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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158974/whole-genome-sequencing-of-rhodotorula-mucilaginosa-isolated-from-the-chewing-stick-distemonanthus-benthamianus-insights-into-rhodotorula-phylogeny-mitogenome-dynamics-and-carotenoid-biosynthesis
#1
Han Ming Gan, Bolaji N Thomas, Nicole T Cavanaugh, Grace H Morales, Ashley N Mayers, Michael A Savka, André O Hudson
In industry, the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is commonly used for the production of carotenoids. The production of carotenoids is important because they are used as natural colorants in food and some carotenoids are precursors of retinol (vitamin A). However, the identification and molecular characterization of the carotenoid pathway/s in species belonging to the genus Rhodotorula is scarce due to the lack of genomic information thus potentially impeding effective metabolic engineering of these yeast strains for improved carotenoid production...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157494/plant-metabolism-as-studied-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#2
REVIEW
Catherine Deborde, Annick Moing, Léa Roch, Daniel Jacob, Dominique Rolin, Patrick Giraudeau
The study of plant metabolism impacts a broad range of domains such as plant cultural practices, plant breeding, human or animal nutrition, phytochemistry and green biotechnologies. Plant metabolites are extremely diverse in terms of structure or compound families as well as concentrations. This review attempts to illustrate how NMR spectroscopy, with its broad variety of experimental approaches, has contributed widely to the study of plant primary or specialized metabolism in very diverse ways. The review presents recent developments of one-dimensional and multi-dimensional NMR methods to study various aspects of plant metabolism...
November 2017: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156585/pan-cellulosomics-of-mesophilic-clostridia-variations-on-a-theme
#3
Bareket Dassa, Ilya Borovok, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Raphael Lamed, Edward A Bayer, Sarah Moraïs
The bacterial cellulosome is an extracellular, multi-enzyme machinery, which efficiently depolymerizes plant biomass by degrading plant cell wall polysaccharides. Several cellulolytic bacteria have evolved various elaborate modular architectures of active cellulosomes. We present here a genome-wide analysis of a dozen mesophilic clostridia species, including both well-studied and yet-undescribed cellulosome-producing bacteria. We first report here, the presence of cellulosomal elements, thus expanding our knowledge regarding the prevalence of the cellulosomal paradigm in nature...
November 18, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151156/deep-rnaseq-indicates-protective-mechanisms-of-cold-tolerant-indica-rice-plants-during-early-vegetative-stage
#4
Raul Antonio Sperotto, Artur Teixeira de Araújo Junior, Janete Mariza Adamski, Denise Cargnelutti, Felipe Klein Ricachenevsky, Ben-Hur Neves de Oliveira, Renata Pereira da Cruz, Rinaldo Pires Dos Santos, Leila Picolli da Silva, Janette Palma Fett
Cold-tolerance in rice may be related to increased cellulose deposition in the cell wall, membrane fatty acids unsaturation and differential expression of several newly identified genes. Low temperature exposure during early vegetative stages limits rice plant's growth and development. Most genes previously related to cold tolerance in rice are from the japonica subspecies. To help clarify the mechanisms that regulate cold tolerance in young indica rice plants, comparative transcriptome analysis of 6 h cold-treated (10 °C) leaves from two genotypes, cold-tolerant (CT) and cold-sensitive (CS), was performed...
November 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150511/sulfolobus-acidocaldarius-uptakes-pentoses-via-a-cut2-type-abc-transporter-and-metabolizes-them-through-the-aldolase-independent-weimberg-pathway
#5
Michaela Wagner, Lu Shen, Andreas Albersmeier, Nienke van der Kolk, Sujin Kim, Jaeho Cha, Christopher Bräsen, Jörn Kalinowski, Bettina Siebers, Sonja-Verena Albers
Sulfolobus spp. possess a great metabolic versatility and grow heterotrophically on various carbon sources such as different sugars and peptides. Known sugar transporters in Archaea predominantly belong to ABC transport systems. Although several ABC transporters for sugar uptake have been characterized in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, only one homologue of these transporters, the maltose/maltooligomer transporter, could be identified in the closely related Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Comparison of the transcriptome of S...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147107/debated-agronomy-public-discourse-and-the-future-of-biotechnology-policy-in-ghana
#6
Joseph A Braimah, Kilian N Atuoye, Siera Vercillo, Carrie Warring, Isaac Luginaah
This paper examines the highly contested and ongoing biotechnology (Bt) policy-making process in Ghana. We analyse media content on how Bt is viewed in the context of Ghana's parliamentary debate on the Plant Breeders Bill and within the broader public policy-making literature. This paper does not seek to take a position on Bt or the Bill, but to understand how policy actors influence the debate with political and scientific rhetoric in Ghana. The study reveals that in the midst of scientific uncertainties of Bt's potential for sustainable agriculture production and food security, policy decisions that encourage its future adoption are heavily influenced by health, scientific, economic, environmental and political factors dictated by different ideologies, values and norms...
2017: Global Bioethics, Problemi di Bioetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146250/revitalization-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-for-sustainable-development-in-agriculture
#7
REVIEW
Sushanto Gouda, Rout George Kerry, Gitishree Das, Spiros Paramithiotis, Han-Seung Shin, Jayanta Kumar Patra
The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141235/bioremediation-of-pcb-contaminated-shallow-river-sediments-the-efficacy-of-biodegradation-using-individual-bacterial-strains-and-their-consortia
#8
Hana Horváthová, Katarína Lászlová, Katarína Dercová
Elimination of dangerous toxic and hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic compounds, mainly PCBs from the environment, is one of the most important aims of the environmental biotechnologies. In this work, biodegradation of an industrial mixture of PCBs (Delor 103, equivalent to Aroclor 1242) was performed using bacterial consortia composed of four bacterial strains isolated from the historically PCB-contaminated sediments and characterized as Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Rhodococcus ruber...
November 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137994/role-of-osmolytes-in-protein-folding-and-aggregation-in-cells-and-its-applications-in-biotechnology
#9
REVIEW
Gulam Rabbani
Nature has selected osmolytes to protect intracellular macromolecules against denaturing stress conditions. These molecules are accumulated in the intracellular environment at considerably high concentrations. In general, osmolytes are known to stabilize proteins. Osmolytes are small naturally occurring compound that are utilized as chemical chaperones by changing the environmental condition in diseased cellular stress state. Osmolytes are present in different organisms, including microorganisms, animals and plants...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136536/on-the-bright-side-of-a-forest-pest-the-metabolic-potential-of-bark-beetles-bacterial-associates
#10
Anna Fabryová, Martin Kostovčík, Alexandra Díez-Méndez, Alejandro Jiménez-Gómez, Lorena Celador-Lera, Zaki Saati-Santamaría, Hana Sechovcová, Esther Menéndez, Miroslav Kolařik, Paula García-Fraile
Bark beetles reproduce and overwinter under the bark of trees, and are associated with bacteria that may influence the fitness of their hosts. As regard the aim of this study was to test the metabolic potential of bacterial strains, isolated from the bark beetle species Cryphalus piceae, Ips typographus and Pityophthorus pityophthorus and collected in the Czech Republic from fir, spruce and pine trees, respectively, to degrade plant cell compounds. The bacterial strains were identified as belonging to the genera Curtobacterium, Erwinia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Staphylococcus, and Yersinia...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134148/transcriptome-dynamics-along-axolotl-regenerative-development-are-consistent-with-an-extensive-reduction-in-gene-expression-heterogeneity-in-dedifferentiated-cells
#11
Carlos Díaz-Castillo
Although in recent years the study of gene expression variation in the absence of genetic or environmental cues or gene expression heterogeneity has intensified considerably, many basic and applied biological fields still remain unaware of how useful the study of gene expression heterogeneity patterns might be for the characterization of biological systems and/or processes. Largely based on the modulator effect chromatin compaction has for gene expression heterogeneity and the extensive changes in chromatin compaction known to occur for specialized cells that are naturally or artificially induced to revert to less specialized states or dedifferentiate, I recently hypothesized that processes that concur with cell dedifferentiation would show an extensive reduction in gene expression heterogeneity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131478/gene-isolation-using-degenerate-primers-targeting-protein-motif-a-laboratory-exercise
#12
Brandon Pei Hui Yeo, Lian Chee Foong, Sheh May Tam, Vivian Lee, Siaw San Hwang
Structures and functions of protein motifs are widely included in many biology-based course syllabi. However, little emphasis is placed to link this knowledge to applications in biotechnology to enhance the learning experience. Here, the conserved motifs of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeats (NBS-LRR) proteins, successfully used for the isolation and characterization of many plant resistance gene analogues (RGAs), is featured in the development of a series of laboratory experiments using important molecular biology techniques...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129002/histological-characterization-of-passiflora-pohlii-mast-root-tips-cryopreserved-using-the-v-cryo-plate-technique
#13
Mariela J Simão, Myriam Collin, Renata O Garcia, Elisabeth Mansur, Georgia Pacheco, Florent Engelmann
Cryopreservation stands out as the main strategy to ensure safe and cost efficient long-term conservation of plant germplasm, especially for biotechnological materials. However, the injuries associated with the procedure may result in structural damage and low recovery rates after cooling. Histological analysis provides useful information on the effects of osmotic dehydration, LN exposure, and recovery conditions on cellular integrity and tissue organization, allowing the determination of the critical steps of the cryopreservation protocol and, thus, the use of optimized treatments...
November 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128887/the-effect-of-methanogenesis-inhibition-inoculum-and-substrate-concentration-on-hydrogen-and-carboxylic-acids-production-from-cassava-wastewater
#14
Norma C S Amorim, Eduardo L C Amorim, Mario T Kato, Lourdinha Florencio, Savia Gavazza
Manipueira is a carbohydrate-rich agro-industrial waste from cassava processing. It is considered well suitable for biotechnological processes, such as hydrogen and carboxylic acids production, due to the high content of easily degradable organic matter. However, the proper methanogenesis inhibition method, inoculum type, and organic loads are factors still limiting the processes. The objective in this work was to evaluate the effects of such factors on byproducts production in anaerobic reactors. Batch experiments were conducted with 2...
November 11, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127883/metabolic-engineering-of-yeast-for-lignocellulosic-biofuel-production
#15
REVIEW
Yong-Su Jin, Jamie Hd Cate
Production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass remains an unsolved challenge in industrial biotechnology. Efforts to use yeast for conversion face the question of which host organism to use, counterbalancing the ease of genetic manipulation with the promise of robust industrial phenotypes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains the premier host for metabolic engineering of biofuel pathways, due to its many genetic, systems and synthetic biology tools. Numerous engineering strategies for expanding substrate ranges and diversifying products of S...
November 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121909/successful-production-of-the-potato-antimicrobial-peptide-snakin-1-in-baculovirus-infected-insect-cells-and-development-of-specific-antibodies
#16
Natalia Inés Almasia, María Paula Molinari, Guillermo Andrés Maroniche, Vanesa Nahirñak, María Pilar Barrios Barón, Oscar Alberto Taboga, Cecilia Vazquez Rovere
BACKGROUND: Snakin-1 (StSN1) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from Solanum tuberosum. Its biotechnological potential has been already recognized since it exhibits in vivo antifungal and antibacterial activity. Most attempts to produce StSN1, or homologous peptides, in a soluble native state using bacterial, yeast or synthetic expression systems have presented production bottlenecks such as insolubility, misfolding or low yields. RESULTS: In this work, we successfully expressed a recombinant StSN1 (rSN1) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells by optimizing several of the parameters for its expression in the baculovirus expression system...
November 9, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120386/high-quality-unigenes-and-microsatellite-markers-from-tissue-specific-transcriptome-and-development-of-a-database-in-clusterbean-cyamopsis-tetragonoloba-l-taub
#17
Hukam C Rawal, Shrawan Kumar, Amitha Mithra S V, Amolkumar U Solanke, Deepti Nigam, Swati Saxena, Anshika Tyagi, Sureshkumar V, Neelam R Yadav, Pritam Kalia, Narendra Pratap Singh, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Tilak Raj Sharma, Kishor Gaikwad
Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub), is an important industrial, vegetable and forage crop. This crop owes its commercial importance to the presence of guar gum (galactomannans) in its endosperm which is used as a lubricant in a range of industries. Despite its relevance to agriculture and industry, genomic resources available in this crop are limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate RNA-Seq based transcriptome from leaf, shoot, and flower tissues. A total of 145 million high quality Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity into 127,706 transcripts and 48,007 non-redundant high quality (HQ) unigenes...
November 9, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118851/targeted-metatranscriptomics-of-compost-derived-consortia-reveals-a-gh11-exerting-an-unusual-exo-1-4-%C3%AE-xylanase-activity
#18
Bruno L Mello, Anna M Alessi, Diego M Riaño-Pachón, Eduardo R deAzevedo, Francisco E G Guimarães, Melissa C Espirito Santo, Simon McQueen-Mason, Neil C Bruce, Igor Polikarpov
Background: Using globally abundant crop residues as a carbon source for energy generation and renewable chemicals production stand out as a promising solution to reduce current dependency on fossil fuels. In nature, such as in compost habitats, microbial communities efficiently degrade the available plant biomass using a diverse set of synergistic enzymes. However, deconstruction of lignocellulose remains a challenge for industry due to recalcitrant nature of the substrate and the inefficiency of the enzyme systems available, making the economic production of lignocellulosic biofuels difficult...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107249/a-chitin-binding-lectin-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds-wsmol-impairs-the-digestive-physiology-of-the-mediterranean-flour-larvae-anagasta-kuehniella
#19
Caio Fernando Ramalho de Oliveira, Maiara Celine de Moura, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo
Biotechnological techniques allow the investigation of alternatives to outdated chemical insecticides for crop protection; some investigations have focused on the identification of molecules tailored from nature for this purpose. We, herein, describe the negative effects of water-soluble lectin from Moringa oleifera seeds (WSMoL) on Anagasta kuehniella development. The chitin-binding lectin, WSMoL, impaired the larval weight gain by 50% and affected the activity of the pest's major digestive enzymes. The commitment of the digestive process became evident after controlled digestion studies, where the capacity of protein digestion was compromised by >90%...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101852/engineering-microbial-fatty-acid-metabolism-for-biofuels-and-biochemicals
#20
REVIEW
Eko Roy Marella, Carina Holkenbrink, Verena Siewers, Irina Borodina
Traditional oleochemical industry chemically processes animal fats and plant oils to produce detergents, lubricants, biodiesel, plastics, coatings, and other products. Biotechnology offers an alternative process, where the same oleochemicals can be produced from abundant biomass feedstocks using microbial catalysis. This review summarizes the recent advances in the engineering of microbial metabolism for production of fatty acid-derived products. We highlight the efforts in engineering the central carbon metabolism, redox metabolism, controlling the chain length of the products, and obtaining metabolites with different functionalities...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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