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Diabetes translation

Anniece Spencer, Nuzhat Majid, Gina M McCaskill, Loretta T Lee
Pre-diabetes is the underlying pathology for type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes Prevention Program is a proven, effective strategy to control or prevent type 2 diabetes; however, there is limited data on what motivates people with pre-diabetes to participate in a Diabetes Prevention Program. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from adults with pre-diabetes was conducted from October to November 2015. Fisher's exact test was utilized to examine relationships between study variables. Findings indicated that muscle strength was related to commitment to healthy lifestyle behaviors (p = 0...
July 2017: Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA
Maria I Patrício, Alun R Barnard, Kanmin Xue, Robert E MacLaren
INTRODUCTION: Choroideremia is an X-linked inherited retinal degeneration that causes blindness in afflicted males by middle age. The causative gene, CHM, plays a key role in intracellular trafficking pathways, and its disruption impairs cell homeostasis. Areas covered: The mechanism by which mutations in CHM cause choroideremia is still under debate. Here we describe the molecular defects in choroideremia cells regarding both the deficiency of prenylation and the involvement of Rab GTPases...
June 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Ashley M Butler, Marisa E Hilliard, DeLawnia Comer-HaGans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-engaged research (CER), which is characterized by collaborations between researchers and community partners, is a promising approach to bridge the gaps in translating research evidence into care settings and to address health disparities. This review describes CER in investigations focused on pediatric diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies were focused on African American, Hispanic, and Native American youth. Most studies aimed to develop and evaluate preventive interventions for type 2 diabetes...
June 22, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Young-Mee Kim, Seock-Won Youn, Varadarajan Sudhahar, Archita Das, Reyhaan Chandhri, Henar Cuervo Grajal, Junghun Kweon, Silvia Leanhart, Lianying He, Peter T Toth, Jan Kitajewski, Jalees Rehman, Yisang Yoon, Jaehyung Cho, Tohru Fukai, Masuko Ushio-Fukai
Mitochondrial dynamics are tightly controlled by fusion and fission, and their dysregulation and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction. How redox signals regulate coupling between mitochondrial dynamics and endothelial (dys)function remains unknown. Here, we identify protein disulfide isomerase A1 (PDIA1) as a thiol reductase for the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. A biotin-labeled Cys-OH trapping probe and rescue experiments reveal that PDIA1 depletion in ECs induces sulfenylation of Drp1 at Cys644 , promoting mitochondrial fragmentation and ROS elevation without inducing ER stress, which drives EC senescence...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Anu Mohandas, S K Bhasin, Madhu Upadhyay, S V Madhu
Background: Self-care activities are the cornerstone of diabetes care that ensures patients participation to achieve optimal glycemic control and to prevent complications. Objective: The aim of this study is to find the level of self-care activities among diabetics aged ≥20 years residing in a resettlement colony in East Delhi and its association with sociodemographic factors, disease, and treatment profile. Methods: Using cross-sectional survey, 168 known diabetic patients were selected from Nand Nagri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Jiedong Qiu, Sibylle J Hauske, Shiqi Zhang, Angelica Rodriguez-Niño, Thomas Albrecht, Diego O Pastene, Jacob van den Born, Harry van Goor, Sven Ruf, Markus Kohlmann, Michael Teufel, Bernhard K Krämer, Hans-Peter Hammes, Verena Peters, Benito A Yard, Aimo Kannt
Carnosinase 1 (CN1) has been postulated to be a susceptibility factor for developing diabetic nephropathy (DN). Although its major substrate, carnosine, is beneficial in rodent models of DN, translation of these findings to humans has been hampered by high CN1 activity in human serum resulting in rapid degradation of carnosine. To overcome this hurdle, we screened a protease-directed small-molecule library for inhibitors of human recombinant CN1. We identified SAN9812 as a potent and highly selective inhibitor of CN1 activity with a Ki of 11 nM...
June 20, 2018: Amino Acids
Luohua Jiang, Ann Johnson, Katherine Pratte, Janette Beals, Ann Bullock, Spero M Manson
OBJECTIVE: Evidence for long-term translational effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in minority populations is scarce. This article reports long-term outcomes, for up to 10 years, of such an intervention to prevent diabetes in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From January 2006 to July 2016, the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program implemented the Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention among 46 AI/AN health care programs...
June 18, 2018: Diabetes Care
Marina Babic, Chiara Romagnani
Current medicine and medical science puts great effort into elucidating the basis of chronicity and finding appropriate treatments for inflammatory diseases; however, the mechanisms driving aberrant immune responses are mostly unknown and deserve further study. Of particular interest is the identification of checkpoints that regulate the function and differentiation of pro-inflammatory cells during pathogenesis, along with means of their modulation for therapeutic purposes. Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) is a potent activator of the immune system, known as a sensor for "induced-self" ligands, i...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Niki Katsiki, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Dilek Ural, Massimo Volpe
There is an unmet need to prevent cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease development and progression worldwide. Losartan, the first angiotensin receptor blocker, was shown to exert significant cardioprotective and renoprotective effects in the LIFE (Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension) and RENAAL (Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan) trials. Losartan significantly prevented stroke and decreased serum uric acid levels and the rates of new-onset diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Fergus William Gardiner, Ezekiel Uba Nwose, Phillip Taderera Bwititi, Judith Crockett, Lexin Wang
Background: Diabetes education is believed to bring about sustained benefits in diabetes mellitus (DM) patient outcomes. These benefits have not been widely studied in an inpatient hospital setting, and as such the aim was to determine whether a hospital diabetes in-service, and specifically diabetes education, results in reduced blood glucose and HbA1c levels after hospital discharge. Methods and materials: A cohort review was performed at a large teaching hospital, in Canberra, Australia...
February 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Ermanno Cordelli, Giuseppe Maulucci, Marco De Spirito, Alessandro Rizzi, Dario Pitocco, Paolo Soda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Investigation of membrane fluidity by metabolic functional imaging opens up a new and important area of translational research in type 1 diabetes mellitus, being a useful and sensitive biomarker for disease monitoring and treatment. We investigate here how data on membrane fluidity can be used for diabetes monitoring. METHODS: We present a decision support system that distinguishes between healthy subjects, type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, and type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with complications...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Erik Ingelsson, Mark I McCarthy
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and obesity already represent 2 of the most prominent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and are destined to increase in importance given the global changes in lifestyle. Ten years have passed since the first round of genome-wide association studies for T2D and obesity. During this decade, we have witnessed remarkable developments in human genetics. We have graduated from the despair of candidate gene-based studies that generated few consistently replicated genotype-phenotype associations, to the excitement of an exponential harvest of loci robustly associated with medical outcomes through ever larger genome-wide association study meta-analyses...
June 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
Angela Lowenstern, Shuang Li, Ann Marie Navar, Salim Virani, L Veronica Lee, Michael J Louie, Eric D Peterson, Tracy Y Wang
BACKGROUND: The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol guideline recommends statin treatment based on patients' predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Whether clinician-reported guideline adoption translates to implementation into practice is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare clinician lipid management in hypothetical scenarios versus observed practice. METHODS: The PALM Registry asked 774 clinicians how they would treat 4 hypothetical scenarios of primary prevention patients with: (1) diabetes; (2) high 10-year ASCVD risk (≥7...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
Magnus K Olsen, Helene Johannessen, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
The number of people that are overweight and obese is continuously increasing both in the adult and adolescent populations. Coinciding with this is the increased prevalence of health problems such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Bariatric surgery is the only proven long-term treatment of obesity and may induce remission of T2D, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The translational studies presented here might provide insight on the mechanism of steady-state energy balance of the obese phenotype using a special time-restricted feeding regimen for weight loss during the steady-state energy balance; and mechanism by vagal blocking therapy (vBLoc® therapy) as a new treatment for obesity; and possible mechanism behind the remission of T2D following gastric bypass surgery...
June 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Julia Sbierski-Kind, Jonas Kath, Sebastian Brachs, Mathias Streitz, Matthias G von Herrath, Anja A Kühl, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek, Knut Mai, Joachim Spranger, Hans-Dieter Volk
Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, our knowledge is mostly based on conventional murine models and promising preclinical studies rarely translated into successful therapies. There is a growing awareness of the limitations of studies in laboratory mice, housed in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions, as relevant aspects of the human immune system remain unappreciated. Here, we assessed the impact of housing conditions on adaptive immunity and metabolic disease processes during high-fat diet (HFD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Patrick Pagesy, Caroline Tachet, Ali Mostefa-Kara, Etienne Larger, Tarik Issad
O-linked-β-N-Acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation), a reversible post-translational modification involved in diabetic complications, is regulated by only two enzymes, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase (OGA). Increased OGA expression has been described previously in blood cells from patients with diabetes and was interpreted as an adaptative response to hyperglycemia-induced O-GlcNAcylation. OGA expression was thus proposed to have potential utility as a diagnostic marker...
June 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Michael S Hu, Mimi R Borrelli, H Peter Lorenz, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
Cutaneous wound repair is a highly coordinated cascade of cellular responses to injury which restores the epidermal integrity and its barrier functions. Even under optimal healing conditions, normal wound repair of adult human skin is imperfect and delayed healing and scarring are frequent occurrences. Dysregulated wound healing is a major concern for global healthcare, and, given the rise in diabetic and aging populations, this medicoeconomic disease burden will continue to rise. Therapies to reliably improve nonhealing wounds and reduce scarring are currently unavailable...
2018: Stem Cells International
Tristan de Jesus, Sudhanshu Shukla, Parameswaran Ramakrishnan
O-linked β-N-acetyl glucosamine modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is a dynamic, reversible posttranslational modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. O-GlcNAcylation depends on nutrient availability and the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), which produces the donor substrate UDP-GlcNAc. O-GlcNAcylation is mediated by a single enzyme, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which adds GlcNAc and another enzyme, O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which removes O-GlcNAc from proteins. O-GlcNAcylation controls vital cellular processes including transcription, translation, the cell cycle, metabolism, and cellular stress...
June 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Danielle M Hessler, L Fisher, W H Polonsky, V Bowyer, M Potter
OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess patient motivation to initiate or maintain behavior changes. METHODS: Attitudinal statements were developed from structured patient interviews and translated into 18 survey items. Items were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis (EFA). RESULTS: An EFA with 340 type 2 diabetes patients identified three areas of patient attitudes toward changing health behaviors: (1) willingness to make changes (3 items; α = 0...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Sarah C Nyirjesy, Saba Sheikh, Denis Hadjiliadis, Diva D De Leon, Amy J Peleckis, Jack N Eiel, Christina Kubrak, Darko Stefanovski, Ronald C Rubenstein, Michael R Rickels, Andrea Kelly
BACKGROUND: Patients with pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis (PI-CF) meeting standard criteria for normal glucose tolerance display impaired β-cell secretory capacity and early-phase insulin secretion defects. We sought evidence of impaired β-cell secretory capacity, a measure of functional β-cell mass, amongst those with early glucose intolerance (EGI), defined as 1-hour OGTT glucose ≥155mg/dL (8.6 mmol/L). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Penn and CHOP Clinical & Translational Research Centers...
June 8, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
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