-year-old woman with uterine mesenchymal tumour, diagnosed clinically as uterine leiomyoma. She underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. The tumour consisted of hyalinized vasculature, containing factor VIII-positive endothelium and α-smooth muscle actin-positive vascular smooth muscle cells, and stromal cells, expressing neuroadhesion molecules...
April 2017: Anticancer Research
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