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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922776/plants-for-human-health-greening-biotechnology-and-synthetic-biology
#1
Tessa Moses, Alain Goossens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920414/metagenomic-analysis-of-bacterial-community-structure-and-diversity-of-lignocellulolytic-bacteria-in-vietnamese-native-goat-rumen
#2
Huyen Thi Do, Khoa Trong Dao, Viet Khanh Hoang Nguyen, Giang Ngoc Le, Phuong Thi Mai Nguyen, Lam Tung Le, Nguyet Thu Phung, Nico van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Hai Nam Truong
Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen was conducted to elucidate a role of bacterial structure for effective degradation of plant materials. Methods: The metagenomic data had been subjected into Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTX) algorithm and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (NR) sequence database...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919928/the-yeast-geotrichum-candidum-encodes-functional-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases
#3
Simon Ladevèze, Mireille Haon, Ana Villares, Bernard Cathala, Sacha Grisel, Isabelle Herpoël-Gimbert, Bernard Henrissat, Jean-Guy Berrin
BACKGROUND: Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of powerful oxidative enzymes that have revolutionized our understanding of lignocellulose degradation. Fungal LPMOs of the AA9 family target cellulose and hemicelluloses. AA9 LPMO-coding genes have been identified across a wide range of fungal saprotrophs (Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, etc.), but so far they have not been found in more basal lineages. Recent genome analysis of the yeast Geotrichum candidum (Saccharomycotina) revealed the presence of several LPMO genes, which belong to the AA9 family...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918933/structural-proteomics-topology-and-relative-accessibility-of-plant-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins
#4
Pascale Jolivet, Laure Aymé, Alexandre Giuliani, Frank Wien, Thierry Chardot, Yann Gohon
Lipid droplets are the major stock of lipids in oleaginous plant seeds. Despite their economic importance for oil production and biotechnological issues (biofuels, lubricants and plasticizers), numerous questions about their formation, structure and regulation are still unresolved. To determine water accessible domains of protein coating at lipid droplets surface, a structural proteomic approach has been performed. This technique relies on the millisecond timescale production of hydroxyl radicals by the radiolysis of water using Synchrotron X-ray white beam...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915438/cell-wall-biomechanics-a-tractable-challenge-in-manipulating-plant-cell-walls-fit-for-purpose
#5
REVIEW
Kim L Johnson, Michael J Gidley, Antony Bacic, Monika S Doblin
The complexity and recalcitrance of plant cell walls has contributed to the success of plants colonising land. Conversely, these attributes have also impeded progress in understanding the roles of walls in controlling and directing developmental processes during plant growth and also in unlocking their potential for biotechnological innovation. Recent technological advances have enabled the probing of how primary wall structures and molecular interactions of polysaccharides define their biomechanical (and hence functional) properties...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913800/wheat-genetic-transformation-using-mature-embryos-as-explants
#6
Harsh Chauhan, Paramjit Khurana
Feeding the growing population utilizing the limited agricultural resources remains a great challenge. Plant biotechnology plays a vital role in crop improvement by incorporating desired quality traits, tolerance to abiotic stresses and resistance to biotic stresses, which are otherwise tough to achieve by conventional plant breeding methodologies. Genetic engineering is a powerful tool to develop desired traits in selected crops to make the crops suitable for future demand and environment. For genetic engineering of crops like wheat, the development of efficient transformation and regeneration systems has always been a prime requirement...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913796/allergenicity-assessment-of-transgenic-wheat-lines-in-silico
#7
Ankita Mishra, Naveen Arora
Agriculture biotechnology is a promising tool for developing varieties with enhanced quality and quantity. Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified (GM) food crops improve crop characteristics like nutritional value, taste, and texture, and endow plants with resistance against fungus, pests, and insects. Despite such potential benefits, there are concerns regarding possible adverse effects of GM crops on human health, animals and the environment. Among the proposed guidelines for GM food safety testing-the weight-of-evidence approach proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 03/34A) is the most recent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912524/precise-insertion-and-guided-editing-of-higher-plant-genomes-using-cpf1-crispr-nucleases
#8
Matthew B Begemann, Benjamin N Gray, Emma January, Gina C Gordon, Yonghua He, Haijun Liu, Xingrong Wu, Thomas P Brutnell, Todd C Mockler, Mohammed Oufattole
Precise genome editing of plants has the potential to reshape global agriculture through the targeted engineering of endogenous pathways or the introduction of new traits. To develop a CRISPR nuclease-based platform that would enable higher efficiencies of precise gene insertion or replacement, we screened the Cpf1 nucleases from Francisella novicida and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 for their capability to induce targeted gene insertion via homology directed repair. Both nucleases, in the presence of a guide RNA and repairing DNA template flanked by homology DNA fragments to the target site, were demonstrated to generate precise gene insertions as well as indel mutations at the target site in the rice genome...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904741/complete-genome-of-arthrobacter-alpinus-strain-r3-8-bioremediation-potential-unraveled-with-genomic-analysis
#9
Wah-Seng See-Too, Robson Ee, Yan-Lue Lim, Peter Convey, David A Pearce, Taznim Begam Mohd Mohidin, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok Gan Chan
Arthrobacter alpinus R3.8 is a psychrotolerant bacterial strain isolated from a soil sample obtained at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, close to the Antarctic Peninsula. Strain R3.8 was sequenced in order to help discover potential cold active enzymes with biotechnological applications. Genome analysis identified various cold adaptation genes including some coding for anti-freeze proteins and cold-shock proteins, genes involved in bioremediation of xenobiotic compounds including naphthalene, and genes with chitinolytic and N-acetylglucosamine utilization properties and also plant-growth-influencing properties...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902886/metabolic-engineering-to-simultaneously-activate-anthocyanin-and-proanthocyanidin-biosynthetic-pathways-in-nicotiana-spp
#10
Sandra Fresquet-Corrales, Edelín Roque, Alejandro Sarrión-Perdigones, Maricruz Rochina, María P López-Gresa, Huertas M Díaz-Mula, José M Bellés, Francisco Tomás-Barberán, José P Beltrán, Luis A Cañas
Proanthocyanidins (PAs), or condensed tannins, are powerful antioxidants that remove harmful free oxygen radicals from cells. To engineer the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways to de novo produce PAs in two Nicotiana species, we incorporated four transgenes to the plant chassis. We opted to perform a simultaneous transformation of the genes linked in a multigenic construct rather than classical breeding or retransformation approaches. We generated a GoldenBraid 2.0 multigenic construct containing two Antirrhinum majus transcription factors (AmRosea1 and AmDelila) to upregulate the anthocyanin pathway in combination with two Medicago truncatula genes (MtLAR and MtANR) to produce the enzymes that will derivate the biosynthetic pathway to PAs production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898466/an-overview-of-genetically-modified-crop-governance-issues-and-challenges-in-malaysia
#11
REVIEW
Andrew Johnny, Ismail Normaz Wana, Djama Marcel
The application of agricultural biotechnology attracts the interest of many stakeholders. Genetically modified (GM) crops, for example, are rapidly increase in production for the last 20 years. Despite its known benefits, GM crops also pose many concerns not only to human and animal health but also the environment. Malaysia, in general, allows the use of GM technology applications but it has to come with precautionary and safety measures consistent with the international obligations and domestic legal frameworks...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893713/next-generation-plant-metabolic-engineering-inspired-by-an-ancient-chinese-irrigation-system
#12
REVIEW
Rao Fu, Cathie Martin, Yang Zhang
Specialized secondary metabolites serve not only to protect plants against abiotic and biotic challenges, but have also been used extensively by humans to combat diseases. Due to the importance of medicinal plants for health, we need to find new and sustainable ways to produce their specialized metabolites. In addition to direct extraction, recent progress in metabolic engineering of plants offers alternative supply options. We argue that metabolic engineering for the production of some secondary metabolites in plants may have distinct advantages over microbial production platforms and we propose new approaches to plant metabolic engineering, inspired by an ancient Chinese irrigation system...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893188/developing-genome-reduced-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-strains-for-the-production-of-secondary-metabolites
#13
Xuemei Shen, Zheng Wang, Xianqing Huang, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xuehong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The current chassis organisms or various types of cell factories have considerable advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop various chassis for an efficient production of different bioproducts from renewable resources. In this context, synthetic biology offers unique potentialities to produce value-added products of interests. Microbial genome reduction and modification are important strategies for constructing cellular chassis and cell factories...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889118/biotechnology-of-siderophores-in-high-impact-scientific-fields
#14
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano
Different aspects of bacterial and fungal siderophore biotechnological applications will be discussed. Areas of application presented include, but are not limited to agriculture, medicine, pharmacology, bioremediation, biodegradation and food industry. In agriculture-related applications, siderophores could be employed to enhance plant growth due to their uptake by rhizobia. Siderophores hindered the presence of plant pathogens in biocontrol strategies. Bioremediation studies on siderophores discuss mostly the mobilization of heavy metals and radionuclides; the emulsifying effects of siderophore-producing microorganisms in oil-contaminated environments are also presented...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888960/complete-genome-sequence-of-endophyte-bacillus-flexus-klbmp-4941-reveals-its-plant-growth-promotion-mechanism-and-genetic-basis-for-salt-tolerance
#15
Tian-Tian Wang, Peng Ding, Pan Chen, Ke Xing, Juan-Luan Bai, Wen Wan, Ji-Hong Jiang, Sheng Qin
Bacillus flexus KLBMP 4941 is a halotolerant endophyte isolated from the halophyte Limonium sinense. This strain can improve host seedling growth under salt stress conditions. We here report the complete genome information of endophyte KLBMP 4941. It has a circular chromosome and two plasmids for a total genome 4,104,242 bp in size with a G+C content of 38.09%. Genes related to plant growth promotion (PGP), such as those associated with nitrogen fixation, siderophore, spermidine, and acetoin synthesis were found in the KLBMP 4941 genome...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885176/applications-of-bioinformatics-to-plant-biotechnology
#16
Diego F Gomez-Casati, María V Busi, Julieta Barchiesi, Diego A Peralta, Nicolás Hedin, Vijai Bhadauria
Bioinformatics encompasses many tools and techniques that today are essential for all areas of research in the biological sciences. New databases with a wealth of information about genomes, proteins, metabolites, and metabolic pathways appear almost daily. Particularly, for scientists who carry out research in plant biology, the amount of information has multiplied exponentially due to the large number of databases available for many individual plant species. In this sense, bioinformatics together with next generation sequencing and 'omics' approaches, can provide tools for plant breeding and the genetic engineering of plants...
September 8, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879616/isolation-and-identification-of-five-cold-inducible-promoters-from-oryza-sativa
#17
Juan Li, Ruiying Qin, Rongfang Xu, Hao Li, Yachun Yang, Li Li, Pengcheng Wei, Jianbo Yang
Five promoters of the cold-inducible rice genes were isolated. The quantitative and qualitative expression analyses in the high generation transgenic rice suggest that the genes are stably induced by low temperature. Cold-inducible promoters are highly desirable for stress-inducible gene expression in crop genetic engineering. In this study, five rice genes, including OsABA8ox1, OsMYB1R35, OsERF104, OsCYP19-4, and OsABCB5, were found to be transcriptionally induced by cold stress. The promoters of these five genes were isolated, and their activities were identified in various tissues of transgenic rice plants at different growth stages both before and after cold stress...
September 6, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874672/unravelling-a-stearidonic-acid-rich-triacylglycerol-biosynthetic-pathway-in-the-developing-seeds-of-buglossoides-arvensis-a-transcriptomic-landscape
#18
R V Sreedhar, P Prasad, L Prasanna Anjaneya Reddy, Ram Rajasekharan, Malathi Srinivasan
Buglossoides arvensis is an emerging oilseed crop that is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA) and has several potential applications in human health and nutrition. The molecular basis of SDA biosynthesis in this plant remains unknown due to lack of genomic information. To unravel key genes involved in SDA-rich triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, we performed transcriptome sequencing of pooled mRNA from five different developmental stages of B. arvensis seeds using Illumina NextSeq platform. De novo transcriptome assembly generated 102,888 clustered transcripts from 39...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873007/bioengineering-of-crop-plants-for-improved-tetrahydrofolate-production
#19
Bhupendra Chaudhary, Nagendra Singh, Dhananjay K Pandey
De novo synthesis of folates in plants is tightly regulated through feedback-regulation of certain pathway catalysts. Recently, we investigated the prospects of incessant production of folates in an evolutionary conjunction, through the overexpression of feedback targeted and evolutionarily conserved heterologous E.coli dihydroneopterin aldolase (EcDHNA) in tobacco (1) . The enhanced production of folates in the transgenic lines was associated with differential allosteric regulatory cavities accessible at EcDHNA surface having critical amino-acid differences as Ile 64 (His_63), Val 70 (Phe_69), His 75 (Arg_78) and Arg 79 (Glu_72)...
September 5, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871270/in-vivo-assembly-in-escherichia-coli-of-transformation-vectors-for-plastid-genome-engineering
#20
Yuyong Wu, Lili You, Shengchun Li, Meiqi Ma, Mengting Wu, Lixin Ma, Ralph Bock, Ling Chang, Jiang Zhang
Plastid transformation for the expression of recombinant proteins and entire metabolic pathways has become a promising tool for plant biotechnology. However, large-scale application of this technology has been hindered by some technical bottlenecks, including lack of routine transformation protocols for agronomically important crop plants like rice or maize. Currently, there are no standard or commercial plastid transformation vectors available for the scientific community. Construction of a plastid transformation vector usually requires tedious and time-consuming cloning steps...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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