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plant biotechnology

Aleksandra Swida-Barteczka, Katarzyna Kruszka, Aleksandra Grabowska, Andrzej Pacak, Artur Jarmolowski, Marzena Kurowska, Iwona Szarejko, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
MicroRNAs are short molecules of 21-24 nt in length. They are present in all eukaryotic organisms and regulate gene expression by guiding posttranscriptional silencing of mRNAs. In plants, they are key players in signal transduction, growth and development, and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important monocotyledonous crop plant. Drought is the world's main cause of loss in cereal production. We have constructed a high-throughput Real-Time RT-qPCR platform for parallel determination of 159 barley primary microRNAs' levels...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Mauricio J Grisolia, Diego A Peralta, Hugo A Valdez, Julieta Barchiesi, Diego F Gomez-Casati, María V Busi
Starch binding domains of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana (SBD123) binds preferentially to cell wall polysaccharides rather than to starch in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing SBD123 in the cell wall are larger than wild type. Cell wall components are altered in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants are more susceptible to digestion than wild type and present higher released glucose content. Our results suggest that the transgenic plants have an advantage for the production of bioethanol in terms of saccharification of essential substrates...
October 21, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
René Heppner, Nicola Weichert, Angelika Schierhorn, Udo Conrad, Markus Pietzsch
Spider dragline is used by many members of the Araneae family not only as a proteinogenic safety thread but also for web construction. Spider dragline has been shown to possess high tensile strength in combination with elastic behavior. This high tensile strength can be attributed to the presence of antiparallel β-sheets within the thread; these antiparallel β-sheets are why the protein is classified as a silk. Due to the properties of spider silk and its technical and medical uses, including its use as a suture material and as a scaffold for tissue regeneration, spider dragline is a focus of the biotechnology industry...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Efficient N Ncube, Paul A Steenkamp, Ntakadzeni E Madala, Ian A Dubery
Centella asiatica is a perrenial herb that grows in tropical regions with numerous medicinal properties mostly attributed to the presence of pentacyclic triterpenoids. Interestingly, this plant also possess a significant amount of phenylpropanoid-derived chlorogenic acids (CGAs) that have recently been reported to confer neuroprotective properties. In a biotechnological attempt to increase the biosynthesis of CGA-derivatives in cultured Centella cells, acibenzolar-S-methyl was applied as a xenobiotic inducer in combination with quinic acid and shikimic acid as precursor molecules...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qing Zhao, Xiao-Ya Chen, Cathie Martin
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, or Chinese skullcap, has been widely used as a medicinal plant in China for thousands of years, where the preparation from its roots is called Huang-Qin. It has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, hemorrhaging, insomnia, inflammation and respiratory infections. Flavones such as baicalin, wogonoside and their aglycones baicalein wogonin are the major bioactive compounds extracted from the root of S. baicalensis. These flavones have been reported to have various pharmacological functions, including anti-cancer, hepatoprotection, antibacterial and antiviral, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects...
2016: Science Bulletin
Alan O Marron, Sarah Ratcliffe, Glen L Wheeler, Raymond E Goldstein, Nicole King, Fabrice Not, Colomban de Vargas, Daniel J Richter
Biosilicification (the formation of biological structures from silica) occurs in diverse eukaryotic lineages, plays a major role in global biogeochemical cycles and has significant biotechnological applications. Silicon (Si) uptake is crucial for biosilicification, yet the evolutionary history of the transporters involved remains poorly known. Recent evidence suggests that the SIT family of Si transporters, initially identified in diatoms, may be widely distributed, with an extended family of related transporters (SIT-Ls) present in some non-silicified organisms...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Julia Hilscher, Hermann Bürstmayr, Eva Stoger
The development of gene targeting and gene editing techniques based on programmable site-directed nucleases (SDNs) has increased the precision of genome modification and made the outcomes more predictable and controllable. These approaches have achieved rapid advances in plant biotechnology, particularly the development of improved crop varieties. Here, we review the range of alterations which have already been implemented in plant genomes, and summarize the reported efficiencies of precise genome modification...
October 11, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Sang-Mo Kang, Sajjad Asaf, Sang-Jun Kim, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
Leifsonia xyli SE134 is a potential plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from a soil in Daegu, Republic of Korea, which produces large amounts of gibberellin (GA) and indole acetic acid (IAA). In this study, we sequenced the complete genome of L. xyli SE134 by the Pacific Biosciences RSII (PacBio) Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing technology. The genome of L. xyli SE134 contains a single chromosome that is 3,596,761bp in length, with 70.2% G+C content. The genome contains 3466 protein-coding genes (CDSs) and 51 rRNA- and 46 tRNA-coding genes...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Bernadett Berecz Berecz, Helga Zelenyánszki, Sára Pólya, Cecília Tamás-Nyitrai, Mária Oszvald
Vaccines produced in plants have opened up new opportunities in vaccination. Among the various categories of vaccines, the recombinant vaccine is generally regarded as the most economical and safest type because it cannot cause disease and does not require large-scale cultivation of pathogens. Due to the low cost of their cultivation, plants may represent viable alternative platforms for producing subunit vaccines. Genetic engineering of plastids is the innovation of the last three decades and has numerous benefits when compared to nuclear transformation...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
J F Gutiérrez-Corona, P Romo-Rodríguez, F Santos-Escobar, A E Espino-Saldaña, H Hernández-Escoto
Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic metal for microorganisms as well as plants and animal cells. Due to its widespread industrial use, Cr has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species than the relatively innocuous and less mobile Cr(III) form. The study of the interactions between microorganisms and Cr has been helpful to unravel the mechanisms allowing organisms to survive in the presence of high concentrations of Cr(VI) and to detoxify and remove the oxyanion...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Chengzhen Liang, Zhaohong Meng, Zhigang Meng, Waqas Malik, Rong Yan, Khin Myat Lwin, Fazhuang Lin, Yuan Wang, Guoqing Sun, Tao Zhou, Tao Zhu, Jianying Li, Shuangxia Jin, Sandui Guo, Rui Zhang
The bZIP transcription factor (TF) act as an important regulator for the abscisic acid (ABA) mediated abiotic stresses signaling pathways in plants. Here, we reported the cloning and characterization of GhABF2, encoding for typical cotton bZIP TF. Overexpression of GhABF2 significantly improved drought and salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and cotton. However, silencing of GhABF2 made transgenic cotton sensitive to PEG osmotic and salt stress. Expression of GhABF2 was induced by drought and ABA treatments but repressed by high salinity...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rafael José Marques Peixoto, Karla Rodrigues Miranda, Leandro Araujo Lobo, Alessandra Granato, Pedro de Carvalho Maalouf, Hugo Emiliano de Jesus, Caio T C C Rachid, Saulo Roni Moraes, Henrique Fragoso Dos Santos, Raquel Silva Peixoto, Alexandre Soares Rosado, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues
The Antarctic soil microbial community has a crucial role in the growth and stabilization of higher organisms, such as vascular plants. Analysis of the soil microbiota composition in that extreme environmental condition is crucial to understand the ecological importance and biotechnological potential. We evaluated the efficiency of isolation and abundance of strict anaerobes in the vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica rhizosphere collected in the Antarctic's Admiralty Bay and associated biodiversity to metabolic perspective and enzymatic activity...
October 5, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
H J Zhang, F S Luan
The aim of the present study was to develop a transformation system that may be useful for introducing agronomically and biotechnologically relevant traits into melon. The production of transplanted melon with maternal inheritance of the transgene could solve problems related to outcrossing between genetically modified crops and conventional crops or their wild relatives. By analyzing the main influencing factors systematically, the pollination time was ascertained and the pollen-tube pathway genetic transformation system was optimized...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
J C Polonio, A D Polli, J L Azevedo, J A Pamphile
Endophytic microorganisms, mainly bacteria and fungi, have intrinsic relationships with the host plants, involving complex chemical and genetic communication networks. The relationship among these organisms involves the development of regulatory mechanisms of gene expression that control their development and response to different interactions. Although RNA molecules are already being used in studies of microorganism diversity and taxonomy, for example, using comparisons of rRNA regions, they may also be useful tools in the exploration of gene regulation and modeling of other molecules, such as the analysis of microRNA and small interfering RNAs...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Andreia Carina Turchetto-Zolet, Ana Paula Christoff, Franceli Rodrigues Kulcheski, Guilherme Loss-Morais, Rogerio Margis, Marcia Margis-Pinheiro
Since the first diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) gene was characterized in plants, a number of studies have focused on understanding the role of DGAT activity in plant triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. DGAT enzyme is essential in controlling TAGs synthesis and is encoded by different genes. DGAT1 and DGAT2 are the two major types of DGATs and have been well characterized in many plants. On the other hand, the DGAT3 and WS/DGAT have received less attention. In this study, we present the first general view of the presence of putative DGAT3 and WS/DGAT in several plant species and report on the diversity and evolution of these genes and its relationships with the two main DGAT genes (DGAT1 and DGAT2)...
October 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Ellis C O'Neill, Steven Kelly
The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules...
October 4, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Peter Biely
A carbohydrate esterase, called glucuronoyl esterase (GE), was discovered ten year ago in a cellulolytic system of the wood-rotting fungus Schizophyllum commune Genes coding for GEs were subsequently found in a number of microbial genomes and a new family of carbohydrate esterases (CE15) has been established. The multidomain structures of GEs together with their catalytic properties on artificial substrates and positive effect on enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass leads to the view that the esterases evolved for hydrolysis of the ester linkages between 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid of plant glucuronoxylans and lignin alcohols, one of the cross-links in the plant cell walls...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Dhivya Shanmughanandhan, Subramanyam Ragupathy, Steven G Newmaster, Saravanan Mohanasundaram, Ramalingam Sathishkumar
INTRODUCTION: India is considered the 'medicinal garden' of the world, with 8000 medicinal plants of which 960 are commercial species that are traded nationally and globally. Although scientific studies estimate herbal product adulteration as 42-66 % in North America, India does not have any published marketplace studies and subsequent estimates of adulteration in an industry facing considerable supply demands. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this project is to provide an initial assessment of herbal product authentication and adulteration in the marketplace in India by (1) developing a biological reference material (BRM) herbal DNA library for Indian herbal species using DNA barcode regions (ITS2 and rbcL) in order to facilitate accurate species resolution when testing the herbal products; and (2) assessing herbal product identification using our BRM library; and (3) comparing the use of our BRM library to identify herbal products with that of GenBank...
September 29, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Analia Alvarez, Juliana Maria Saez, José Sebastian Davila Costa, Veronica Leticia Colin, María Soledad Fuentes, Sergio Antonio Cuozzo, Claudia Susana Benimeli, Marta Alejandra Polti, María Julia Amoroso
Actinobacteria exhibit cosmopolitan distribution since their members are widely distributed in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In the environment they play relevant ecological roles including recycling of substances, degradation of complex polymers, and production of bioactive molecules. Biotechnological potential of actinobacteria in the environment was demonstrated by their ability to remove organic and inorganic pollutants. This ability is the reason why actinobacteria have received special attention as candidates for bioremediation, which has gained importance because of the widespread release of contaminants into the environment...
January 2017: Chemosphere
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