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Milk industries

D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Laura C Knight, Ryan N Dilger
Iron deficiency is reported as the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide. Due to rapid growth, infants are at particular risk for developing iron deficiency, which can easily progress to iron deficiency anemia (IDA), if not treated. The aim of this study was to determine the lasting effects of an early-life iron deficiency after a period of dietary iron repletion. Forty-two intact male pigs were fed, ad libitum , either control (CONT, 21.3 mg Fe/L) or iron-deficient (ID 2.72 mg Fe/L) milk replacer from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 32 (phase 1)...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
Didier Raboisson, Pauline Trillat, Marie Dervillé, Célia Cahuzac, Elise Maigné
There is extensive literature addressing acceptable practices of colostrum distribution to new-born calves; however, no economic analyses are available concerning the profitability of this practice. Moreover, the health standards associated with colostrum management have been defined through the observation of reference farms without explicit reference to economic assessments. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the profitability of farm colostrum management and to define the optimal economic situations for given livestock systems and farm situations...
2018: PloS One
Frank R Greer
There is a long history of the use of starch in infant feeding. Proprietary infant foods (1867-1920) contained added starch from either cereal grains or malted carbohydrates. When evaporated milk became available in the 1920s, the use of proprietary foods fell out of favor. Evaporated milk formulas were a mixture of milk, water, and modified starch or milk sugar (lactose). By the late 1920s, however, corn syrup became the most common modified starch added to evaporated milk formulas as it was widely available, inexpensive, and readily accepted...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Marco Pane, Serena Allesina, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Francesca Deidda, Luca Mogna
GOALS: The purpose of this trial was to verify that the analytical method ISO 19344:2015 (E)-IDF 232:2015 (E) is valid and reliable for quantifying the concentration of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) in a finished product formulation. BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry assay is emerging as an alternative rapid method for microbial detection, enumeration, and population profiling. The use of flow cytometry not only permits the determination of viable cell counts but also allows for enumeration of damaged and dead cell subpopulations...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Alan S Kolok, Jonathan M Ali, Eleanor G Rogan, Shannon L Bartelt-Hunt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growth-enhancing chemicals used by the beef and dairy industries may be bioavailable to humans via milk, meat, and other environmental matrices. This review evaluates the potential for environmental transport and bioavailability of the active chemical to humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Bovine somatostatin is detectable in milk; however, there is no evidence that the protein persists in the environment nor that it is active in humans. In contrast, steroids are transported through milk and meat to humans where they may exert biological activity...
May 12, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
M J Vilar, M Hovinen, H Simojoki, P J Rajala-Schultz
The objective of this study was to survey drying-off practices and use of dry cow therapy (DCT) in Finland through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was accessible to all dairy farmers of the Finnish dairy herd recording system in 2016 (approximately 5,400 farms). In total, 715 dairy producers across the country, representative of the Finnish dairy industry, participated in the survey. Cows were dried off gradually in most of the farms. Most farms (78%) reported using selective DCT, whereas 9% of farms did not use any DCT, and 13% of farms applied blanket DCT...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Marco Franzoi, Carmen L Manuelian, Luigi Rovigatti, Emanuela Donati, Massimo De Marchi
Milk filtration procedures are gaining relevance in the dairy industry because milk ultra- and nanofiltrates are used to increase milk processing efficiency, and as additives for products with improved nutraceutical properties. This study aimed to develop Fourier-transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy calibrations for ultra- and nanopermeate and retentate fractions of defatted and delactosated milk. A total of 154 samples from different milk fractions were collected and analyzed using reference methods to determine protein, solids-not-fat, glucose, and galactose content...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Alejandra Gonzalez-Mejia, David Styles, Paul Wilson, James Gibbons
Evaluation of agricultural intensification requires comprehensive analysis of trends in farm performance across physical and socio-economic aspects, which may diverge across farm types. Typical reporting of economic indicators at sectorial or the "average farm" level does not represent farm diversity and provides limited insight into the sustainability of specific intensification pathways. Using farm business data from a total of 7281 farm survey observations of English and Welsh dairy farms over a 14-year period we calculate a time series of 16 key performance indicators (KPIs) pertinent to farm structure, environmental and socio-economic aspects of sustainability...
2018: PloS One
Yufang Liu, Monika Pischetsrieder
To evaluate if the recently identified antimicrobial milk peptides αS2 -casein182-207 and αS2 -casein151-181 can be of physiological or technological relevance, their presence in commercial milk was investigated. Thus, a UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS scheduled multiple reaction monitoring method was developed for quantification using stable isotope-labeled peptides. The developed protocol gave very good linear response (R2  > 0.99) for both peptides, recovery >95% and coefficients of variations of 5.51% and 4...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Raquel Breitenbach, Heber Rodrigues, Janaína Balk Brandão
Food safety is a crucial thematic to any nation and the frauds in the food chain are an increasingly phenomena nowadays. The general goal of the present work was to identify the perception and behavior of Brazilian fresh milk consumers' in relation to the fraud in the milk production and sell chain. A total of 1015 consumers answered an online questionnaire on the variables that shape decision-making (individual differences, environmental influences and psychological stimuli or processes) and the behavior related to this decision process...
June 2018: Food Research International
Jiang Zhang, Gang Wang, Chang Zhao, Yunlong Bai, Shi Shu, Ziling Fan, Cheng Xia
BACKGROUND: As the milk production of dairy cows increases, the reproductive capacity gradually declines. Ovarian quiescence has become one of the concerns of the dairy industry. OBJECTIVE: To explore the different plasma metabolites levels between estrus and anestrus in energy balanced (EB) dairy cows. METHODS: Ten estrous and ten anestrus EB Holstein cows in early lactation were selected for the study. EB cows, 14 to 21 days post-partum (Holstein; parity 3...
May 7, 2018: Veterinary Quarterly
Alexis Guionet, Bahareh Hosseini, Hidenori Akiyama, Hamid Hosano
The green algae Botryococcus braunii produces a high amount of extracellular hydrocarbon, making it a promising algae in the field of bio-fuels production. As it mainly produces squalene like hydrocarbons, cosmetic industries are also interested in its milking. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are an innovative method allowing oil extraction from micro-algae. In common algae accumulating hydrocarbon inside cytoplasm (Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis sp., etc), electric fields can destroy cell membranes, allowing the release of hydrocarbon...
April 25, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Manuel Felix, Nadia Isurralde, Alberto Romero, Antonio Guerrero
Food industry is highly interested in the development of healthier formulations of oil-in-water emulsions, stabilized by plant proteins instead of egg or milk proteins. These emulsions would avoid allergic issues or animal fat. Among other plant proteins, legumes are a cost-competitive product. This work evaluates the influence of pH value (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5) on emulsions stabilized by chickpea-based emulsions at two different protein concentration (2.0 and 4.0 wt%). Microstructure of chickpea-based emulsions is assessed by means of backscattering, droplet size distributions and small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Yaxin Jiang, Marcos G Colazo, Michael J Serpe
A novel estradiol-17β (E2) biosensor was constructed from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) microgel-based etalons by modification of their outermost Au layer with an E2 binding 75-mer DNA aptamer. When E2 is not present in the solution, the aptamer forms a loose/linear structure that allows ions to pass through and into the microgel layer. The ions can change the solvation state of the microgels, which changes the optical properties of the etalon. When E2 is present in the solution, the aptamer binds the E2 and undergoes a conformational change to a form that can block the diffusion of salt ions into the microgel layer...
May 1, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
A Jalilzadeh, J Hesari, S H Peighambardoust, I Javidipour
Pasteurization failures in the dairy industry have been reported in many previous studies. Hence, ultrasound, as a nonthermal alternative to pasteurization, has been studied in recent years. In this research, retentate of ultrafiltered milk was pasteurized, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Penicillium chrysogenum, or Clostridium sporogenes, and then treated with ultrasound for 20 min at frequencies of 20, 40, and 60 kHz and intensity of 80%. Microbial and physicochemical properties of the subsequently produced ultrafiltered white cheeses were investigated throughout 60 d of ripening...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M A Holly, P J Kleinman, R B Bryant, D L Bjorneberg, C A Rotz, J M Baker, M V Boggess, D K Brauer, R Chintala, G W Feyereisen, J D Gamble, A B Leytem, K F Reed, P A Vadas, H M Waldrip
Nutrient management on US dairy farms must balance an array of priorities, some of which conflict. To illustrate nutrient management challenges and opportunities across the US dairy industry, the USDA Agricultural Research Service Dairy Agroecosystems Working Group (DAWG) modeled 8 confinement and 2 grazing operations in the 7 largest US dairy-producing states using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM). Opportunities existed across all of the dairies studied to increase on-farm feed production and lower purchased feed bills, most notably on large dairies (>1,000 cows) with the highest herd densities...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Fei Teng, Mariza Gomes Reis, Ying Ma, Li Day
4-alkyl-branched-chain fatty acids (vBCFAs) are responsible for the goaty-sheepy flavour of sheep and goat milk. The levels of vBCFAs were investigated in sheep, goat and cow milk powders. The effect of season and industrial processes on the levels of vBCFAs in sheep milk was also evaluated. Sheep milk powders contained lower amounts of 4-Me-8:0 and 4-Et-8:0 (143-176 and 1.2-10.7 µg/g milk fat) than goat milk powders (335-481 and 73.1-105 µg/g milk fat), while 4-Me-9:0 was low in both sheep and goat milk powders (<8 µg/g milk fat)...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Carla Malaquias Almeida, Isaura Simões
The use of crude aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus flowers as coagulants in the production of high-quality sheep and goat cheeses-as are the cases of several Portuguese and Spanish cheese varieties with Protected Designation of Origin status-has been maintained since ancient times. The unique rheological attributes and sensory properties characteristic of these cheeses have always suggested that this plant coagulant (and, therefore, its isolated milk-clotting proteases) could be used as alternative rennet in the dairy industry, particularly suited for the production of sheep and goat cheeses...
April 26, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Simona Nardoni, Francesca Pisseri, Luisa Pistelli, Basma Najar, Mario Luini, Francesca Mancianti
Protothecal mastitis poses an emergent animal health problem in dairy herds, with a high impact on dairy industries, causing heavy economic losses. Current methods of treating protothecal infections are ineffective, and no drug is licensed for use in cattle. The aim of the present study was to check the antialgal activity of 30 chemically defined essential oils (EOs) against Prototheca zopfii and Prototheca blaschkeae isolated from the milk of dairy cows with mastitis. A microdilution test was carried out to estimate the antialgal effectiveness of the selected chemically defined EOs...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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