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gaba-a activated ligand gated ion channels

Jean-Philippe Pin, Bernhard Bettler
The neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmit synaptic signals by activating fast-acting ligand-gated ion channels and more slowly acting G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The GPCRs for these neurotransmitters, metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) and GABAB receptors, are atypical GPCRs with a large extracellular domain and a mandatory dimeric structure. Recent studies have revealed how these receptors are activated through multiple allosteric interactions between subunit domains. It emerges that the molecular complexity of these receptors is further increased through association with trafficking, effector and regulatory proteins...
December 1, 2016: Nature
Sergio Valbuena, Juan Lerma
Neurotransmitter receptors are responsible for the transfer of information across the synapse. While ionotropic receptors form ion channels and mediate rapid membrane depolarization, so-called metabotropic receptors exert their action though slower, less direct intracellular signaling pathways. Glutamate, GABA, and acetylcholine can activate both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, yet the distinction between these "canonical" signaling systems has become less clear since ionotropic receptors were proposed to also activate second messenger systems, defining a "non-canonical" signaling pathway...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Mona A Alqazzaz, Kerry L Price, Sarah C R Lummis
Cys-loop receptors play important roles in signal transduction in multicellular organisms, but similar proteins exist in prokaryotes, the best studied of which is the Gloeobacter ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC). GLIC is activated by protons with 50% activation (pH50) at pH 5.5, and while a histidine residue in its pore-forming α-helix (M2) is known to be involved in gating, there is also evidence of a proton-sensitive region in the extracellular domain. However, this proton-sensitive region does not appear to be located in the region of GLIC equivalent to the agonist binding site in related proteins...
October 14, 2016: Biochemistry
Federico Comitani, Vittorio Limongelli, Carla Molteni
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) of the Cys-loop superfamily are important neuroreceptors that mediate fast synaptic transmission. They are activated by the binding of a neurotransmitter, but the details of this process are still not fully understood. As a prototypical pLGIC, here we choose the insect resistance to dieldrin (RDL) receptor involved in resistance to insecticides and investigate the binding of the neurotransmitter GABA to its extracellular domain at the atomistic level. We achieve this by means of μ-sec funnel-metadynamics simulations, which efficiently enhance the sampling of bound and unbound states by using a funnel-shaped restraining potential to limit the exploration in the solvent...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Xiaojun Xu, Caraline Sepich, Ronald J Lukas, Guonian Zhu, Yongchang Chang
Avermectins are a group of compounds isolated from a soil-dwelling bacterium. They have been widely used as parasiticides and insecticides, acting by relatively irreversible activation of invertebrate chloride channels. Emamectin is a soluble derivative of an avermectin. It is an insecticide, which persistently activates glutamate-gated chloride channels. However, its effects on mammalian ligand-gated ion channels are unknown. To this end, we tested the effect of emamectin on two cation selective nicotinic receptors and two GABA-gated chloride channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp...
May 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Frédéric Knoflach, Maria-Clemencia Hernandez, Daniel Bertrand
GABAA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that form a fundamental component of inhibitory neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, since the initial recordings of inhibitory electrical activity of neurons in response to GABA, these receptors have been found to play a more complex role and can, under some circumstances, function in an excitatory manner. This has been demonstrated via electrophysiological recordings conducted in both mature and developing neurons from different brain regions, as well as in various subcellular locations such as dendritic and axonal membranes...
September 1, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Eveline Wijckmans, Mieke Nys, Sarah Debaveye, Marijke Brams, Els Pardon, Katrien Willegems, Daniel Bertrand, Jan Steyaert, Rouslan Efremov, Chris Ulens
Cys-loop receptors are membrane spanning ligand-gated ion channels involved in fast excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Three-dimensional structures of these ion channels, determined by X-ray crystallography or electron microscopy, have revealed valuable information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying ligand recognition, channel gating and ion conductance. To extend and validate the current insights, we here present promising candidates for further structural studies. We report the biochemical and functional characterization of Cys-loop receptor homologues identified in the proteome of Alvinella pompejana, an extremophilic, polychaete annelid found in hydrothermal vents at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean...
2016: PloS One
Agenor Limon, Argel Estrada-Mondragón, Jorge M Reyes Ruiz, Ricardo Miledi
Dipicrylamine (DPA) is a commonly used acceptor agent in Förster resonance energy transfer experiments that allows the study of high-frequency neuronal activity in the optical monitoring of voltage in living cells. However, DPA potently antagonizes GABAA receptors that contain α1 and β2 subunits by a mechanism which is not clearly understood. In this work, we aimed to determine whether DPA modulation is a general phenomenon of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs), and whether this modulation depends on particular amino acid residues...
April 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Moawiah M Naffaa, Mary Chebib, David E Hibbs, Jane R Hanrahan
Five sets of ρ1 GABAC homology models were generated based on X-ray crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), the ion channel from Caenorhabditis elegans (GLIC), the ion channel from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC), the homomeric GABAA β3 ion channel, and the homomeric α-subunit of glutamate-gated homopentameric chloride channel (GluCl). The GluCl based model was found to the represent the structure of ρ1 GABAC receptors. The GABA pose docked in the selected best model was confirmed by QM-polarized ligand docking and induced fit docking protocol, and used to study molecular interactions in the ρ1 GABA binding site...
November 2015: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Paul Hoerbelt, Tara A Lindsley, Mark W Fleck
Dopamine is a critical neuromodulator that activates GPCRs in mammals or ligand-gated ion channels in invertebrates. The present study demonstrates that dopamine (0.1-10 mm) exerts novel, opposing effects on different populations of mammalian (rat) GABAA receptors. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we observed direct dopamine-mediated inhibition of tonic-level (1 μm) GABA-evoked currents in untransfected striatal neurons that could be recapitulated in HEK293 cells containing α1β3 or α1β2γ2 subunits...
February 25, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Saad Hannan, Martin Mortensen, Trevor G Smart
The snake neurotoxin α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgtx) is a competitive antagonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and is widely used to study their function and cell-surface expression. Increasingly, α-Bgtx is also used as an imaging tool for fluorophore-labelling studies, and given the structural conservation within the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family, we assessed whether α-Bgtx could bind to recombinant and native γ-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Applying fluorophore-linked α-Bgtx to recombinant αxβ1/2γ2 GABAARs expressed in HEK-293 cells enabled clear cell-surface labelling of α2β1/2γ2 contrasting with the weaker staining of α1/4β1/2γ2, and no labelling for α3/5/6β1/2γ2...
June 2015: Neuropharmacology
Werner Sieghart
GABAA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels composed of five subunits that can be opened by GABA and be modulated by multiple pharmacologically and clinically important drugs. Over the time, hundreds of compounds from different structural classes have been demonstrated to modulate, directly activate, or inhibit GABAA receptors, and most of these compounds interact with more than one binding site at these receptors. Crystal structures of proteins and receptors homologous to GABAA receptors as well as homology modeling studies have provided insights into the possible location of ligand interaction sites...
2015: Advances in Pharmacology
Nicholas P Franks
BACKGROUND: Most anesthetics, particularly intravenous agents such as propofol and etomidate, enhance the actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA type A receptor. However, there is no agreement as where anesthetics bind to the receptor. A novel approach would be to identify regions on the receptor that are state-dependent, which would account for the ability of anesthetics to affect channel opening by binding differentially to the open and closed states...
April 2015: Anesthesiology
Andrea N Beltrán González, Pablo E Pomata, Juan D Goutman, Javier Gasulla, Mary Chebib, Daniel J Calvo
GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). They are members of the Cys-loop receptor family and display marked structural and functional heterogeneity. Many GABA(A)Rs receptor subtypes are allosterically modulated by benzodiazepines (BDZs), which are drugs extensively used as anxiolytics, sedative-hypnotics and anticonvulsants. One high-affinity site and at least three additional low-affinity sites for BDZ recognition have been identified in several heteromeric and homomeric variants of the GABA(A)Rs (e...
November 15, 2014: European Journal of Pharmacology
Kristina N-M Daeffler, Henry A Lester, Dennis A Dougherty
The publication of the first high-resolution crystal structure of a eukaryotic Cys-loop receptor, GluClα, has provided valuable structural information on this important class of ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC). However, limited functional data exist for the GluCl receptors. Before applying the structural insights from GluCl to mammalian Cys-loop receptors such as nicotinic acetylcholine and GABA receptors, it is important to ensure that established functional features of mammalian Cys-loop receptors are present in the more distantly related GluCl receptors...
October 17, 2014: ACS Chemical Biology
Kim L Powell, Katarzyna Lukasiuk, Terence J O'Brien, Asla Pitkänen
Neuronal voltage-gated ion channels and ligand-gated synaptic receptors play a critical role in maintaining the delicate balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition within neuronal networks in the brain. Changes in expression of voltage-gated ion channels, in particular sodium, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) and calcium channels, and ligand-gated synaptic receptors, in particular GABA and glutamate receptors, have been reported in many types of both genetic and acquired epilepsies, in animal models and in humans...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ludovic Sauguet, Azadeh Shahsavar, Marc Delarue
BACKGROUND: Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast chemical transmission of nerve signals in the central and peripheral nervous system. On the functional side, these molecules respond to the binding of a neurotransmitter (glycine, GABA, acetylcholine or 5HT3) in the extracellular domain (ECD) by opening their ionotropic pore in the transmembrane domain (TMD). The response to the neurotransmitter binding can be modulated by several chemical compounds acting at topographically distinct sites, as documented by a large body of literature...
March 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Timothy Lynagh, Stephan A Pless
Cys-loop receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by a structurally diverse array of neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, serotonin, glycine, and GABA. After the term "chemoreceptor" emerged over 100 years ago, there was some wait until affinity labeling, molecular cloning, functional studies, and X-ray crystallography experiments identified the extracellular interface of adjacent subunits as the principal site of agonist binding. The question of how subtle differences at and around agonist-binding sites of different Cys-loop receptors can accommodate transmitters as chemically diverse as glycine and serotonin has been subject to intense research over the last three decades...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Nancy Stanslowsky, Alexandra Haase, Ulrich Martin, Maximilian Naujock, Andreas Leffler, Reinhard Dengler, Florian Wegner
INTRODUCTION: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer great promise for regenerative therapies or in vitro modelling of neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Currently, widely used cell sources for the generation of hiPSCs are somatic cells obtained from aged individuals. However, a critical issue concerning the potential clinical use of these iPSCs is mutations that accumulate over lifetime and are transferred onto iPSCs during reprogramming which may influence the functionality of cells differentiated from them...
2014: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
H Zemkova, V Tvrdonova, A Bhattacharya, M Jindrichova
Ivermectin acts as a positive allosteric regulator of several ligand-gated channels including the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl), gamma aminobutyric acid type-A receptor, glycine receptor, neuronal alpha7-nicotinic receptor and purinergic P2X4 receptor. In most of the ivermectin-sensitive channels, the effects of ivermectin include the potentiation of agonist-induced currents at low concentrations and channel opening at higher concentrations. Based on mutagenesis, electrophysiological recordings and functional analysis of chimeras between ivermectin-sensitive and ivermectin-insensitive receptors, it has been concluded that ivermectin acts by insertion between transmembrane helices...
2014: Physiological Research
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