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Mohammad T Mazhab-Jafari, Alexis Rohou, Carla Schmidt, Stephanie A Bueler, Samir Benlekbir, Carol V Robinson, John L Rubinstein
Vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) are ATP-powered proton pumps involved in processes such as endocytosis, lysosomal degradation, secondary transport, TOR signalling, and osteoclast and kidney function. ATP hydrolysis in the soluble catalytic V1 region drives proton translocation through the membrane-embedded VO region via rotation of a rotor subcomplex. Variability in the structure of the intact enzyme has prevented construction of an atomic model for the membrane-embedded motor of any rotary ATPase. We induced dissociation and auto-inhibition of the V1 and VO regions of the V-ATPase by starving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, allowing us to obtain a ~3...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Matteo Mazzotti, Marco Miniaci, Ivan Bartoli
A hybrid Finite Element-Plane Wave Expansion method is presented for the band structure analysis of phononic crystal plates with two dimensional lattice that are in contact with acoustic half-spaces. The method enables the computation of both real (propagative) and imaginary (attenuation) components of the Bloch wavenumber at any given frequency. Three numerical applications are presented: a benchmark dispersion analysis for an oil-loaded Titanium isotropic plate, the band structure analysis of a water-loaded Tungsten slab with square cylindrical cavities and a phononic crystal plate composed of Aurum cylinders embedded in an epoxy matrix...
October 14, 2016: Ultrasonics
Yanfen Li, Malavika K Adur, Athilakshmi Kannan, Juanmahel Davila, Yuechao Zhao, Romana A Nowak, Milan K Bagchi, Indrani C Bagchi, Quanxi Li
Endometriosis, defined as growth of the endometrial cells outside the uterus, is an inflammatory disorder that is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility in women of childbearing age. Although the estrogen-dependence of endometriosis is well known, the role of progesterone in development of this disease remains poorly understood. In this study, we developed a disease model in which endometriosis was induced in the peritoneal cavities of immunocompetent female mice, and maintained with exogenous estrogen...
2016: PloS One
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Ann Goding Sauer, Rebecca L Siegel, Kimberly D Miller, Farhad Islami, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
Importance: State-specific information about the health burden of smoking is valuable because state-level initiatives are at the forefront of tobacco control. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality estimates are currently available nationally and by cancer, but not by state. Objective: To calculate the proportion of cancer deaths among adults 35 years and older that were attributable to cigarette smoking in 2014 in each state and the District of Columbia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer deaths due to cigarette smoking was computed using relative risks for 12 smoking-related cancers (acute myeloid leukemia and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx; esophagus; stomach; colorectum; liver; pancreas; larynx; trachea, lung, and bronchus; cervix uteri; kidney and renal pelvis; and urinary bladder) from large US prospective studies and state-specific smoking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
J N Sheets, M Iwanicki, J F Liu, B E Howitt, M S Hirsch, J A A Gubbels, R Drapkin, K A Egland
The cause of death among the majority of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients involves passive dissemination of cancer cells within the peritoneal cavity and subsequent implantation of cancer spheroids into adjacent organs. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that mediate EOC metastasis and implantation, including clearance of the mesothelium. Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2) encodes a type I transmembrane protein containing several functional domains inherent to adhesion molecules. Immunohistochemical analysis determined the presence of SUSD2 in several subtypes of EOC, with the strongest staining observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs)...
October 24, 2016: Oncogenesis
Boqian Sun, Shunyue Wang, Haixia Li, Xiaoxia He
A micromachined gyroscope in which a high-speed spinning rotor is suspended electrostatically in a vacuum cavity usually functions as a dual-axis angular rate sensor. An inherent coupling error between the two sensing axes exists owing to the angular motion of the spinning rotor being controlled by a torque-rebalance loop. In this paper, a decoupling compensation method is proposed and investigated experimentally based on an electrostatically suspended micromachined gyroscope. In order to eliminate the negative spring effect inherent in the gyroscope dynamics, a stiffness compensation scheme was utilized in design of the decoupled rebalance loop to ensure loop stability and increase suspension stiffness...
October 20, 2016: Sensors
Hyunwoo Bark, Jeongmin Lee, Ho Sun Lim, Hye Young Koo, Wonmok Lee, Hyunjung Lee
We report a simple method for preparing highly efficient thermoelectric materials through the fabrication of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide(GO) with a porous structure. The samples were produced by thermal annealing of GO/ nitrogen-rich polystyrene (N-PS) particle composite films using a colloidal templating method. N-PS particles were served as a nitrogen dopant source for the nitrogen-doped thermally reduced graphene oxide (TrGO) as well as sacrificial particles for the porous structure. The S values of the porous TrGO films were negative, indicating that the samples were transformed into n-type materials...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Heinrich Krobath, Tao Chen, Hue Sun Chan
Volumetric properties of proteins bear directly on their biological functions in hyperbaric environments and are useful in general as a biophysical probe. To gain insight into conformation-dependent protein volume, we developed an implicit-solvent atomic chain model that transparently embodies two physical origins of volume. First, a fundamental geometric term capturing the van der Waals volume of the protein and the particulate, finite-size nature of the water molecules, modeled together by the volume encased by the protein's molecular surface...
October 24, 2016: Biochemistry
Dong Hoon Suh, Miseon Kim, Hak Jae Kim, Kyung Hun Lee, Jae Weon Kim
In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed...
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Elke Scholten
An understanding of the effect of structural features of foods in terms of specific sensory attributes is necessary to design foods with specific functionalities, such as reduced fat or increased protein content, and increased feeling of satiety or liking. Although the bulk rheological properties of both liquid and solid foods can be related to textural attributes such as thickness and firmness, they do not always correlate to more complex sensory attributes, such as creamy and smooth. These attributes are often a result of different contributions, including lubrication aspects and interactions between food and components present in the oral cavity...
October 24, 2016: Food & Function
Teng Tan, M A Wolak, X X Xi, T Tajima, L Civale
Bulk niobium Superconducting Radio-Frequency cavities are a leading accelerator technology. Their performance is limited by the cavity loss and maximum acceleration gradient, which are negatively affected by vortex penetration into the superconductor when the peak magnetic field at the cavity wall surface exceeds the vortex penetration field (Hvp). It has been proposed that coating the inner wall of an SRF cavity with superconducting thin films increases Hvp. In this work, we utilized Nb ellipsoid to simulate an inverse SRF cavity and investigate the effect of coating it with magnesium diboride layer on the vortex penetration field...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ming Ma, Fei Yan, Minghua Yao, Zijun Wei, Dongliang Zhou, Heliang Yao, Hairong Zheng, Hangrong Chen, Jianlin Shi
Entirely differing from the common templating-based multistep strategy in fabricating multifunctional hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs), a facile and template-free synthetic strategy has been established in constructing a unique hollow/mesoporous organosilica nanocapsule concurrently encapsulating both isopentyl acetate (PEA) liquid and superparamagnetic iron oxides inside (denoted as PEA@OSNCs). This novel material exhibits ultrasmall and uniform particle size (~82 nm), high surface area (~534 m2 g-1) and excellent colloidal stability in aqueous solution...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kathleen M Clark, Jermaine L Jenkins, Nadia Fedoriw, Mark E Dumont
The function and localization of proteins and peptides containing C-terminal "CaaX" (Cys-aliphatic-aliphatic-anything) sequence motifs are modulated by post-translational attachment of isoprenyl groups to the cysteine sulfhydryl, followed by proteolytic cleavage of the aaX amino acids. The zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is one of two enzymes known to catalyze this cleavage. The only identified target of mammalian ZMPSTE24 is prelamin A, the precursor to the nuclear scaffold protein lamin A. ZMPSTE24 also cleaves prelamin A at a second site 15 residues upstream from the CaaX site...
October 24, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
A Gabriella Wernicke, Stefanie P Lazow, Shoshana Taube, Menachem Z Yondorf, Ilhami Kovanlikaya, Dattatreyudu Nori, Paul Christos, John A Boockvar, Susan Pannullo, Philip E Stieg, Theodore H Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Cesium-131 (Cs-131) brachytherapy is used to reduce local recurrence of resected brain metastases. In order to ensure dose homogeneity and reduce risk of radiation necrosis, inter-seed distance and cavity volume must remain stable during delivery. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of the "seeds-on-a-string" technique with intracavitary fibrin glue in achieving cavity volume stability. METHODS: We placed intra-operative Cs-131 brachytherapy in 30 cavities post-resection of brain metastases...
March 2016: Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown)
Hao Zhang, Xintao Wu
Metal-organic complexes (MOCs) as promising candidates for directly visual X-ray detection at room temperature are rare and discovered unexpectedly, even though every crystalline material needs X-ray diffraction studies. Here, we report a rational strategy of mimicking host-guest system for developing high-sensitive X-ray-induced photochromic materials. Two resulting calix-like metal-organic complexes (cMOC-1 and cMOC-2) were prepared by encapsulating the electron-capturing "guest" into the cavity of calix-like electron-donating "host...
April 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Teresa Franco, Serena Trapasso, Lidia Puzzo, Eugenia Allegra
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke has been identified as the main cause of oral cavity carcinoma. Recently, the electronic cigarette, a battery-operated device, was developed to help smokers stop their tobacco addiction. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of electronic cigarettes and to establish the possible role of such device in the primary prevention of oral cavity cancer. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study included 65 subjects who were divided into three groups (smokers, e-cigarette smokers, and nonsmokers)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan, Orinya Agbaji Orinya
Piroxicam is a benzothiazine compound with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic properties. Because of the very high efficacy of piroxicam and its increasing use in the treatment of carcinomas in dogs and cats, there is a need for acute toxicity study of piroxicam in monogastric animals and its potential for causing secondary poisoning in puppies. Piroxicam manufactured by Shanxi Federal Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. was used for this study. Revised up-and-down procedure was used for the estimation of median lethal dose in mouse (259...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Giancarlo Tirelli, Marco Piovesana, Annalisa Gatto, Lucio Torelli, Roberto Di Lenarda, Francesca Boscolo Nata
PURPOSE: Despite advances in the surgical management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the identification of synchronous lesions, precancerous lesions around the main tumor, or the unknown primary in the case of neck metastasis remains a problem, as these lesions may be invisible to the naked eye or with standard white light (WL) endoscopy. However, the advent of tools such as narrow-band imaging (NBI) could help the clinician. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of NBI during the pre-operative and intra-operative stages of management of oral and oropharyngeal cancers...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Jonathan C Simmonds, Elie E Rebeiz
Hemangiopericytomas are soft tissue tumors composed of pericytic cells that are characterized by their "staghorn" vascular branching and their variable clinical presentation. Fifteen to 25% of all HPC occur in the head and neck, with only 5% found in the nose or paranasal sinuses. Sinonasal hemangiopericytoma (SNHPC) is considered distinct from its soft tissue counterpart - the former showing a more uniform cellular organization, has convincing pericytic differentiation and is associated with a far better prognosis...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
B T Yang, Y Z Wang, F R Sun, J Y Dong
AIM: To investigate the key imaging points in distinguishing ossifying inverted papilloma (IP) from polyps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The native computed tomography (CT), conventional and enhanced MRI manifestations of 20 ossifying IPs and eight polyps, which were confirmed histopathologically, were retrospectively evaluated by two doctors majoring in head and neck imaging. RESULTS: A significant difference was detected between the two entities for the involved sites (p<0...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Radiology
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