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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729109/stroma-the-forgotten-cells-of-innate-immune-memory
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Crowley, Christopher D Buckley, Andrew R Clark
All organisms are constantly exposed to a variety of infectious and injurious stimuli. These induce inflammatory responses tailored to the threat posed. Whilst the innate immune system is the front line of response to each stimulant, it has been traditionally considered to lack memory, acting in a generic fashion until the adaptive immune arm can take over. This outmoded simplification of the roles of innate and acquired arms of the immune system has been challenged by evidence of myeloid cells altering their response to subsequent encounters based on earlier exposure...
May 5, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726984/immune-cell-census-in-murine-atherosclerosis-cytometry-by-time-of-flight-illuminates-vascular-myeloid-cell-diversity
#2
Jennifer E Cole, Inhye Park, David Ahern, Christina Kassiteridi, Dina Danso Abeam, Michael Goddard, Patricia Green, Pasquale Maffia, Claudia Monaco
Aims: Atherosclerosis is characterised by the abundant infiltration of myeloid cells starting at early stages of disease. Myeloid cells are key players in vascular immunity during atherogenesis. However, the subsets of vascular myeloid cells have eluded resolution due to shared marker expression and atypical heterogeneity in vascular tissues. We applied the high-dimensionality of mass cytometry to the study of myeloid cell subsets in atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were fed a chow or a high fat (western) diet for 12 weeks...
May 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723367/innate-immunity-and-effector-and-regulatory-mechanisms-involved-in-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#3
Marilene Chaves Silvestre, Maria Notomi Sato, Vitor Manoel Silva Dos Reis
Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644257/intravenous-labeling-and-analysis-of-the-content-of-thymic-perivascular-spaces
#4
Roland Ruscher, Kristin A Hogquist
Following development in the thymus, T cells are thought to exit into the periphery predominantly through perivascular spaces (PVS). This exit route is used by conventional T cells, and likely also applies to unconventional T cell subsets, such as precursors of CD8αα and TCRγδ intraepithelial lymphocytes, regulatory T cells and natural killer T cells. Additional cell types might also be found in the PVS and initiate interactions with exiting T cells. The exact content of the PVS, and the processes within, are not well studied...
March 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643992/description-of-organ-specific-phenotype-and-functional-characteristics-of-tissue-resident-lymphocytes-from-liver-transplantation-donor-and-research-on-immune-tolerance-mechanism-of-liver
#5
Yunpeng Shi, Ping Zhang, Guangyi Wang, Xingkai Liu, Xiaodong Sun, Xin Zhang, Haijun Li, Jun Qi, Lei Ding, Ting Li, Ruoyan Zhang, Yuguo Chen, Jianpeng Zhou, Guoyue Lv, Zhengkun Tu
Aim: Prior to transplantation, Donation after Cardiac Death (DCD) liver transplantation livers are perfused with preservation solution. Therefore, this provides an abundant source of human liver lymphocytes, as well as mesenteric lymph node and spleen for the study of lymphocyte subset diversity in the peripheral blood, lymph node, spleen and liver. Methods: Lymphocyte subsets were isolated and purified from peripheral blood, lymph node, spleen and liver perfusion, the phenotypic and functional analysis of the tissue resident lymphocyte were performed by flow cytometry...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623561/nkt-cells-in-liver-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Shasha Zhu, Huimin Zhang, Li Bai
Natural killer T cells are innate-like and tissue-resident lymphocytes, which recognize lipid antigens and are enriched in the liver. Natural killer T cells play important roles in infections, tumors, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic diseases. In this study, we summarize recent findings on biology of natural killer T cells and their roles in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, autoimmune liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
April 6, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467466/distinguishing-human-peripheral-blood-nk-cells-from-cd56-dim-cd16-dim-cd69-cd103-resident-nasal-mucosal-lavage-fluid-cells
#7
Meghan E Rebuli, Erica A Pawlak, Dana Walsh, Elizabeth M Martin, Ilona Jaspers
Natural killer (NK) cells are members of the innate lymphoid cells group 1 (ILC1s), which play a critical role in innate host defense against viruses and malignancies. While many studies have examined the role of circulating peripheral blood (PB) CD56+ NK cells, little is known about the resident CD56+ cell population. Therefore, matched CD56+ cells from nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and PB of smokers and non-smokers were compared phenotypically, via flow cytometry, and functionally, via NK-cell specific gene expression...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452720/evaluation-of-the-biological-activities-of-the-il-15-superagonist-complex-alt-803-following-intravenous-versus-subcutaneous-administration-in-murine-models
#8
Bai Liu, Monica Jones, Lin Kong, Terra Noel, Emily K Jeng, Sixiang Shi, Christopher G England, Sarah Alter, Jeffrey S Miller, Weibo Cai, Peter R Rhode, Hing C Wong
ALT-803 is a fusion protein complex consisting of an interleukin (IL)-15 superagonist and a dimeric IL-15 receptor alpha sushi domain IgG1 Fc fusion protein. When administered to mice, ALT-803 is capable of inducing natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cell proliferation and activation, and effectively promoting potent anti-tumor responses. Currently, ALT-803 is in clinical trials for treatment of various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In the initial phase of these clinical studies, intravenous (iv) injection was used according to the route used in pre-clinical efficacy studies...
July 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444980/circulating-t-fh-cells-serological-memory-and-tissue-compartmentalization-shape-human-influenza-specific-b-cell-immunity
#9
Marios Koutsakos, Adam K Wheatley, Liyen Loh, E Bridie Clemens, Sneha Sant, Simone Nüssing, Annette Fox, Amy W Chung, Karen L Laurie, Aeron C Hurt, Steve Rockman, Martha Lappas, Thomas Loudovaris, Stuart I Mannering, Glen P Westall, Michael Elliot, Stuart G Tangye, Linda M Wakim, Stephen J Kent, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Immunization with the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) remains the most effective strategy to combat seasonal influenza infections. IIV activates B cells and T follicular helper (TFH ) cells and thus engenders antibody-secreting cells and serum antibody titers. However, the cellular events preceding generation of protective immunity in humans are inadequately understood. We undertook an in-depth analysis of B cell and T cell immune responses to IIV in 35 healthy adults. Using recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) probes to dissect the quantity, phenotype, and isotype of influenza-specific B cells against A/California09-H1N1, A/Switzerland-H3N2, and B/Phuket, we showed that vaccination induced a three-pronged B cell response comprising a transient CXCR5- CXCR3+ antibody-secreting B cell population, CD21hi CD27+ memory B cells, and CD21lo CD27+ B cells...
February 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423731/hiv-persistence-in-adipose-tissue-reservoirs
#10
REVIEW
Jacob Couturier, Dorothy E Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence describing adipose tissue as a reservoir for HIV-1 and how this often expansive anatomic compartment contributes to HIV persistence. RECENT FINDINGS: Memory CD4 T cells and macrophages, the major host cells for HIV, accumulate in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques. Whereas HIV and SIV proviral DNA is detectable in CD4 T cells of multiple fat depots in virtually all infected humans and monkeys examined, viral RNA is less frequently detected, and infected macrophages may be less prevalent in adipose tissue...
February 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336030/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-modulates-the-function-of-human-cd56-bright-nk-cells
#11
Uriel Y Moreno-Nieves, David C Mundy, June Ho Shin, Kenric Tam, John B Sunwoo
Human natural killer (NK) cells are divided into two subsets: CD56bright and CD56dim NK cells, which differ in maturation, function and distribution. Mechanisms regulating NK cell functions are not completely understood. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, that binds to a variety of endogenous and exogenous molecules, and that has recently been shown to modulate the function and differentiation of immune cells. Here, we studied the expression of AhR and its involvement in the regulation of NK cell functions...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311382/tissue-resident-cytolytic-innate-lymphocytes-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Briana G Nixon, Ming O Li
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical components of tissues in the body, providing a first line of defense against challenges to host integrity. In contrast to strictly cytokine-producing helper ILCs, resident innate lymphocyte populations with cytolytic potential have been identified in multiple tissues in both mouse and human. These cells express the transcription factor Tbet, NK cell receptors, granzymes, perforin, and death receptors, and can directly kill tumor cells. Signals in the tumor microenvironment may promote this response, including the cytokine IL-15 and stress-associated ligands for activating NK receptors...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296702/a-functional-dc-cross-talk-promotes-human-ilc-homeostasis-in-humanized-mice
#13
Silvia Lopez-Lastra, Guillemette Masse-Ranson, Oriane Fiquet, Sylvie Darche, Nicolas Serafini, Yan Li, Mathilde Dusséaux, Helene Strick-Marchand, James P Di Santo
Humanized mice harboring human hematopoietic systems offer a valuable small-animal model to assess human immune responses to infection, inflammation, and cancer. Human immune system (HIS) mice develop a broad repertoire of antigen receptor bearing B and T cells that can participate in adaptive immune responses after immunization. In contrast, analysis of innate immune components, including innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and natural killer (NK) cells, is limited in current HIS mouse models, partly because of the poor development of these rare lymphoid subsets...
April 11, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296700/il-33-il-25-and-tslp-induce-a-distinct-phenotypic-and-activation-profile-in-human-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#14
Ana Camelo, Guglielmo Rosignoli, Yoichiro Ohne, Ross A Stewart, Catherine Overed-Sayer, Matthew A Sleeman, Richard D May
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a distinct branch of the lymphoid lineage composed of 3 major subpopulations: ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3. ILCs are mainly described as tissue-resident cells but can be detected at low levels in human blood. However, unlike mouse ILCs, there is still no consistent methodology to purify and culture these cells that enables in-depth analysis of their intrinsic biology. Here, we describe defined culture conditions for ILC2s, which allowed us to dissect the roles of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) individually, or in combination, in modulating ILC2 phenotype and function...
April 11, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251733/parabiosis-reveals-leukocyte-dynamics-in-the-kidney
#15
Jeremie M Lever, Zhengqin Yang, Ravindra Boddu, Oreoluwa O Adedoyin, Lingling Guo, Reny Joseph, Amie M Traylor, Anupam Agarwal, James F George
The immune cellular compartment of the kidney is involved in organ development and homeostasis, as well as in many pathological conditions. Little is known about the mechanisms that drive intrarenal immune responses in the presence of renal tubular and interstitial cell death. However, it is known that tissue-resident leukocytes have the potential to have distinct roles compared with circulating cells. We used a parabiosis model in C57BL/6 CD45 congenic and green fluorescent protein transgenic mice to better understand the dynamics of immune cells in the kidney...
March 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247993/interleukin-33-il-33-a-nuclear-cytokine-from-the-il-1-family
#16
REVIEW
Corinne Cayrol, Jean-Philippe Girard
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a tissue-derived nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells, both during homeostasis and inflammation. It functions as an alarm signal (alarmin) released upon cell injury or tissue damage to alert immune cells expressing the ST2 receptor (IL-1RL1). The major targets of IL-33 in vivo are tissue-resident immune cells such as mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
January 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166586/the-broad-spectrum-of-human-natural-killer-cell-diversity
#17
REVIEW
Aharon G Freud, Bethany L Mundy-Bosse, Jianhua Yu, Michael A Caligiuri
Natural killer (NK) cells provide protection against infectious pathogens and cancer. For decades it has been appreciated that two major NK cell subsets (CD56bright and CD56dim ) exist in humans and have distinct anatomical localization patterns, phenotypes, and functions in immunity. In light of this traditional NK cell dichotomy, it is now clear that the spectrum of human NK cell diversity is much broader than originally appreciated as a result of variegated surface receptor, intracellular signaling molecule, and transcription factor expression; tissue-specific imprinting; and foreign antigen exposure...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163547/natural-killer-cells-from-the-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-underexpress-the-nkp30-and-nkp44-in-obese-persons-and-are-less-active-against-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-non-expressing-neoplastic-cells
#18
Alireza Shoae-Hassani, Maryam Behfar, Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Jafar Ai, Rashin Mohseni, Amir Ali Hamidieh
There are many types of leukocytes reside in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and among them, natural killer cells (NKs) comprise a major part. We show that the NKs that reside in the SAT (adipose tissue-derived NK cells; ADNKs) of the abdominal region found with phenotypic differences from the NKs circulating in the peripheral blood derived NK cells (PBNKs). In this survey, flow cytometry phenotyping was used to study the differences between the natural cytotoxicity receptor expression on ADNKs and PBNKs of both obese and lean persons...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152605/hepatic-natural-killer-t-cell-and-cd8-t-cell-signatures-in-mice-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#19
Jashdeep Bhattacharjee, Michelle Kirby, Samir Softic, Lili Miles, Rosa-Maria Salazar-Gonzalez, Pranav Shivakumar, Rohit Kohli
Hepatic inflammation is a key pathological feature of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). Natural Killer T-cells (NKT) and CD8+ T-cells are known to play an important role in obesity related adipose tissue inflammation. We hypothesized that these same inflammatory phenotypes would be present in progressive NASH. We used a previously established high fat high carbohydrate (HFHC) murine obesogenic diet model of progressive NASH to investigate the role of NKT cells and CD8+ T-cells in C57Bl6/J mice. Further, to better understand the impact of these cell populations; CD1d-deficient and CD8+ T-cell depleted mice were subjected to HFHC diet for 16 weeks...
June 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141868/geographic-clonal-tracking-in-macaques-provides-insights-into-hspc-migration-and-differentiation
#20
Chuanfeng Wu, Diego A Espinoza, Samson J Koelle, E Lake Potter, Rong Lu, Brian Li, Di Yang, Xing Fan, Robert E Donahue, Mario Roederer, Cynthia E Dunbar
The geographic distribution of hematopoiesis at a clonal level is of interest in understanding how hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and their progeny interact with bone marrow (BM) niches during regeneration. We tagged rhesus macaque autologous HSPCs with genetic barcodes, allowing clonal tracking over time and space after transplantation. We found marked geographic segregation of CD34+ HSPCs for at least 6 mo posttransplantation, followed by very gradual clonal mixing at different BM sites over subsequent months to years...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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