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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214987/severe-convulsions-and-dysmyelination-in-both-jimpy-and-cx32-47-mice-may-associate-astrocytic-l-channel-function-with-myelination-and-oligodendrocytic-connexins-with-internodal-kv-channels
#1
Y H Gerald Chaban, Ye Chen, Elna Hertz, Leif Hertz
The Jimpy mouse illustrates the importance of interactions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. It has a mutation in Plp coding for proteolipid protein and DM20. Its behavior is normal at birth but from the age of ~2 weeks it shows severe convulsions associated with oligodendrocyte/myelination deficits and early death. A normally occurring increase in oxygen consumption by highly elevated K(+) concentrations is absent in Jimpy brain slices and cultured astrocytes, reflecting that Plp at early embryonic stages affects common precursors as also shown by the ability of conditioned medium from normal astrocytes to counteract histological abnormalities...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214984/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-nbp-provides-neuroprotection-in-the-mice-models-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#2
Zhengwei Liu, Handong Wang, Xiaofeng Shi, Liwen Li, Mengliang Zhou, Hui Ding, Youqing Yang, Xiang Li, Ke Ding
The present study was aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of NBP in the mice models of TBI, as well as the possible role of Nrf2-ARE pathways in the assumptive neuroprotection. In mice,a modified Marmarou's weight-drop model was employed to induce TBI. ICR mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: sham, TBI, TBI+vehicle(V) and TBI+NBP. NBP (100 mg/kg) was administered via an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection at 1 h following TBI. The administration of NBP significantly ameliorated the effects of the brain injury, including neurological deficits, brain water content, and cortical neuronal apoptosis...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214828/role-for-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-signal-pathway-in-regulating-neuronal-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#3
Jie-Ping Wang, Meng-Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase and activation of its signal pathway plays an important role in regulating protein growth and synthesis as well as cell proliferation and survival. In the present study, we examined the contribution of mTOR signal and its downstream products to brain injuries induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. METHODS: Western Blot analysis was employed to examine the protein expression of mTOR and its downstream pathway and Caspase-3...
January 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214521/neuroprotective-effect-of-salvianolic-acid-b-against-cerebral-ischemic-injury-in-rats-via-the-cd40-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-associated-with-suppression-of-platelets-activation-and-neuroinflammation
#4
Shixin Xu, Aiqin Zhong, Huining Ma, Dan Li, Yue Hu, Yingzhi Xu, Junping Zhang
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Activated platelets are increasingly regarded as initiators and/or amplifiers of inflammatory processes in cerebral I/R injury. Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is the most abundant bioactive compound of Salviae miltiorrhizae, a well-known Chinese herb used to promote blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis. S. miltiorrhizae has been used clinically in Asia for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212563/progression-of-motor-deficits-in-glioma-bearing-mice-impact-of-cnf1-therapy-at-symptomatic-stages
#5
Eleonora Vannini, Federica Maltese, Francesco Olimpico, Alessia Fabbri, Mario Costa, Matteo Caleo, Laura Baroncelli
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor. In this context, animal models represent excellent tools for the early detection and longitudinal mapping of neuronal dysfunction, that are critical in the preclinical validation of new therapeutic strategies. In a mouse glioma model, we developed sensitive behavioral readouts that allow early recognizing and following neurological symptoms. We injected GL261 cells into the primary motor cortex of syngenic mice and we used a battery of behavioral tests to longitudinally monitor the dysfunction induced by tumor growth...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210956/mdivi-1-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibition-of-drp1-activated-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Pei Wu, Yuchen Li, Shiyi Zhu, Chunlei Wang, Jiaxing Dai, Guang Zhang, Bingjie Zheng, Shancai Xu, Ligang Wang, Tongyu Zhang, PeiQuan Zhou, John H Zhang, Huaizhang Shi
Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Previous studies have shown that Mdivi-1 improves neurological outcomes after ischemia, seizures and trauma but it remains unclear whether Mdivi-1 can attenuate early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We thus investigated the therapeutic effect of Mdivi-1 on early brain injury following SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; SAH; SAH + vehicle; and SAH + Mdivi-1...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210902/deletion-of-mammalian-sterile-20-like-kinase-1-attenuates-neuronal-loss-and-improves-locomotor-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinal-cord-trauma
#7
Pan-Feng Wang, Da-Yuan Xu, Yuntong Zhang, Xiao-Bin Liu, Yan Xia, Pan-Yu Zhou, Qing-Ge Fu, Shuo-Gui Xu
Neuronal cell death following spinal cord injury (SCI) is an important contributor to neurological deficits. The purpose of our work was to delineate the function of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), a pro-apoptotic kinase and key mediator of apoptotic signaling, in the pathogenesis of an experimental mouse model of SCI. Male mice received a mid-thoracic spinal contusion injury, and it was found that phosphorylation of Mst1 at the injured site was enhanced significantly following SCI. Furthermore, when compared to the wild-type controls, Mst1-deficient mice displayed improved locomotor function by increased Basso mouse scale score...
February 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210528/atraumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-novice-surfer-a-comprehensive-review-and-update
#8
Christian Swinney, David Flick, Moses Cheng
Novice surfers are at risk for a rare but potentially devastating form of atraumatic myelopathy. There are 16 published studies on this condition, including 66 cases. The most common suggested mechanism of injury is static hyperextension. However, active mechanisms, in contrast to static, have also been proposed and may be contributory. First time surfers, defined as those who have never been on a surfboard prior to the day of injury, are at particular risk. These individuals make up 89.5%-100% of the reported novice surfers found in the various reports...
February 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#9
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208150/acute-and-subacute-presentations-of-cerebral-edema-following-deep-brain-stimulation-lead-implantation
#10
Albert J Fenoy, Sebastian J Villarreal, Mya C Schiess
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Postoperative cerebral edema around a deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode is an uncommon reported complication. The goal of this study was to identify instances of postoperative edema based on clinical presentation, and to remark on their management. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent DBS electrode implantation over a 3-year period. Routine CT imaging on postoperative day (POD) 1 was negative. Patients were identified based on clinical neurological changes, leading to imaging and subsequent diagnosis...
February 17, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207788/self-complementary-adeno-associated-virus-serotype-6-mediated-knockdown-of-adamts4-induces-long-term-and-effective-enhancement-of-aggrecan-in-degenerative-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells-a-new-therapeutic-approach-for-intervertebral-disc-disorders
#11
Demissew Shenegelegn Mern, Anja Tschugg, Sebastian Hartmann, Claudius Thomé
Inhibition of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, which is often accompanied by painful inflammatory and immunopathological processes, is challenging. Current IVD gene therapeutic approaches are based on adenoviral gene delivery systems, which are limited by immune reactions to their viral proteins. Their applications in IVDs near to sensitive neural structure could provoke toxicity and immunological side-effects with neurological deficits. Self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors, which do not express any viral gene and are not linked with any known disease in humans, are attractive therapeutic gene delivery vectors in degenerative IVDs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206829/validity-of-low-contrast-letter-acuity-as-a-visual-performance-outcome-measure-for-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Laura J Balcer, Jenelle Raynowska, Rachel Nolan, Steven L Galetta, Raju Kapoor, Ralph Benedict, Glenn Phillips, Nicholas LaRocca, Lynn Hudson, Richard Rudick
Low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) has emerged as the leading outcome measure to assess visual disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. As visual dysfunction is one of the most common manifestations of MS, sensitive visual outcome measures are important in examining the effect of treatment. Low-contrast acuity captures visual loss not seen in high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA) measurements. These issues are addressed by the MS Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC), including representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205497/critical-motor-involvement-in-prediction-of-human-and-non-biological-motion-trajectories
#13
Matthieu M de Wit, Laurel J Buxbaum
OBJECTIVES: Adaptive interaction with the environment requires the ability to predict both human and non-biological motion trajectories. Prior accounts of the neurocognitive basis for prediction of these two motion classes may generally be divided into those that posit that non-biological motion trajectories are predicted using the same motor planning and/or simulation mechanisms used for human actions, and those that posit distinct mechanisms for each. Using brain lesion patients and healthy controls, this study examined critical neural substrates and behavioral correlates of human and non-biological motion prediction...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204925/circumferential-fusion-for-degenerative-lumbar-spondylolisthesis-complicated-by-distal-junctional-grade-4-spondylolisthesis-in-the-sub-acute-post-operative-setting
#14
Alexander A Theologis, Deeptee Jain, Christopher P Ames, Murat Pekmezci
INTRODUCTION: Surgical management for lumbar stenosis is generally safe and provides significant improvements in pain, disability, and function. Successful lumbar decompression hinges on removing an appropriate amount of lamina and other compressive pathology in the lateral recess. Too little bony decompression can result in persistent pain and disability, while over resection of the pars and/or facets may jeopardize spinal stability. CASE REPORT: In this unique report, we present for the first time an acute iatrogenic grade 4 L5-S1 spondylolisthesis distal to a L3-5 laminectomy and circumferential instrumented fusion due to bilateral iatrogenic L5 pars fractures and its management and clinical outcomes after revision operation...
February 15, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203373/a-silent-skull-metastatic-follicular-thyroid-carcinoma-mimicking-as-a-benign-scalp-tumor-in-a-pregnant-woman
#15
Tsung-Chun Huang, Yu-Kai Cheng, Tsung-Wei Chen, Yung-Chang Hsu, En-Wei Liu, Hsin-Han Chen
: Thyroid cancer with cranial metastasis in a pregnant woman is very rare. In the literature, most cases are diagnosed early from neurogenic signs or symptomatic thyroid gland. Pregnancy also contributes to a hesitation toward early surgical and medical treatments. We reported a scalp tumor in a physically healthy 37-year-old pregnant female with a follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) with lung, bone and cranial metastasis in initial presentation. Silent neurogenic and physical examinations make an early diagnosis very challenging...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203181/bilateral-superior-cerebellar-artery-embolic-occlusion-with-a-fetal-type-posterior-cerebral-artery-providing-collateral-circulation
#16
Taylor J Bergman, Rachael C Saporito, Thomas Hope
Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203025/-trigemino-cardiac-reflex-in-skull-base-surgery
#17
H Z Duan, Y Zhang, L Li, J Y Zhang, Z Q Yi, S D Bao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism, clinical features, and prognosis of Trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) during skull base operations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 291 patients with skull base disease from Jan. 2009 to Oct. 2015 in Peking University First Hospital. By reviewing the patients' operative data and anaesthetic electrical record, and we picked out all the patients who suffered from TCR during the operation and analyzed their surgical procedures, clinical features, influence factors, and prognosis...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202819/-melas-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes
#18
Hidetomo Murakami, Kenjiro Ono
Mitochondrial disease is caused by a deficiency in the energy supply to cells due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease that presents with stroke-like episodes such as acute onset of neurological deficits and characteristic imaging findings. Stroke-like episodes in MELAS have the following features: 1) neurological deficits due to localization of lesions in the brain, 2) episodes often accompany epilepsy, 3) lesions do not follow the vascular supply area, 4) lesions are more often seen in the posterior brain than in the anterior brain, 5) lesions spread to an adjacent area in the brain, and 6) neurological symptoms often disappear together with imaging findings, but later relapse...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202411/dopamine-and-dopamine-receptor-d1-associated-with-decreased-social-interaction
#19
Qiang Liu, Jieyun Shi, Rongfei Lin, Tieqiao Wen
Deficits in social interaction are hallmarks of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here, we show that the loss of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) in the nervous system of mice induces social interaction deficiency, autism-like behaviour, and influences social interaction via the dopamine system. Dopamine receptor D1 agonist rescues this social cognition phenotype, and improves short-term plasticity. Together, this study presents a new genetic mechanism that affects social interaction and may provide a new way to improve positive social interaction and treat autism spectrum disorders...
February 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202095/the-effects-of-vitamin-and-mineral-supplementation-on-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
J Firth, B Stubbs, J Sarris, S Rosenbaum, S Teasdale, M Berk, A R Yung
BACKGROUND: When used as an adjunctive with antipsychotics, certain vitamins and minerals may be effective for improving symptomatic outcomes of schizophrenia, by restoring nutritional deficits, reducing oxidative stress, or modulating neurological pathways. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting effects of vitamin and/or mineral supplements on psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the standardized mean difference between nutrient and placebo treatments...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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