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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439262/turn-up-the-heat-food-and-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolates-feature-two-transferrable-loci-of-heat-resistance
#1
Erik J Boll, Roger Marti, Henrik Hasman, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Marc Stegger, Kim Ng, Susanne Knøchel, Karen A Krogfelt, Joerg Hummerjohann, Carsten Struve
Heat treatment is a widely used process to reduce bacterial loads in the food industry or to decontaminate surfaces, e.g., in hospital settings. However, there are situations where lower temperatures must be employed, for instance in case of food production such as raw milk cheese or for decontamination of medical devices such as thermo-labile flexible endoscopes. A recently identified locus of heat resistance (LHR) has been shown to be present in and confer heat resistance to a variety of Enterobacteriaceae, including Escherichia coli isolates from food production settings and clinical ESBL-producing E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436180/control-mechanisms-for-producing-antimicrobial-factors-in-ruminant-mammary-gland
#2
REVIEW
Naoki Isobe
Mastitis, a symptom of inflammation in mammary tissue by infection with various kinds of bacteria, causes huge economic losses in the milk industry. One of the popular methods for treatment of mastitis is antibiotics, although this prohibits milk shipping and sometimes causes resistant microbes. Therefore, a new strategy to treat mastitis without antibiotics is eagerly required around the world. Antimicrobial factors belong to innate immunity and can start their function extremely early after bacterial stimulation...
April 24, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427433/prevalence-of-subclinical-mastitis-in-finnish-dairy-cows-changes-during-recent-decades-and-impact-of-cow-and-herd-factors
#3
Heidi Hiitiö, Johanna Vakkamäki, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio, Jouni Junnila, Sinikka Pelkonen, Satu Pyörälä
BACKGROUND: The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database...
April 20, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423887/the-effect-of-lactation-number-stage-length-and-milking-frequency-on-milk-yield-in-korean-holstein-dairy-cows-using-automatic-milking-system
#4
Tae Il Kim, Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan, Ji Hoo Park, Kwang Seok Ki, Dong Hyun Lim, Sang Bum Kim, Seong Min Park, Ha Yeon Jeong, Boem Young Park
Objective: The aim of the current study was to describe the relationship between milk yield and lactation number, stage, length and milking frequency in Korean Holstein dairy cows using automatic milking system. Methods: The original data set consisted of observations from April to October 2016 of 780 Holstein cows, which a total of 10,751 milkings. Information about each time a cow milked by an AMS during the 24 hr, the AMS management system was recorded identification numbers of the AMS unit...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421381/lactase-non-persistence-and-lactose-intolerance
#5
REVIEW
Theodore M Bayless, Elizabeth Brown, David M Paige
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the clinical and nutritional significance of genetically determined lactase non-persistence and potential lactose and milk intolerance in 65-70% of the world's adult population. RECENT FINDINGS: Milk consumption is decreasing in the USA and is the lowest in countries with a high prevalence of lactase non-persistence. The dairy industry and Minnesota investigators have made efforts to minimize the influence of lactose intolerance on milk consumption...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416878/imitation-of-soymilk-cow-s-milk-mixed-enzyme-modified-cheese-their-composition-proteolysis-lipolysis-and-sensory-properties
#6
Barkat Ali, Kiran Yasmin Khan, Hamid Majeed, Lei Xu, Fengfeng Wu, Han Tao, Xueming Xu
Combined use of soymilk-cow's milk is a novel approach in food industry and has great potential to developed products with numerous health benefits. This study aimed to develop the enzyme-modified cheeses (EMCs) using soymilk-cow's milk. The curd was hydrolysed using combination of proteinases/peptidase to produce a range of proteolysed products followed by lipolysis to create flavoured EMCs. Results showed that enzymes led to an increase in amino acids (AA), free fatty acids (FFA), complex volatiles, and improved sensory attributes...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404206/farming-and-ranching-related-injuries-in-southern-idaho
#7
Jackson Shaver, Drew McRoberts, Brian O'Byrne, Bill Morgan, Kevin Krall, Christian Surjan, John Mayberry
INTRODUCTION: Agriculture is an inherently dangerous industry. We sought injury data for use with the Idaho Time Sensitive Emergency (TSE) system to formulate goals and track improvements. METHODS: Registries in southern Idaho were queried for ICD-9-CM diagnoses related to agriculture in 2014. Injuries known or likely to have occurred on properties intended for farming, ranching, animal care, or milk production, and relating to those activities were included. RESULTS: Among 72 patients, injuries were related to horses (31%), machinery (17%), ATVs (17%), and hay bales/haystacks (13%)...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393747/relationship-of-goat-milk-flow-emission-variables-with-milking-routine-milking-parameters-milking-machine-characteristics-and-goat-physiology
#8
G Romero, R Panzalis, P Ruegg
The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm...
April 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391464/processed-milk-waste-recycling-via-thermal-pretreatment-and-lactic-acid-bacteria-fermentation
#9
Mariam Kasmi, Moktar Hamdi, Ismail Trabelsi
Processed milk waste (MW) presents a serious problem within the dairy industries due to its high polluting load. Its chemical oxygen demand (COD) can reach values as high as 80,000 mg O2 L(-1). This study proposes to reduce the organic load of those wastes using thermal coagulation and recover residual valuable components via fermentation. Thermal process results showed that the COD removal rates exceeded 40% when samples were treated at temperature above 60 °C to reach 72% at 100 °C. Clarified supernatants resulting from thermal treatment of the samples at the temperatures of 60 (MW60), 80 (MW80), and 100 °C (MW100) were fermented using lactic acid bacteria strains without pH control...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390725/comparison-of-a-commercially-available-oral-nutritional-supplement-and-intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-dehydration-in-dairy-calves
#10
Jared D Taylor, Merel Rodenburg, Timothy A Snider
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390719/multiple-criteria-decision-making-process-to-derive-consensus-desired-genetic-gains-for-a-dairy-cattle-breeding-objective-for-diverse-production-systems
#11
C M Kariuki, J A M van Arendonk, A K Kahi, H Komen
Dairy cattle industries contribute to food and nutrition security and are a source of income for numerous households in many developing countries. Selective breeding can enhance efficiency in these industries. Developing dairy industries are characterized by diverse production and marketing systems. In this paper, we use weighted goal aggregating procedure to derive consensus trait preferences for different producer categories and processors. We based the study on the dairy industry in Kenya. The analytic hierarchy process was used to derive individual preferences for milk yield (MY), calving interval (CIN), production lifetime (PLT), mature body weight (MBW), and fat yield (FY)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389982/the-assessment-and-the-farmers-perceived-ranking-of-feed-resources-and-coping-strategies-with-feed-scarcity-in-smallholder-dairy-farming-in-selected-district-towns-of-jimma-zone-ethiopia
#12
Belay Duguma, Veronique Dermauw, Geert Janssens
Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations...
April 8, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387024/protein-efficiency-in-intensive-dairy-production-a-swedish-example
#13
Christian Swensson, Helena Lindmark-Månsson, Annika Smedman, Maria Henriksson, Anna-Karin Modin Edman
BACKGROUND: Animal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants, such as dairy cows, can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384618/microwave-dielectric-spectroscopy-study-of-water-dynamics-in-normal-and-contaminated-raw-bovine-milk
#14
Daniel Agranovich, Paul Ben Ishai, Gil Katz, Dror Bezman, Yuri Feldman
The role of water in bovine milk is more complicated than that of a background solvent. To understand the interaction between water and the constituents of milk, an extensive dielectric study of the γ-dispersion of raw bovine milk was carried out over the frequency range 0.1-50GHz and the interval of temperatures (10°C-42°C). Samples were provided by utilizing an extended donor pool. The results reveal that the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation times is described by the Arrhenius law...
March 30, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380510/animal-behavior-and-well-being-symposium-optimizing-outcome-measures-of-welfare-in-dairy-cattle-assessment
#15
E Vasseur
In most countries producing milk, industry- or other stakeholder-driven initiatives are in place to improve welfare and overall dairy farming sustainability. Those initiatives typically include a system of verification of reaching targets and progress over time. Reliable indicators are a fundamental requirement to provide public assurance and allow improvement on farms. Assessing dairy cattle welfare through outcome measures of welfare is done today through visual evaluations, including those of lameness, injuries, hygiene, and body condition...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380001/changes-in-circulating-microrna-levels-can-be-identified-as-early-as-day-8-of-pregnancy-in-cattle
#16
Jason Ioannidis, F Xavier Donadeu
Poor reproductive performance remains a major issue in the dairy industry, with low conception rates having a significant impact on milk production through extended calving intervals. A major limiting factor is the lack of reliable methods for early pregnancy diagnosis. Identification of animals within a herd that fail to conceive within 3 weeks after insemination would allow early re-insemination and shorten calving intervals. In a previous study, we found an increase in plasma miR-26a levels in Day 16-pregnant relative to non-pregnant heifers, however changes in miRNA levels that early during pregnancy were very small which likely prevented the identification of robust biomarkers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365116/differential-somatic-cell-count-a-novel-method-for-routine-mastitis-screening-in-the-frame-of-dairy-herd-improvement-testing-programs
#17
Malin Damm, Claus Holm, Mette Blaabjerg, Morten Novak Bro, Daniel Schwarz
Somatic cell count (SCC) is used as key indicator in mastitis screening programs typically applied in the frame of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) testing programs. However, mastitis is still causing tremendous economic losses to the dairy industry. Hence, new biomarkers are needed that can be used for enhanced management of mastitis on dairy farms. Besides the determination of SCC, differentiation of cells has been described to be beneficial for a more definite description of the actual udder health status of dairy cows...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362468/galactomyces-geotrichum-moulds-from-dairy-products-with-high-biotechnological-potential
#18
Anna Grygier, Kamila Myszka, Magdalena Rudzińska
The article reviews the properties of the Galactomyces geotrichum species, the mould that is most important for the dairy industry. G. geotrichum mould has been isolated from milk, cheeses and alcoholic beverage. Its presence in food products makes it possible to obtain a characteristic aroma and taste, which corresponds to the needs and preferences of consumers. G. geotrichum plays an important role in ecology, where the mould is employed for the degradation of various hazardous substances and wastewater treatment...
January 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348863/massive-dispersal-of-coxiella-burnetii-among-cattle-across-the-united-states
#19
Sonora Olivas, Heidie Hornstra, Rachael A Priestley, Emily Kaufman, Crystal Hepp, Derek L Sonderegger, Karthik Handady, Robert F Massung, Paul Keim, Gilbert J Kersh, Talima Pearson
Q-fever is an underreported disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, which is highly infectious and has the ability to disperse great distances. It is a completely clonal pathogen with low genetic diversity and requires whole-genome analysis to identify discriminating features among closely related isolates. C. burnetii, and in particular one genotype (ST20), is commonly found in cow's milk across the entire dairy industry of the USA. This single genotype dominance is suggestive of host-specific adaptation, rapid dispersal and persistence within cattle...
August 2016: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347843/engineered-n-acetylhexosamine-active-enzymes-in-glycoscience
#20
REVIEW
Kristýna Slámová, Pavla Bojarová
BACKGROUND: In recent years, enzymes modifying N-acetylhexosamine substrates have emerged in numerous theoretical studies as well as practical applications from biology, biomedicine, and biotechnology. Advanced enzyme engineering techniques converted them into potent synthetic instruments affording a variety of valuable glycosides. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review presents the diversity of engineered enzymes active with N-acetylhexosamine carbohydrates: from popular glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases to less known oxidases, epimerases, kinases, sulfotransferases, and acetylases...
March 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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