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AKI Ultrasound

Alice Sabatino, Giuseppe Regolisti, Laura Bozzoli, Filippo Fani, Riccardo Antoniotti, Umberto Maggiore, Enrico Fiaccadori
MAIN PROBLEM: In patients with Acute Kidney Injury there is a lack of nutritional variables that can assess nutritional status, more specifically lean body mass (LBM) and skeletal muscle mass, at the individual level. In this clinical setting, ultrasound (US)) of the quadriceps femoris could represent a widely available, non-invasive, affordable, and reliable tool to evaluate skeletal muscle. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional observational study in adult critically ill patients with KDIGO stage 3 AKI on dialysis...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Christine Stoops, Brian Sims, Russell Griffin, D J Askenazi
Despite improvements in survival of premature infants, many have comorbid conditions. The role of the kidney in multiorgan dysfunction is unclear, particularly in regard to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). We hypothesized that infants diagnosed with acute kidney injury (AKI) have an increased risk of IVH independent of gestational age (GA) and other variables associated with both comorbidities. This prospective cohort study consisted of 125 infants with a birth weight ≤1,200 g and/or GA ≤31 weeks. A definition of AKI was used from KDIGO, not including urine output as nonoliguria is common in this population...
August 5, 2016: Neonatology
Akinobu Nishimura, Shigeto Nakazora, Aki Fukuda, Ko Kato, Akihiro Sudo
A 25-year-old man with a pronation-external rotation type of fracture was surgically treated using a fibular plate. Five years later, he underwent resection of bone hyperplasia because of the ankle pain and limitation of range of motion. Thereafter, the left ankle became intermittently painful, which persisted for about one year. He presented at the age of 43 with persistent ankle pain. Physical and image analysis findings indicated a diagnosis of posttraumatic posterior tibial tendinitis, which we surgically treated using tendoscopy...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Emanuela de Cillis, Annamaria Dachille, Francesco Giardinelli, Tommaso Acquaviva, Alessandro Santo Bortone
INTRODUCTION: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) technique represents a real revolution in the field of interventional cardiology and medicine, in particular for the treatment of severe aortic valve stenosis in elderly patients or in patients when the periprocedural risk for the traditional surgical option is considered too high, as an alternative to the traditional aortic valve replacement. Although experience on the valves of the last generation is still limited in terms of time, the data currently available are definitely moving in the direction of a minimum hospital mortality (1%) as well as a drastic reduction in the incidence of complications when compared to the devices of the previous generation...
July 29, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Sara Samoni, Federico Nalesso, Mario Meola, Gianluca Villa, Massimo De Cal, Silvia De Rosa, Ilaria Petrucci, Alessandra Brendolan, Mitchell H Rosner, Claudio Ronco
An increase of glomerular filtration rate after protein load represents renal functional reserve (RFR) and is due to afferent arteriolar vasodilation. Lack of RFR may be a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI), but is cumbersome to measure. We sought to develop a non-invasive, bedside method that would indirectly measure RFR. Mechanical abdominal pressure, through compression of renal vessels, decreases blood flow and activates the auto-regulatory mechanism which can be measured by a fall in renal resistive index (RRI)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Aki Juhani Käräjämäki, Risto Bloigu, Heikki Kauma, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Olli-Pekka Koivurova, Juha Perkiömäki, Heikki Huikuri, Olavi Ukkola
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. However, there is a great overlap between these two diseases. The present study was aimed to examine the cardiovascular and metabolic prognosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with and without metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Middle-aged subjects (n=958) were divided into four subgroups, those with NAFLD and MetS, those with NAFLD or MetS, and healthy controls...
July 1, 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Marco Allinovi, Moin Saleem, Paola Romagnani, Peiman Nazerian, Wesley Hayes
BACKGROUND: Optimizing the target weight of infants and children on dialysis remains an important clinical challenge. The use of ultrasound to detect fluid overload in adult patients on dialysis is receiving growing attention. We hypothesized that fluid overload can be quantified in infants and children receiving dialysis using lung ultrasound. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, infants and children receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or acute kidney injury (AKI) in a regional paediatric nephrology centre were eligible...
April 6, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Mario Meola, Sara Samoni, Ilaria Petrucci, Claudio Ronco
Acute cortical necrosis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) are 2 clinical scenarios of parenchymal acute kidney injury (AKI) related to renal microvascular injury. Acute cortical necrosis is a rare condition related to an ischemic necrosis of renal cortex. Necrotic lesions can be due to several injuries and may be focal, multifocal or diffuse. Renal necrotic lesions become visible with ultrasound only after renal recovery. HUS is a rare disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and AKI. Color Doppler ultrasound is useful during diagnostic and follow-up phase...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Mario Meola, Sara Samoni, Ilaria Petrucci, Claudio Ronco
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is the most common type of acute kidney injury (AKI) related to parenchymal damage (90% of cases). It may be due to a direct kidney injury, such as sepsis, drugs, toxins, contrast media, hemoglobinuria and myoglobinuria, or it may be the consequence of a prolonged systemic ischemic injury. Conventional ultrasound (US) shows enlarged kidneys with hypoechoic pyramids. Increased volume is largely sustained by the increase of anteroposterior diameter, while longitudinal axis usually maintains its normal length...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Mario Meola, Federico Nalesso, Ilaria Petrucci, Sara Samoni, Claudio Ronco
Kidneys' imaging provides useful information in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and management. Today, several imaging techniques give information on kidneys anatomy, urinary obstruction, differential diagnosis between AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Ultrasound is a safe, non-invasive and repeatable imaging technique so it is widely used in the first level work-up of AKI. The utility of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in AKI or in AKI during CKD is limited because of renal toxicity associated with contrast agents used...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Eva ter Haar, Veerle Labarque, Thomas Tousseyn, Djalila Mekahli
We discuss a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) at a very young age caused by primary lymphomatous renal infiltration due to Burkitt's lymphoma and analyse the literature on this rare condition. At presentation, clinical examination showed impressive bilateral nephromegaly and hypertension. Blood analysis indicated severe AKI, mild anaemia and normal serum electrolytes. There were no signs of tumour lysis syndrome. Urine sediment was normal, with neither haematuria nor proteinuria. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated bilateral renal enlargement (+12 SD), with increased corticomedullar differentiation...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Jenni Tick, Aki Pulkkinen, Tanja Tarvainen
Photoacoustic tomography is a hybrid imaging method that combines optical contrast and ultrasound resolution. The goal of photoacoustic tomography is to resolve an initial pressure distribution from detected ultrasound waves generated within an object due to an illumination of a short light pulse. In this work, a Bayesian approach to photoacoustic tomography is described. The solution of the inverse problem is derived and computation of the point estimates for image reconstruction and uncertainty quantification is described...
April 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Gwo-Tsann Chuang, I-Jung Tsai, Ming-Tai Lin, Luan-Yin Chang
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease was well known for coronary artery abnormalities with few reports of incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). Our aim was to identify the rate of AKI in patients with Kawasaki disease and its associated factors. METHODS: All patients with Kawasaki disease admitted to a medical center from February 2004 to August 2014 were evaluated. Data collection included serum creatinine level, serial echocardiography reports, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, alanine transaminase level, urine white blood cell count, and renal ultrasound reports if available...
August 2016: Pediatric Research
Giuseppe Regolisti, Umberto Maggiore, Carola Cademartiri, Loredana Belli, Tiziano Gherli, Aderville Cabassi, Santo Morabito, Giuseppe Castellano, Loreto Gesualdo, Enrico Fiaccadori
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) following major heart surgery (MHS) is associated with early decrease in renal blood flow and worsened prognosis. Doppler-derived renal resistive index (RRI), which reflects renal vascular resistance, may predict the development of AKI in patients undergoing MHS. METHODS: We studied 60 consecutive patients (mean age 69.5 years, range 30-88, 41 males) undergoing MHS. We measured RRI, both at the renal sinus and intraparenchymally, by transesophageal echo-Doppler ultrasound (TE-EDus) at anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery in all patients...
March 19, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
Sean Carter, Abhijit Dixit, Andrew Lunn, Anjum Deorukhkar, Martin Christian
A case is presented of a neonate born at 32 weeks of gestation with intra-uterine growth retardation. The renal scan performed at 31 weeks showed oligohydramnios but normal kidneys. The neonate was oliguric from birth and required early peritoneal dialysis. Her urine showed heavy proteinuria, and the plasma albumin was very low. Post-natal ultrasonography showed large bright kidneys with reduced corticomedullary differentiation but no dysplastia; arterial and venous flow was normal on Doppler ultrasound. The quiz discusses the differential diagnosis with particular reference to whether this picture represents acute kidney injury with expected improvement or chronic kidney disease...
February 18, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Gül Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Heves Kırmızıbekmez, Akie Nakamura, Maki Fukami, Şükrü Hatun
Hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR; OMIM 146255) syndrome is a rare disease, inherited dominantly and found to be related with GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3) gene mutations. A 13-year and 8-month-old boy who presented with hypocalcemia was diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism. He also had dysmorphic facial features, renal anomaly (pelvic kidney), and mild sensorineural hearing loss. His cranial computed tomography revealed multiple calcifications in bilateral centrum semiovale, corona radiata, and basal ganglions suggesting a persistent hypoparathyroidism...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Daijiro Hori, Charles Hogue, Hideo Adachi, Laura Max, Joel Price, Christopher Sciortino, Kenton Zehr, John Conte, Duke Cameron, Kaushik Mandal
OBJECTIVES: Perioperative blood pressure management by targeting individualized optimal blood pressure, determined by cerebral blood flow autoregulation monitoring, may ensure sufficient renal perfusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the optimal blood pressure for individual patients, determined during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and during early postoperative period in intensive care unit (ICU). A secondary aim was to examine if excursions below optimal blood pressure in the ICU are associated with risk of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI)...
April 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Ansgar Reising, Carsten Hafer, Marcus Hiss, Jan T Kielstein, Jan Menne, Faikah Gueler, Jan Beneke, Silvia Linnenweber-Held, Hermann Haller, Gunilla Einecke
PURPOSE: Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and acute kidney injury (AKI) after infection with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (EHEC) are clinically important complications. We present a retrospective analysis of abdominal ultrasound findings in patients with HUS caused by EHEC O104:H4 (n = 41). METHODS: We assessed intrarenal resistance indices and quantitated kidney parenchymal density by the kidney/liver intensity ratio using computer-based image analysis. Findings in EHEC-HUS were compared to those in AKI due to other reasons (n = 60) and 19 healthy volunteers...
April 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Gong Wang, Qian Zhang, Zhongxiong Zhuo, Shengzheng Wu, Yali Xu, Linru Zou, Ling Gan, Kaibin Tan, Hongmei Xia, Zheng Liu, Yunhua Gao
Although the curative effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for acute kidney injury (AKI) have been recognized, their in vivo reparative capability is limited by the low levels of targeted homing and retention of intravenous injected cells. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) plays an important role in stem cell homing and retention through interaction with its specific functional receptor, CXCR4, which is presumably related to the poor homing in AKI therapy. However, most of the functional CXCR4 chemokine receptors are lost upon in vitro culturing...
February 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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