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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912745/ganoderma-lucidum-beta-1-3-1-6-glucan-as-an-immunomodulator-in-inflammation-induced-by-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#1
Yu-Sheng Wu, Shu-Ying Ho, Fan-Hua Nan, Shiu-Nan Chen
BACKGROUND: Binding of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) with the receptor results in a series of signal transfers (signalling cascades), which activates the transcription factors for regulating inflammation. Excess cholesterol intake leads to an increase in the distance between fat cells and capillaries, which may cause hypoxia in the fat tissue of obese mice. This hypoxia induces the death of fat cells, resulting in the inflammation of adipose tissue or an increase in the inflammatory gene expression associated with obesity...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911410/experimental-infection-with-listeria-monocytogenes-as-a-model-for-studying-host-interferon-%C3%AE-responses
#2
Jeeyoon Jennifer Ahn, Thirumahal Selvanantham, Monan Angela Zhang, Thierry Mallevaey, Shannon E Dunn
L. monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacterium that is a cause of food borne disease in humans. Experimental infection of mice with this pathogen has been highly informative on the role of innate and adaptive immune cells and specific cytokines in host immunity against intracellular pathogens. Production of IFN-γ by innate cells during sublethal infection with L. monocytogenes is important for activating macrophages and early control of the pathogen(1-3). In addition, IFN-γ production by adaptive memory lymphocytes is important for priming the activation of innate cells upon reinfection(4)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909848/tissue-resident-natural-killer-cells-in-the-livers
#3
REVIEW
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
Nature killer (NK) cells are important lymphocytes of the innate immune system, well known for their pivotal roles in immune surveillance and defense against tumor and virus-infected cells. Current studies have revealed that NK cells are not a homogeneous population, but instead consist of distinct subsets with diverse characteristics. As an organ with predominant innate immunity, the liver is enriched with NK cells, among which two distinct NK cell subsets have recently been identified: conventional NK (cNK) cells and tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells...
November 30, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899981/the-effect-and-clinical-efficacy-of-lienal-polypeptide-injection-combined-with-folfox-chemotherapy-regimen-in-colon-cancer-patients
#4
Juan Zhou, Guoping Niu, Yunfeng Pei, Chunping Cao, Chen Ding, Guangming Sun, Jing Guo, Yong Liu, Yang Yu
The aim was to investigate the clinical efficacy and immunomodulatory effect of lienal polypeptide injection combined with postoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen in colon cancer patients. A total of 84 colon cancer patients were selected between January, 2014 and December, 2015. The selected patients were randomly divided into the observation (42 patients) and control (42 patients) groups. The observation group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen combined with lienal polypeptide, whereas, the control group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapeutic regimen only...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899813/the-pro-fibrotic-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-in-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-experimental-liver-injury
#5
Xin M Wang, Lauren E Holz, Sumaiya Chowdhury, Shaun P Cordoba, Kathryn A Evans, Margaret G Gall, Ana Júlia Vieira de Ribeiro, Yuan Zhou Zheng, Miriam T Levy, Denise M T Yu, Tsun-Wen Yao, Natasa Polak, Christopher J Jolly, Patrick Bertolino, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Mark D Gorrell
Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process involving inflammation and extracellular matrix deposition. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as CD26, is a cell surface glycoprotein and serine protease. DPP4 binds to fibronectin, can inactivate specific chemokines, incretin hormone and neuropeptides, and influences cell adhesion and migration. Such properties suggest a pro-fibrotic role for this peptidase but this hypothesis needs in vivo examination. Experimental liver injury was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in DPP4 gene knockout (gko) mice...
November 30, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896824/patients-with-the-worst-outcomes-after-paracetamol-acetaminophen-induced-liver-failure-have-an-early-monocytopenia
#6
J K Moore, A C MacKinnon, T Y Man, J R Manning, S J Forbes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. AIM: To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. METHODS: In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited...
November 28, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890655/silver-nanoparticle-treatment-ameliorates-biliary-atresia-syndrome-in-rhesus-rotavirus-inoculated-mice
#7
Ruizhong Zhang, Zefeng Lin, Vincent Ch Lui, Kenneth Ky Wong, Paul Kh Tam, Puiyan Lee, Chun Nam Lok, Jonathan R Lamb, Yan Chen, Huimin Xia
Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal biliary system disease closely associated with viral infection and bile duct inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) have previously revealed antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we have investigated the effects of AgNps in the treatment of the Rhesus rotavirus inoculation induced BA in mice. The morphology, liver histopathology, clinical biochemistry examination, and inflammatory cells were analyzed in BA mice. Results indicated that AgNps could significantly increase the survival rate of BA mice, and reduce jaundice and weight lost and the liver enzymes and bilirubin metabolism clinical parameters were close to the normal levels...
November 25, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890369/anti-tumor-activity-of-tanshinone-iia-in-combined-with-cyclophosphamide-against-lewis-mice-with-lung-cancer
#8
Qi Li, Ke Hu, Si Tang, Li-Fang Xu, Yu-Chuan Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-tumor activity of tanshinone IIA in combined with cyclophosphamide against Lewis mice with lung cancer and the effect on cellular immune function. METHODS: Lewis tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the right armpit of mice in each group (n = 20) to establish Lewis lung cancer mice model. After model establishment, mice in the model group were given normal saline by lavage, qd. Mice in treatment I group were given intraperitoneal injection of Tan IIA, 15 mg/kg, qd...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882948/the-non-canonical-wnt-receptor-ryk-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-cell-repopulation-in-part-by-controlling-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#9
Farbod Famili, Laura Garcia Perez, Brigitta Ae Naber, Jasprina N Noordermeer, Lee G Fradkin, Frank Jt Staal
The development of blood and immune cells requires strict control by various signaling pathways in order to regulate self-renewal, differentiation and apoptosis in stem and progenitor cells. Recent evidence indicates critical roles for the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways in hematopoiesis. The non-canonical Wnt pathway is important for establishment of cell polarity and cell migration and regulates apoptosis in the thymus. We here investigate the role of the non-canonical Wnt receptor Ryk in hematopoiesis and lymphoid development...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835865/il-15-enhances-the-anti-tumor-activity-of-trastuzumab-against-breast-cancer-cells-but-causes-fatal-side-effects-in-humanized-tumor-mice-htm
#10
Anja K Wege, Florian Weber, Alexander Kroemer, Olaf Ortmann, Falk Nimmerjahn, Gero Brockhoff
Cancer immunotherapy has been shown to enhance established treatment regimens. We evaluated the potential reinforcing effect of IL-15 in trastuzumab treated humanized tumor mice (HTM) which were generated by concurrent transplantation of neonatal NOD-scid IL2Rγnull mice with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and HER2 positive breast cancer cells (metastasizing SK-BR-3, solid tumor forming BT474). We found that trastuzumab treatment efficacy mainly depends on the immediate anti-tumorigenic cellular effect which is significantly enhanced by tumor interacting immune cells upon cotransplantion of HSC...
November 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834065/human-leukocyte-antigen-c-genotype-and-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-ligand-matching-in-korean-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#11
Hyeyoung Lee, Ki Hyun Park, Hye Sun Park, Ji Hyeong Ryu, Jihyang Lim, Yonggoo Kim, Gun Hyung Na, Dong Goo Kim, Eun Jee Oh
BACKGROUND: The interaction between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and HLA class I regulates natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and function. The impact of NK cell alloreactivity through KIR in liver transplantation remains unelucidated. Since the frequency of HLA-C and KIR genotypes show ethnic differences, we assessed the impact of HLA-C, KIR genotype, or KIR-ligand mismatch on the allograft outcome of Korean liver allografts. METHODS: One hundred eighty-two living donor liver transplant patients were studied...
January 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828717/natural-killer-group-2a-expressed-on-both-peripheral-cd3-cd56-nk-cells-and-cd3-cd8-t-cells-plays-a-pivotal-negative-regulatory-role-in-the-progression-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#12
Rui-Tian Yi, Ying-Hua Niu, Hong-Li Liu, Tie-Ying Zhang, Yu-Cong Yang, Yu Zhang, Dong-Lin Yin, Tian-Yan Chen, Ying-Ren Zhao
To explore the role of surface receptors natural killer group 2A (NKG2A) and natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) on CD3(+)CD8(+)T cells and CD3(-)CD56(+)NK cells in the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), we measured the expression of NKG2A and NKG2D on the surface of these 2 types of circulating cells by flow cytometry in 3 groups. One group consists of 36 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), another one consists of 22 patients with HBV-related ACLF, and the last one has 12 normal controls (NC)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825995/ameliorative-effect-of-trametes-orientalis-polysaccharide-against-immunosuppression-and-oxidative-stress-in-cyclophosphamide-treated-mice
#13
Yi Zheng, Zhimin Zong, Shanglong Chen, Anhui Chen, Xianyong Wei
The present study evaluated the ameliorative effects of Trametes orientalis polysaccharide (TOP-2) against cyclophosphamide (CP) induced toxicity in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of TOP-2 not only effectively increased the thymus, spleen, heart, liver, and kidney indices, but also significantly enhanced the phagocytic activities of macrophages and splenocyte proliferation, dose-dependently. The lowered nitric oxide level of macrophages after CP treatment was elevated by TOP-2 administration. Impaired splenic natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes activities were remarkably enhanced by TOP-2...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821872/enterogenous-bacterial-glycolipids-are-required-for-the-generation-of-natural-killer-t-cells-mediated-liver-injury
#14
Yingfeng Wei, Benhua Zeng, Jianing Chen, Guangying Cui, Chong Lu, Wei Wu, Jiezuan Yang, Hong Wei, Rufeng Xue, Li Bai, Zhi Chen, Lanjuan Li, Kazuya Iwabuchi, Toshimitsu Uede, Luc Van Kaer, Hongyan Diao
Glycolipids are potent activator of natural killer T (NKT) cells. The relationship between NKT cells and intestinal bacterial glycolipids in liver disorders remained unclear. We found that, in sharp contrast to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury. ConA treatment failed to trigger the activation of hepatic NKT cells in GF mice. These defects correlated with the sharply reduced levels of CD1d-presented glycolipid antigens in ConA-treated GF mice compared with SPF counterparts...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814619/novel-strategies-to-target-cancer-stem-cells-by-nk-cells-studies-in-humanized-mice
#15
Anna K Kozlowska, Kawaljit Kaur, Paytsar Topchyan, Anahid Jewett
We have previously shown that following selection, Natural Killer (NK) cells, differentiate Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors via secreted and membrane bound IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, leading to prevention of tumor growth and remodeling of the tumor microenvironment. Since conventional therapeutic strategies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain unsuccessful in treating stem-like tumors, there has been an increasing interest in NK cell based immunotherapy for the treatment of resistant tumors...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798170/eomeshi-nk-cells-in-human-liver-are-long-lived-and-do-not-recirculate-but-can-be-replenished-from-the-circulation
#16
Antonia O Cuff, Francis P Robertson, Kerstin A Stegmann, Laura J Pallett, Mala K Maini, Brian R Davidson, Victoria Male
Human liver contains an Eomes(hi) population of NK cells that is not present in the blood. In this study, we show that these cells are characterized by a molecular signature that mediates their retention in the liver. By examining liver transplants where donors and recipients are HLA mismatched, we distinguish between donor liver-derived and recipient-derived leukocytes to show that Eomes(lo) NK cells circulate freely whereas Eomes(hi) NK cells are unable to leave the liver. Furthermore, Eomes(hi) NK cells are retained in the liver for up to 13 y...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788241/elevation-of-alanine-aminotransferase-activity-occurs-after-activation-of-the-cell-death-signaling-initiated-by-pattern-recognition-receptors-%C3%A2-but-before-activation-of-cytolytic-effectors-in-nk-or-cd8-t-cells-in-the-liver-during-acute-hcv-infection
#17
Youkyung H Choi, Nancy Jin, Fiona Kelly, SenthilKumar K Sakthivel, Tianwei Yu
Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) promote host defenses against HCV infection by binding to their corresponding adapter molecules leading to the initiation of innate immune responses including cell death. We investigated the expression of PRR genes, biomarkers of liver cell-death, and T cell and NK cell activation/inhibition-related genes in liver and serum obtained from three experimentally infected chimpanzees with acute HCV infection, and analyzed the correlation between gene expression levels and clinical profiles...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784631/structural-and-functional-annotation-of-human-fam26f-a-multifaceted-protein-having-a-critical-role-in-the-immune-system
#18
Uzma Malik, Aneela Javed, Amjad Ali, Kashif Asghar
BACKGROUND: Human immune system is a complex amalgam of a greatly diverse ensemble comprising of various cellular and non-cellular components, including proteins. FAM26F (family with sequence similarity 26, member F) is a relatively recently identified gene reported to play important role in diverse immune responses. Numerous studies have reported FAM26F to be differentially expressed in several viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, in certain pathophysiological conditions such as heart and liver transplantation, and in several cancers...
January 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770537/immunogenetic-factors-influencing-clinical-course-of-hcv-infection-review
#19
G Kamkamidze, M Butsashvili, K Gendzekhadze
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains one of the most important blood-borne diseases worldwide with about 130-170 million people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, and more than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases each year. Infection with HCV becomes chronic in approximately 80% of cases, while in up to 20% of cases hepatitis C virus is cleared from the human organism. Chronic infections of hepatitis C often leads to the end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760789/the-biodistribution-and-immune-suppressive-effects-of-breast-cancer-derived-exosomes
#20
Shu Wen Wen, Jaclyn Sceneay, Luize Goncalves Lima, Christina S F Wong, Melanie Becker, Sophie Krumeich, Richard J Lobb, Vanessa Castillo, Ke Ni Wong, Sarah Ellis, Belinda S Parker, Andreas Möller
Small membranous secretions from tumor cells, termed exosomes, contribute significantly to intercellular communication and subsequent reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we use optical imaging to determine that exogenously administered fluorescently labeled exosomes derived from highly metastatic murine breast cancer cells distributed predominantly to the lung of syngeneic mice, a frequent site of breast cancer metastasis. At the sites of accumulation, exosomes were taken up by CD45(+) bone marrow-derived cells...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Research
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