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Beta Cell proliferation

Barbara Jung, Jonas J Staudacher, Daniel Beauchamp
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) cytokines signal via a complex network of pathways to regulate proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and other functions in many cell types. A high percentage of colorectal tumors contain mutations that disrupt TGFB family member signaling. We review how TGFB family member signaling is altered during development of colorectal cancer, models of study, interaction of pathways, and potential therapeutic strategies.
October 20, 2016: Gastroenterology
Shlomo Sasson
Activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) induces the expression of genes encoding enzymes that metabolize fatty acids and carbohydrate. Attempts to identify cellular activators of PPARδ produced large lists of various fatty acids and their metabolic derivatives; however, there is no consensus on specific and selective binding interactions of natural ligands with PPARδ. Most models on binding interactions within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of PPARδ have been derived from analyses of PPARδ-LBD crystals formed with synthetic low molecular weight ligands...
October 18, 2016: Biochimie
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yue J Wang, Maria L Golson, Jonathan Schug, Daniel Traum, Chengyang Liu, Kumar Vivek, Craig Dorrell, Ali Naji, Alvin C Powers, Kyong-Mi Chang, Markus Grompe, Klaus H Kaestner
The human endocrine pancreas consists of multiple cell types and plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis. Here, we apply mass cytometry technology to measure all major islet hormones, proliferative markers, and readouts of signaling pathways involved in proliferation at single-cell resolution. Using this innovative technology, we simultaneously examined baseline proliferation levels of all endocrine cell types from birth through adulthood, as well as in response to the mitogen harmine. High-dimensional analysis of our marker protein expression revealed three major clusters of beta cells within individuals...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Candela R González, Mariano Ar Amer, Alfredo D Vitullo, Silvia I González-Calvar, María I Vacas
Saliva is the first barrier to entry of bacteria and viruses into the body. The submandibular glands (SMG) contribute to the maintenance of oral health and regulation of immune/ inflam matory responses. Previous studies suggest that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) may contribute to salivary gland fibrosis but the expression of the TGFB1 system in the SMG has not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze in rat SMG the immunolocalization of TGFB1 and its specific receptors ALK5 (profibrotic) and ALK1 (proproliferative) and the coreceptor endoglin (EDG) in a bilateral experimental periodontitis (EP) model (cotton thread ligature around the neck of the first lower molars) for 1 and 6 weeks...
September 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Jia Zeng, Laimonas Kelbauskas, Aida Rezaie, Kristen Lee, Benjamin Ueberroth, Weimin Gao, Dmitry Derkach, Thai Tran, Dean Smith, Kimberly J Bussey, Deirdre R Meldrum
In carcinogenesis, intercellular interactions within and between cell types are critical but remain poorly understood. We present a study on intercellular interactions between normal and premalignant epithelial cells and their functional relevance in the context of premalignant to malignant progression in Barrett's esophagus. Using whole transcriptome profiling we found that in the presence of normal epithelial cells, dysplastic cells but not normal cells, exhibit marked down-regulation of a number of key signaling pathways, including the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and epithelial growth factor (EGF)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chi Huang, Younan Wang, Hao Fan, Xiang Ma, Ran Tang, Xiangkun Huan, Yi Zhu, Zekuan Xu, Hao Xu, Li Yang
PURPOSE: Disheveled-binding antagonist of beta-catenin 1 (DACT1) is involved in tumorigenesis through influencing cell apoptosis and proliferation. We aimed to investigate the effect of three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DACT1 (rs863091 C>T, rs17832998 C>T, and rs167481 C>T) on the occurrence of gastric cancer (GC), their association with specific clinical characteristics, and consideration of the functional relevance of GC-related SNPs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this hospital-based case-control study, the genotypes were acquired using the TaqMan-MGB method consisting of 602 cases and 602 controls...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Xiaosheng Xu, Jian Shen
Reduced placental growth factor (PLGF) during pregnancy is known to be a reason for developing preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, it has been shown that reduced PLGF may induce GDM through suppressing beta-cell mass growth in a PI3k/Akt signalling-dependent manner. Here, we dissected the interaction between beta-cells and islet endothelial cells in this model. We analysed proliferation of beta-cells and islet endothelial cells at different time points of gestation in mice...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Aihua Hou, Kai Pong Law, Min Qi Tin, Yoon Pin Lim, Louis Tong
Pterygium is a triangular shaped ocular fibrous surface lesion growing from conjunctiva towards central cornea, causing ocular irritation, astigmatism, and visual disturbance. The condition is characterized by epithelial proliferation, fibrovascular growth, chronic inflammation, and prominent extracellular matrix remodeling. Studies have suggested that aberrant extracellular proteins secreted by fibroblasts lead to abnormal matrix production and tissue invasion contributing to the development of the disease...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Jeong-Seok Kim, Young-Hee Lee, Yong-Uoo Chang, Ho-Keun Yi
Excessive exercise induces an inflammatory response caused by oxidative stress, which delays recovery of damaged muscle fibers. The reduction of inflammatory response is important for skeletal muscle homeostasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is an anti-inflammatory molecule, but the role of PPARγ in skeletal muscle as anti-inflammatory activity is not clear. Thus, this study examined the anti-inflammatory role of PPARγ against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exercised on a treadmill to induce oxidative stress...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Junling Fu, Cong Hou, Lujiao Li, Dan Feng, Ge Li, Mingyao Li, Changhong Li, Shan Gao, Ming Li
BACKGROUND: Betatrophin has been recently reported to play a role in glucose homeostasis by inducing beta-cell proliferation in mice. However, studies in human are inconsistent. As a nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor, we hypothesize that betatrophin might be regulated by vitamin D, and ignorance of vitamin D status may explain the discrepancy in previous human studies. The aims of this study were to assess the association between circulating betatrophin and glucose homeostasis as well as other cardiometabolic variables in a cohort of youths at risk for metabolic syndrome and test the possible influence of vitamin D status on the association...
October 6, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Dan Xu, Bing Zhang, Chongbing Liao, Wei Zhang, Weijia Wang, Ying Chang, Yongping Shao
Human beta-defensin 3 (hBD3), an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expressed in epithelium in response to various stimulations including human papillomavirus infection, has recently been found to be overexpressed in head and neck cancers and exhibit tumorigenic activities. However, the role of hBD3 in cervical cancer remains to be investigated. In this study, we showed by immunohistochemistry that hBD3 expression was elevated in cervical cancer samples of different stages versus the normal tissue, and was positively correlated with the progression of the disease...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Fuqiang Wan, Li Peng, ChaoYu Zhu, XinFa Zhang, FangWen Chen, Tao Liu
Latent transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP2) is one of four proteins in the LTBP family of proteins (LTBP-1-4) and was shown to play a vital role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known regarding the functional role of LTBP2 in thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the effect of LTBP2 expression on the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in thyroid carcinoma cells, and to explore the molecular mechanism of LTBP2 in tumor progression. Our results showed that the expression of LTBP2 is upregulated in human thyroid carcinoma and cell lines...
October 5, 2016: Oncology Research
Rafael H Abduch, Ana Carolina Bueno, Leticia F Leal, Marcelo M Cavalcanti, Débora C Gomes, Silvia R Brandalise, Maria J Masterallo, José A Yunes, Carlos E Martinelli, Luiz G Tone, Silvio Tucci, Carlos A F Molina, Fernando S Ramalho, Ayrton C Moreira, Izilda A Cardinalli, Carlos A Scrideli, Leandra N Z Ramalho, Margaret de Castro, Sonir R Antonini
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of the oncogene yes-associated-protein-1 (YAP1) is associated with increased cell proliferation in human cancers. YAP1 is a potential target of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which plays an important role in adrenocortical tumors (ACT). The role of YAP1 in adrenocortical tumorigenesis has not been assessed. AIMS: To evaluate YAP1 expression in normal adrenals and pediatric ACT and its association with disease outcome. To investigate the interaction between YAP1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in adrenocortical cells...
October 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Ao Zhou, Shuo Chen, Bin He, Weikang Zhao, Xiaojun Chen, Dianming Jiang
Bioactive mediators, cytokines, and chemokines have an important role in regulating and optimizing the synergistic action of materials, cells, and cellular microenvironments for tissue engineering. RADA self-assembling peptide hydrogels have been proved to have an excellent ability to promote cell proliferation, wound healing, tissue repair, and drug delivery. Here, we report that D-RADA16 and L-RADA16-RGD self-assembling peptides can form stable second structure and hydrogel scaffolds, affording the slow release of growth factor (transforming growth factor cytokine-beta 1 [TGF-beta 1])...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Chao Zhu, Changchun Cao, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Yuan, Lai Jin, Shengnan Li
Urocortins (UCNs) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have been demonstrated to participate in various cardiovascular diseases, many of which involve vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release is an important cause of VSMCs proliferation. The work was to investigate the regulation of VSMCs proliferation by UCN/TGF-beta and whether cPLA2 was a link between their signaling pathways. VSMCs proliferation was measured by colorimetric assay and immunofluorescence microscopy...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Lin Xiao, Andrew C Dudley
In the heart and other organs, endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has emerged as an important developmental process that involves coordinated migration, differentiation, and proliferation of the endothelium. In multiple disease states including cancer angiogenesis and cardiovascular disease, the processes that regulate EndMT are recapitulated, albeit in an uncoordinated and dysregulated manner. Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) super-family are well known to impart cellular plasticity during EndMT by the timely activation (or repression) of transcription factors and miRNAs in addition to epigenetic regulation of gene expression...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Lucy Cassar, Craig Nicholls, Alex R Pinto, Ruping Chen, Lihui Wang, He Li, Jun-Ping Liu
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a central role in telomere lengthening for continuous cell proliferation, but it remains unclear how extracellular cues regulate telomerase lengthening of telomeres. Here we report that the cytokine bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) induces the hTERT gene repression in a BMPRII receptor- and Smad3-dependent manner in human breast cancer cells. Chonic exposure of human breast cancer cells to BMP7 results in short telomeres, cell senescence and apoptosis...
September 30, 2016: Protein & Cell
Ranran Zhang, Heather Hardin, Wei Huang, Jidong Chen, Sofia Asioli, Alberto Righi, Francesca Maletta, Anna Sapino, Ricardo V Lloyd
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important for transcription and for epigenetic or posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and may contribute to carcinogenesis. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), an lncRNA involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, and cell migration, is known to be deregulated in multiple cancers. Here, we analyzed the expression of MALAT1 on 195 cases of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms by using tissue microarrays for RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and real-time PCR...
September 30, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
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