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Beta Cell proliferation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443133/analysis-of-purified-pancreatic-islet-beta-and-alpha-cell-transcriptomes-reveals-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-hsd11b1-as-a-novel-disallowed-gene
#1
Timothy J Pullen, Mark O Huising, Guy A Rutter
We and others have previously identified a group of genes, dubbed "disallowed," whose expression is markedly lower in pancreatic islets than in other mammalian cell types. Forced mis-expression of several members of this family leads to defective insulin secretion, demonstrating the likely importance of disallowance for normal beta cell function. Up to now, transcriptomic comparisons have been based solely on data from whole islets. This raises the possibilities that (a) there may be important differences in the degree of disallowance of family members between beta and other either neuroendocrine cells; (b) beta (or alpha) cell disallowed genes may have gone undetected...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441755/role-of-rheb-in-regulating-differentiation-fate-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-and-bone-regeneration
#2
Sajjad Ashraf, In-Bo Han, Hansoo Park, Soo-Hong Lee
Advances in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell replacement therapies are promising approaches to treat cartilage and bone defects since substantial differentiation capacities of MSCs match the demands of tissue regeneration. Our understanding of the dynamic process requiring indispensable differentiation of MSCs remains limited. Herein, we describe the role of RHEB (Ras homolog enriched in brain) regulating gene signature for differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437250/ionizing-radiation-reduces-adam10-expression-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-stress-induced-senescence
#3
Lucinda S McRobb, Matthew J McKay, Jennifer R Gamble, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Estevam D Santos, Vivienne S Lee, Zhenjun Zhao, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Cellular senescence is associated with aging and is considered a potential contributor to age-associated neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing premature neurovascular degeneration and dementia but also induces premature senescence. As cells of the cerebrovascular endothelium are particularly susceptible to radiation and play an important role in brain homeostasis, we investigated radiation-induced senescence in brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Using biotinylation to label surface proteins, streptavidin enrichment and proteomic analysis, we analyzed the surface proteome of stress-induced senescent EC in culture...
April 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435893/opacification-domain-of-serum-opacity-factor-inhibits-beta-hemolysis-and-contributes-to-virulence-of-streptococcus-pyogenes
#4
Luchang Zhu, Randall J Olsen, James M Musser
Serum opacity factor (SOF) is a cell surface virulence factor made by the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We found that S. pyogenes strains with naturally occurring truncation mutations in the sof gene have markedly enhanced beta-hemolysis. Moreover, deletion of the sof gene in a SOF-positive parental strain resulted in significantly increased beta-hemolysis. Together, these observations suggest that SOF is an inhibitor of beta-hemolysis. SOF has two major functional domains, including an opacification domain and a fibronectin-binding domain...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435517/inhibition-of-the-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-beta-pdgfrb-using-gene-silencing-crenolanib-besylate-or-imatinib-mesylate-hampers-the-malignant-phenotype-of-mesothelioma-cell-lines
#5
Ombretta Melaiu, Calogerina Catalano, Chiara De Santi, Monica Cipollini, Gisella Figlioli, Lucia Pellè, Elisa Barone, Monica Evangelista, Alice Guazzelli, Laura Boldrini, Elisa Sensi, Alessandra Bonotti, Rudy Foddis, Alfonso Cristaudo, Luciano Mutti, Gabriella Fontanini, Federica Gemignani, Stefano Landi
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a cancer of the pleural cavity resistant to chemotherapy. The identification of novel therapeutic targets is needed to improve its poor prognosis. Following a review of literature and a screening of specimens we found that platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) is over-expressed, but not somatically mutated, in MPM tissues. We aimed to ascertain whether PDGFRB is a MPM-cancer driver gene. The approaches employed included the use of gene silencing and the administration of small molecules, such as crenolanib and imatinib (PDGFR inhibitors) on MPM cell lines (IstMes2, Mero-14, Mero-25)...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429344/up-regulation-of-microrna-367-promotes-liver-steatosis-through-repressing-tbl1-in-obese-mice
#6
D-D Li, Y Liu, L Xue, D-Y Su, W-Y Pang
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the progression of metabolic disorders, including obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the present study, the expression and function of miR-367 were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice aged 8 weeks were fed with a normal diet (ND) or high-fat-diet (HFD). The expression levels of miR-367 were analyzed in livers from two groups of mice by quantitative real-time PCR...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427184/kpnb1-mediated-nuclear-import-is-required-for-motility-and-inflammatory-transcription-factor-activity-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#7
Tamara Stelma, Virna D Leaner
Karyopherin β1 is a nuclear import protein involved in the transport of proteins containing a nuclear localisation sequence. Elevated Karyopherin β1 expression has been reported in cancer and transformed cells and is essential for cancer cell proliferation and survival. Transcription factors such as NFĸB and AP-1 contain a nuclear localisation sequence and initiate the expression of multiple factors associated with inflammation and cancer cell biology. Our study investigated the effect of inhibiting nuclear import via Karyopherin β1 on cancer cell motility and inflammatory signaling using siRNA and the novel small molecule, Inhibitor of Nuclear Import-43, INI-43...
March 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426742/multiple-components-of-pka-and-tgf-%C3%AE-pathways-are-mutated-in-pseudomyxoma-peritonei
#8
Lilli Saarinen, Pirjo Nummela, Alexandra Thiel, Rainer Lehtonen, Petrus Järvinen, Heikki Järvinen, Lauri A Aaltonen, Anna Lepistö, Sampsa Hautaniemi, Ari Ristimäki
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a subtype of mucinous adenocarcinoma mainly restricted to the peritoneal cavity and most commonly originating from the appendix. The genetic background of PMP is poorly understood and no targeted treatments are currently available for this fatal disease. While RAS signaling pathway is affected in most if not all PMP cases and over half of them also have a mutation in the GNAS gene, other genetic alterations and affected pathways are, to a large degree, poorly known. In this study, we sequenced whole coding genome of nine PMP tumors and paired normal tissues in order to identify additional, commonly mutated genes and signaling pathways affected in PMP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425707/development-of-a-potent-wound-healing-agent-based-on-the-liver-fluke-granulin-structural-fold
#9
Paramjit S Bansal, Michael J Smout, David Wilson, Claudia Cobos Caceres, Mohadeseh Dastpeyman, Javier Sotillo, Julia Seifert, Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas, Norelle L Daly
Granulins are a family of protein growth factors that are involved in cell proliferation. An orthologue of granulin from the human parasitic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, known as Ov-GRN-1, induces angiogenesis and accelerates wound repair. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 production is complex, and poses an obstacle for clinical development. To identify the bioactive region(s) of Ov-GRN-1, four truncated N-terminal analogues were synthesized and characterized structurally using NMR spectroscopy. Peptides that contained only two native disulfide bonds lack the characteristic granulin -hairpin structure...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423568/sepia-ink-oligopeptide-induces-apoptosis-and-growth-inhibition-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#10
Zhi Zhang, Lei Sun, Guoren Zhou, Peng Xie, Jinjun Ye
Sepia ink oligopeptide (SIO), as a tripeptide extracted from Sepia ink, could be used as an inducer of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. We designed a cyclo-mimetic peptide of SIO by introducing a disulfide bond to stabilize the native peptide into beta turn structure, and produced a peptide with higher cell permeability and stability. Through labeling an FITC to the N-terminus of the peptide, the cell permeability was examined. Stabilized peptide showed enhanced cellular uptake than linear tripeptide as indicated by flow cytometry and cell fluorescent imaging...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419211/the-inhibitory-g-protein-%C3%AE-subunit-g%C3%AE-z-promotes-type-1-diabetes-like-pathophysiology-in-nod-mice
#11
Rachel J Fenske, Mark T Cadena, Quincy E Harenda, Haley N Wienkes, Kathryn Carbajal, Michael D Schaid, Erin Laundre, Allison L Brill, Nathan A Truchan, Harpreet Brar, Jaclyn Wisinski, Jinjin Cai, Timothy E Graham, Feyza Engin, Michelle E Kimple
The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric Gz protein, Gαz, promotes beta-cell death and inhibits beta-cell replication when pancreatic islets are challenged by stressors. Thus, we hypothesized that loss of Gαz protein would preserve functional beta-cell mass in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) model, protecting from overt diabetes. We saw that protection from diabetes was robust and durable up to 35 weeks of age in Gαz knockout mice. By 17 weeks of age, Gαz-null NOD mice had significantly higher diabetes-free survival than wild-type littermates...
April 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415639/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-development-of-endometriosis
#12
Yan-Meng Yang, Wan-Xi Yang
Endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent chronic gynecological disease, is common in reproductive-age women and profoundly affects their life quality. Although various pathogenic theories have been proposed, the origin of endometriosis remains unclear. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that epithelial cells lose polarized organization of the cytoskeleton and cell-to-cell contacts, acquiring the high motility of mesenchymal cells. These changes are thought to be prerequisites for the original establishment of endometriotic lesions...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415512/study-of-epithelial-differentiation-and-protein-expression-of-keratinocyte-mesenchyme-stem-cell-co-cultivation-on-electrospun-nylon-b-vulgaris-extract-composite-scaffold
#13
Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Masoud Soleimani, Manuchehr Vossoughi, Parviz Ranjbarvan, Shokoh Hamedi, Soheila Zamanlui, Matin Mahmoudifard
Employing of the composite electrospun scaffold containing herbal extract in conjugation with co-culturing of cells can open up new window to the design of efficient biomaterials for skin tissue regeneration. Here, we introduce the synergistic effect of composite electrospun nanofibrous scaffold of nylon66 loaded with Beta vulgaris (B. vulgaris) (extract of beet roots, a plants whose widely used in Iranian folk medicine as wound healing medicine) and co-culture of mesenchymal stem-cells (MSCs)-human keratinocyte (H-keratino) differentiation towards epithelial lineage...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415471/synthesis-and-characterization-of-ti-27-5nb-alloy-made-by-clad%C3%A2-additive-manufacturing-process-for-biomedical-applications
#14
M Fischer, P Laheurte, P Acquier, D Joguet, L Peltier, T Petithory, K Anselme, P Mille
Biocompatible beta-titanium alloys such as Ti-27.5(at.%)Nb are good candidates for implantology and arthroplasty applications as their particular mechanical properties, including low Young's modulus, could significantly reduce the stress-shielding phenomenon usually occurring after surgery. The CLAD® process is a powder blown additive manufacturing process that allows the manufacture of patient specific (i.e. custom) implants. Thus, the use of Ti-27.5(at.%)Nb alloy formed by CLAD® process for biomedical applications as a mean to increase cytocompatibility and mechanical biocompatibility was investigated in this study...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406922/3d-fabrication-and-characterization-of-phosphoric-acid-scaffold-with-a-ha-%C3%AE-tcp-weight-ratio-of-60-40-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#15
Yanen Wang, Kai Wang, Xinpei Li, Qinghua Wei, Weihong Chai, Shuzhi Wang, Yu Che, Tingli Lu, Bo Zhang
A key requirement for three-dimensional printing (3-DP) at room temperature of medical implants depends on the availability of printable and biocompatible binder-powder systems. Different concentration polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and phosphoric acid solutions were chosen as the binders to make the artificial stent biocompatible with sufficient compressive strength. In order to achieve an optimum balance between the bioceramic powder and binder solution, the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of these artificial stent samples were tested using two kinds of binder solutions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405929/thermodynamics-in-cancers-opposing-interactions-between-ppar-gamma-and-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway
#16
REVIEW
Yves Lecarpentier, Victor Claes, Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Louis Hébert
Cancer cells are the site of numerous metabolic and thermodynamic abnormalities. We focus this review on the interactions between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) in cancers and their implications from an energetic and metabolic point of view. In numerous tissues, PPAR gamma activation induces inhibition of beta-catenin pathway, while the activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway inactivates PPAR gamma. In most cancers but not all, PPAR gamma is downregulated while the WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405892/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-psychiatric-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-a-review
#17
Paulina Miłkowska, Katarzyna Popko, Urszula Demkow, Tomasz Wolańczyk
Cytokines are a large group of small proteins which play a significant role in cell signaling and regulate a variety of processes in organisms, including proliferation and differentiation of many cells, mediation in defense reactions and regulation of hematopoiesis. Cytokines can be divided into those with pro- and those with anti-inflammatory properties. In the group of pro-inflammatory cytokines the most important are: IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma. Pro-inflammatory cytokines might be involved in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric conditions in adults, but their role in children and adolescents is less clear...
April 13, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401888/advances-in-pancreatic-islet-monolayer-culture-on-glass-surfaces-enable-super-resolution-microscopy-and-insights-into-beta-cell-ciliogenesis-and-proliferation
#18
Edward A Phelps, Chiara Cianciaruso, Jaime Santo-Domingo, Miriella Pasquier, Gabriele Galliverti, Lorenzo Piemonti, Ekaterine Berishvili, Olivier Burri, Andreas Wiederkehr, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Steinunn Baekkeskov
A robust and reproducible method for culturing monolayers of adherent and well-spread primary islet cells on glass coverslips is required for detailed imaging studies by super-resolution and live-cell microscopy. Guided by an observation that dispersed islet cells spread and adhere well on glass surfaces in neuronal co-culture and form a monolayer of connected cells, we demonstrate that in the absence of neurons, well-defined surface coatings combined with components of neuronal culture media collectively support robust attachment and growth of primary human or rat islet cells as monolayers on glass surfaces...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400814/neuroprotective-effect-of-the-chinese-medicine-tiantai-no-1-and-its-molecular-mechanism-in-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8
#19
Ying-Hong Li, Xu-Sheng Wang, Xiao-Lin Chen, Yu Jin, Hong-Bo Chen, Xiu-Qin Jia, Yong-Feng Zhang, Zheng-Zhi Wu
Tiantai No. 1, a Chinese medicine predominantly composed of powdered Rhizoma Gastrodiae, Radix Ginseng, and Ginkgo leaf at a ratio of 2:1:2 and dissolved in pure water, is neuroprotective in animal models of various cognitive disorders, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. We administered Tiantai No. 1 intragastrically to senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice (a model of Alzheimer's disease) at doses of 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks and evaluated their behavior in the Morris water maze and expression of Alzheimer's disease-related proteins in the brain...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399671/substance-p-increases-ccn2-dependent-on-tgf-beta-yet-collagen-type-i-via-tgf-beta1-dependent-and-independent-pathways-in-tenocytes
#20
Nagat Frara, Paul W Fisher, Yingjie Zhao, Joseph T Tarr, Mamta Amin, Steven N Popoff, Mary F Barbe
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) are important mediators of tissue repair and fibrosis, with CCN2 functioning as a downstream mediator of TGFβ-1. Substance P (SP) is also linked to collagen production in tenocytes. A link between SP, TGFbeta-1 and CCN2 has yet to be established in tenocytes or fibrogenic processes. We sought to determine whether SP induces tenocyte proliferation, CCN2, or collagen production via TGFbeta-1 signaling or independently in rat primary tenocytes...
March 1, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
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