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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530187/application-of-snps-to-improve-yield-of-pisum-sativum-l-pea
#1
Ansar Mehmood, Ghulam Murtaza
Nanotechnology opens an enormous scope of novel application in the fields of biotechnology and agricultural industries, because nanoparticles (NPs) have unique physicochemical properties, i.e. high surface area, high reactivity, tunable pore size and particle morphology. Present study was carried out to determine the role of silver NPs (SNPs) to improve yield of Pisum sativum L. SNPs (10-100 nm) were synthesised by green method using extract of Berberis lycium Royle. Pea seeds were soaked and seedling were foliage sprayed by 0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm SNPs...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527114/current-and-future-editing-reagent-delivery-systems-for-plant-genome-editing
#2
REVIEW
Yidong Ran, Zhen Liang, Caixia Gao
Many genome editing tools have been developed and new ones are anticipated; some have been extensively applied in plant genetics, biotechnology and breeding, especially the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These technologies have opened up a new era for crop improvement due to their precise editing of user-specified sequences related to agronomic traits. In this review, we will focus on an update of recent developments in the methodologies of editing reagent delivery, and consider the pros and cons of current delivery systems...
May 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526530/insights-into-the-early-stage-of-pinus-nigra-arn-somatic-embryogenesis-using-discovery-proteomics
#3
Katarína Klubicová, Lubica Uvácková, Maksym Danchenko, Peter Nemecek, Ludovít Skultéty, Ján Salaj, Terézia Salaj
The somatic embryogenesis in conifers represents a suitable model of plant regeneration system facilitating studies of fundamental aspects of an early development as well as in vitro micropropagation. The aim of our study was to deeper understand the somatic embryogenesis in the conifer tree Pinus nigra Arn. Comparative proteomic analysis based on 2D-PAGE in 1) proliferating embryogenic tissues (E) initiated from immature zygotic embryos, 2) non-embryogenic calli (NEC) initiated from cotyledons of somatic seedlings of the same genotypes, 3) embryogenic tissues that lost the maturation capacity (E-L) of two cell lines (E362, E366)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521336/chemical-ecology-of-antibiotic-production-by-actinomycetes
#4
Anne van der Meij, Sarah F Worsley, Matthew I Hutchings, Gilles P van Wezel
Actinomycetes are a diverse family of filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of natural products relevant for agriculture, biotechnology and medicine, including the majority of the antibiotics we use in the clinic. Rather than as free-living bacteria, many actinomycetes have evolved to live in symbiosis with among others plants, fungi, insects and sponges. As a common theme, these organisms profit from the natural products and enzymes produced by the actinomycetes, for example, for protection against pathogenic microbes, for growth promotion or for the degradation of complex natural polymers such as lignocellulose...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511892/occurrence-and-biosynthesis-of-carotenoids-in-phytoplankton
#5
REVIEW
Jim Junhui Huang, Shaoling Lin, Wenwen Xu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition...
May 13, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511724/production-of-a-recombinant-swollenin-from-trichoderma-harzianum-in-escherichia-coli-and-its-potential-synergistic-role-in-biomass-degradation
#6
Clelton A Santos, Jaire A Ferreira-Filho, Anthonia O'Donovan, Vijai K Gupta, Maria G Tuohy, Anete P Souza
BACKGROUND: Fungal swollenins (SWOs) constitute a class of accessory proteins that are homologous to canonical plant expansins. Expansins and expansin-related proteins are well known for acting in the deagglomeration of cellulose structure by loosening macrofibrils. Consequently, SWOs can increase the accessibility and efficiency of the other enzymes involved in the saccharification of cellulosic substrates. Thus, SWOs are promising targets for improving the hydrolysis of plant biomass and for use as an additive to enhance the efficiency of an enzyme cocktail designed for the production of biofuels...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510258/diversity-of-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-associated-with-sugarcane
#7
J E L Antunes, M C C P Lyra, F J Ollero, A D S Freitas, L M S Oliveira, A S F Araújo, M V B Figueiredo
The sugarcane (Saccharum spp) presents economic importance, mainly for tropical regions, being an important Brazilian commodity. However, this crop is strongly dependent on fertilizers, mainly nitrogen (N). This study assessed the plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) associated with sugarcane that could be used as a potential inoculant to the crop. We evaluated the genetic diversity of PGPB in the plant tissue of sugarcane varieties (RB 867515, RB 1011, and RB 92579). The primer BOX-A1R was used to differentiate the similar isolated and further sequencing 16S rRNA ribosomal gene...
May 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502748/cytochrome-p450-diversity-in-the-tree-of-life
#8
David R Nelson
Sequencing in all areas of the tree of life has produced >300,000 cytochrome P450 (CYP) sequences that have been mined and collected. Nomenclature has been assigned to >41,000 CYP sequences and the majority of the remainder has been sorted by BLAST searches into clans, families and subfamilies in preparation for naming. The P450 sequence space is being systematically explored and filled in. Well-studied groups like vertebrates are covered in greater depth while new insights are being added into uncharted territories like horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), tardigrades (Hypsibius dujardini), velvet worm (Euperipatoides_rowelli), and basal land plants like hornworts, liverworts and mosses...
May 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501024/sensing-of-molecular-patterns-through-cell-surface-immune-receptors
#9
REVIEW
Stefanie Ranf
In plants, sensing of Pathogen/Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) and host-derived Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) by host cell surface Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) activates Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI). The identification of an increasing number of immunogenic patterns and PRRs illustrates that PTI is a universal defence mechanism against pathogens, pests, and parasitic plants, and that evolutionary selective pressure drives diversification of molecular patterns and diversity of PRRs...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499771/the-key-role-of-the-meat-industry-in-transformation-to-a-low-carbon-climate-resilient-sustainable-economy
#10
Frank Rijsberman
Climate change, air pollution and refugees have become key global challenges threatening sustainability of lifestyles, economies and ecosystems. Agri-food systems are the number one driver of environmental change. Livestock production is the world's largest land user, responsible for half of greenhouse gas emissions from agri-food systems, and the source of repeated health crises. Poor diets have become the number one cause of ill health. Recommendations for a healthy diet emphasize plant-based food. Rapidly falling costs in information technology, biotechnology, renewable energy and battery technology will disrupt current energy and transportation systems and offer opportunities for responsible meat production...
April 26, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492986/biosynthesis-and-bioactivity-of-glucosinolates-and-their-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#11
REVIEW
Pedro Joaquín Sánchez-Pujante, María Borja-Martínez, María Ángeles Pedreño, Lorena Almagro
Glucosinolates are biologically active compounds which are involved in plant defense reaction. The use of plant in vitro cultures and genetic engineering is a promising strategy for their sustainable production. Glucosinolates are a class of secondary metabolites found mainly in Brassicaceae, which contain nitrogen and sulfur in their structures. Glucosinolates are divided into three groups depending on the amino acid from which they are biosynthesized. Aliphatic glucosinolates are generally derived from leucine, valine, methionine, isoleucine and alanine while indole and aromatic glucosinolates are derived from tryptophan and phenylalanine or tyrosine, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483052/loss-of-type-iv-glandular-trichomes-is-a-heterochronic-trait-in-tomato-and-can-be-reverted-by-promoting-juvenility
#12
Eloisa Vendemiatti, Agustin Zsögön, Geraldo Felipe Ferreira E Silva, Frederico Almeida de Jesus, Lucas Cutri, Cassia Regina Fernandes Figueiredo, Francisco André Ossamu Tanaka, Fábio Tebaldi Silveira Nogueira, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres
Glandular trichomes are structures with widespread distribution and deep ecological significance. In the Solanum genus, type-IV glandular trichomes provide resistance to insect pests. The occurrence of these structures is, however, poorly described and controversial in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to screen a series of well-known commercial tomato cultivars, revealing the presence of type-IV trichomes on embryonic (cotyledons) and juvenile leaves...
June 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481341/genome-sequencing-and-population-genomic-analyses-provide-insights-into-the-adaptive-landscape-of-silver-birch
#13
Jarkko Salojärvi, Olli-Pekka Smolander, Kaisa Nieminen, Sitaram Rajaraman, Omid Safronov, Pezhman Safdari, Airi Lamminmäki, Juha Immanen, Tianying Lan, Jaakko Tanskanen, Pasi Rastas, Ali Amiryousefi, Balamuralikrishna Jayaprakash, Juhana I Kammonen, Risto Hagqvist, Gugan Eswaran, Viivi Helena Ahonen, Juan Alonso Serra, Fred O Asiegbu, Juan de Dios Barajas-Lopez, Daniel Blande, Olga Blokhina, Tiina Blomster, Suvi Broholm, Mikael Brosché, Fuqiang Cui, Chris Dardick, Sanna E Ehonen, Paula Elomaa, Sacha Escamez, Kurt V Fagerstedt, Hiroaki Fujii, Adrien Gauthier, Peter J Gollan, Pauliina Halimaa, Pekka I Heino, Kristiina Himanen, Courtney Hollender, Saijaliisa Kangasjärvi, Leila Kauppinen, Colin T Kelleher, Sari Kontunen-Soppela, J Patrik Koskinen, Andriy Kovalchuk, Sirpa O Kärenlampi, Anna K Kärkönen, Kean-Jin Lim, Johanna Leppälä, Lee Macpherson, Juha Mikola, Katriina Mouhu, Ari Pekka Mähönen, Ülo Niinemets, Elina Oksanen, Kirk Overmyer, E Tapio Palva, Leila Pazouki, Ville Pennanen, Tuula Puhakainen, Péter Poczai, Boy J H M Possen, Matleena Punkkinen, Moona M Rahikainen, Matti Rousi, Raili Ruonala, Christiaan van der Schoot, Alexey Shapiguzov, Maija Sierla, Timo P Sipilä, Suvi Sutela, Teemu H Teeri, Arja I Tervahauta, Aleksia Vaattovaara, Jorma Vahala, Lidia Vetchinnikova, Annikki Welling, Michael Wrzaczek, Enjun Xu, Lars G Paulin, Alan H Schulman, Martin Lascoux, Victor A Albert, Petri Auvinen, Ykä Helariutta, Jaakko Kangasjärvi
Silver birch (Betula pendula) is a pioneer boreal tree that can be induced to flower within 1 year. Its rapid life cycle, small (440-Mb) genome, and advanced germplasm resources make birch an attractive model for forest biotechnology. We assembled and chromosomally anchored the nuclear genome of an inbred B. pendula individual. Gene duplicates from the paleohexaploid event were enriched for transcriptional regulation, whereas tandem duplicates were overrepresented by environmental responses. Population resequencing of 80 individuals showed effective population size crashes at major points of climatic upheaval...
May 8, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481314/inferring-the-genetic-determinants-of-fruit-colors-in-tomato-by-carotenoid-profiling
#14
Hee Ju Yoo, Woo Jung Park, Gyu-Myung Lee, Chang-Sik Oh, Inhwa Yeam, Dong-Chan Won, Chang Kil Kim, Je Min Lee
Carotenoids are essential for plant and animal nutrition, and are important factors in the variation of pigmentation in fruits, leaves, and flowers. Tomato is a model crop for studying the biology and biotechnology of fleshy fruits, particularly for understanding carotenoid biosynthesis. In commercial tomato cultivars and germplasms, visual phenotyping of the colors of ripe fruits can be done easily. However, subsequent analysis of metabolic profiling is necessary for hypothesizing genetic factors prior to performing time-consuming genetic analysis...
May 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480491/double-genetically-modified-symbiotic-system-for-improved-cu-phytostabilization-in-legume-roots
#15
Patricia Pérez-Palacios, Asunción Romero-Aguilar, Julián Delgadillo, Bouchra Doukkali, Miguel A Caviedes, Ignacio D Rodríguez-Llorente, Eloísa Pajuelo
Excess copper (Cu) in soils has deleterious effects on plant growth and can pose a risk to human health. In the last decade, legume-rhizobium symbioses became attractive biotechnological tools for metal phytostabilization. For this technique being useful, metal-tolerant symbionts are required, which can be generated through genetic manipulation.In this work, a double symbiotic system was engineered for Cu phytostabilization: On the one hand, composite Medicago truncatula plants expressing the metallothionein gene mt4a from Arabidopsis thaliana in roots were obtained to improve plant Cu tolerance...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476978/study-of-bio-fabrication-of-iron-nanoparticles-and-their-fungicidal-property-against-phytopathogens-of-apple-orchards
#16
Hilal Ahmad, Kalyanaraman Rajagopal, Ashiq Hussain Shah, Arif Hussain Bhat, Kalyanaraman Venugopal
Current research trends on iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) are extensively focused because of their unique magnetic and electrical properties mostly applicable in essential medical devices. However, their fungicidal property against plant pathogens is very less known until date. Present study demonstrates a green technique for blending of FeNPs by utilising aqueous extract of neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) as reducing agent. Various characterisation techniques such as ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were performed for FeNPs...
April 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476773/genome-stability-in-engineered-strains-of-the-extremely-thermophilic-lignocellulose-degrading-bacterium-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii
#17
Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Farris L Poole, Jessica T Dinsmore, Gina L Lipscomb, Gabriel M Rubinstein, Israel M Scott, Jonathan M Conway, Laura L Lee, Piyum A Khatibi, Robert M Kelly, Michael W W Adams
Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is the most thermophilic cellulose-degrader known and is of great interest because of its ability to degrade non-pretreated plant biomass. For biotechnological applications, an efficient genetic system is required to engineer it to convert plant biomass into desired products. To date, two different genetically-tractable lineages of C. bescii strains have been generated. The first (JWCB005) is based on a random deletion within the pyrimidine biosynthesis genes pyrFA, and the second (MACB1018) is based on the targeted deletion of pyrE making use of a kanamycin resistance marker...
May 5, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473834/biotechnological-advancements-for-improving-floral-attributes-in-ornamental-plants
#18
REVIEW
Ali Noman, Muhammad Aqeel, Jianming Deng, Noreen Khalid, Tayyaba Sanaullah, He Shuilin
Developing new ornamental cultivars with improved floral attributes is a major goal in floriculture. Biotechnological approach together with classical breeding methods has been used to modify floral color, appearance as well as for increasing disease resistance. Transgenic strategies possess immense potential to produce novel flower phenotypes that are not found in nature. Adoption of Genetic engineering has supported the idea of floral trait modification. Ornamental plant attributes like floral color, fragrance, disease resistance, and vase life can be improved by means of genetic manipulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469608/genome-centric-analysis-of-a-thermophilic-and-cellulolytic-bacterial-consortium-derived-from-composting
#19
Leandro N Lemos, Roberta V Pereira, Ronaldo B Quaggio, Layla F Martins, Livia M S Moura, Amanda R da Silva, Luciana P Antunes, Aline M da Silva, João C Setubal
Microbial consortia selected from complex lignocellulolytic microbial communities are promising alternatives to deconstruct plant waste, since synergistic action of different enzymes is required for full degradation of plant biomass in biorefining applications. Culture enrichment also facilitates the study of interactions among consortium members, and can be a good source of novel microbial species. Here, we used a sample from a plant waste composting operation in the São Paulo Zoo (Brazil) as inoculum to obtain a thermophilic aerobic consortium enriched through multiple passages at 60°C in carboxymethylcellulose as sole carbon source...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460558/improvement-of-tissue-culture-genetic-transformation-and-applications-of-biotechnology-to-brassica
#20
Seyed Ali Ravanfar, Vladimir Orbovic, Mahdi Moradpour, Maheran Abdul Aziz, Ratna Karan, Simon Wallace, Saroj Parajuli
Development of in vitro plant regeneration method from Brassica explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is influenced by many factors such as culture environment, culture medium composition, explant sources, and genotypes which are reviewed in this study. An efficient in vitro regeneration system to allow genetic transformation of Brassica is a crucial tool for improving its economical value. Methods to optimize transformation protocols for the efficient introduction of desirable traits, and a comparative analysis of these methods are also reviewed...
May 2, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
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