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Beta Cell proliferation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774054/beta-adrenoceptor-blockade-ameliorates-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-alterations-of-the-cerebral-ceramide-metabolism-in-an-experimental-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#1
Sebastian Luger, Annette Schwebler, Rajkumar Vutukuri, Nerea Ferreiros Bouzas, Sandra Labocha, Yannick Schreiber, Robert Brunkhorst, Helmuth Steinmetz, Josef Pfeilschifter, Waltraud Pfeilschifter
Background: Sphingolipids are versatile signaling molecules derived from membrane lipids of eukaryotic cells. Ceramides regulate cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and are involved in cellular stress responses. Experimental evidence suggests a pivotal role of sphingolipids in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke. A neuroprotective effect has been shown for beta-adrenergic antagonists in rodent stroke models and supported by observational clinical data...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770908/level-of-hydrogen-peroxide-affects-expression-and-sub-cellular-localization-of-pax6
#2
Sachin Shukla, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax6 is a multifunctional pairedbox and homeobox containing transcription factor which is involved in several functions of brain, eyes, and pancreas. It regulates expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, oxidative stress management, and neuropathy. Dynamic changes in the sub-cellular localization of Pax6 are proposed to regulate its activity, however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The oxidative stress mediated changes were studied in sub-cellular localization of Pax6 in cultured cells derived from the eye (cornea) and pancreas...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770834/advances-in-drug-discovery-for-human-beta-cell-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Esra Karakose, Courtney Ackeifi, Peng Wang, Andrew F Stewart
The numbers of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells are reduced in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Driving beta cell regeneration in the pancreases of people with diabetes would be an attractive approach to reversing diabetes. While adult human beta cells have long been believed to be terminally differentiated and, therefore, irreversibly quiescent, it has become clear over recent years that this is not true. More specifically, both candidate and unbiased high-throughput screen approaches have revealed several classes of molecules that are clearly able to induce human beta cell proliferation...
May 16, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766931/-in-vitro-differentiation-of-neural-cells-from-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#4
Shruti D Dave, Chetan N Patel, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
Background: Stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs), are endowed with self-renewal capability and hence hold great opportunity for the institution of replacement/protective therapy. We propose a method for in vitro generation of stromal cells from human adipose tissue and their differentiation into neural cells. Materials and Methods: Ten grams of donor adipose tissue was surgically resected from the abdominal wall of the human donor after the participants' informed consents...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760406/lncrna-pvt1-regulates-triple-negative-breast-cancer-through-klf5-beta-catenin-signaling
#5
Jianming Tang, Yanxin Li, Youzhou Sang, Bo Yu, Deguan Lv, Weiwei Zhang, Haizhong Feng
Recent molecularly targeted approach gains advance in breast cancer treatment. However, the estimated 5-year survival rate has not met the desired expectation for improvement, especially for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here we report that the lncRNA PVT1 promotes KLF5/beta-catenin signaling to drive TNBC tumorigenesis. PVT1 is upregulated in clinical TNBC tumors. Using genetic approaches targeting PVT1 in TNBC cells, we found that PVT1 depletion inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and orthotopic xenograft tumor growth...
May 15, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755519/simulated-cholinergic-reinnervation-of-%C3%AE-ins-1-cells-antidiabetic-utility-of-heterotypic-pseudoislets-containing-%C3%AE-cell-and-cholinergic-cell
#6
Ao Jiao, Feng Li, Chengshuo Zhang, Wu Lv, Baomin Chen, Jialin Zhang
Cholinergic neurons can functionally support pancreatic islets in controlling blood sugar levels. However, in islet transplantation, the level of cholinergic reinnervation is significantly lower compared to orthotopic pancreatic islets. This abnormal reinnervation affects the survival and function of islet grafts. In this study, the cholinergic reinnervation of beta cells was simulated by 2D and 3D coculture of INS-1 and NG108-15 cells. In 2D culture conditions, 20 mM glucose induced a 1.24-fold increase ( p < 0...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753717/trim38-regulates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-through-tab2-degradation-in-osteoclast-and-osteoblast-differentiation
#7
Kabsun Kim, Jung Ha Kim, Inyoung Kim, Semun Seong, Nacksung Kim
The tripartite motif protein 38 (TRIM38), a member of the TRIM family, is involved in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and antiviral defense. However, the role of TRIM38 in osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation is not yet known. In this study, we report the involvement of TRIM38 in osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation. Overexpression of TRIM38, in osteoclast precursor cells, attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, RANKL-triggered NF-κB activation, and expression of osteoclast marker genes, such as NFATc1, osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP); and down-regulation of TRIM38 expression showed the opposite effects...
May 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751524/%C3%AE-asarone-induces-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-of-human-glioma-u251-cells-via-suppression-of-hnrnp-a2-b1-mediated-pathway-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Li Li, Yi Yang, Mingxia Wu, Zanyang Yu, Chengqiang Wang, Guojun Dou, Hui He, Hongmei Wang, Na Yang, Hongyi Qi, Xiaoyu Xu
HnRNP A2/B1 has been found to be an oncogenic protein strongly related to the growth of human glioma cells. Herein, &beta;-asarone, the main component in the volatile oil of Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, inhibited the cell viability, proliferation, and colony formation ability of U251 cells. Moreover, &beta;-asarone induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Notably, &beta;-asarone suppressed the expression of hnRNP A2/B1 and hnRNPA2/B1 overexpression remarkably reversed &beta;-asarone-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest...
May 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748377/galectin-3-modulates-the-polarized-surface-delivery-of-%C3%AE-1-integrin-in-epithelial-cells
#9
Ellena Hönig, Karina Ringer, Jenny Dewes, Tobias von Mach, Natalia Kamm, Geri Kreitzer, Ralf Jacob
Epithelial cells require a precise intracellular transport and sorting machinery in order to establish and maintain their polarized architecture. This machinery includes beta-galactoside binding galectins for glycoprotein targeting to the apical membrane. Galectin-3 sorts cargo destined for the apical plasma membrane into vesicular carriers. After delivery of cargo to the apical milieu, galectin-3 recycles back into sorting organelles. We analyzed the role of galectin-3 in the polarized distribution of β1-integrin in MDCK cells...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747653/inactivation-of-the-tight-junction-gene-cldn11-by-aberrant-hypermethylation-modulates-tubulins-polymerization-and-promotes-cell-migration-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#10
Hsin-Pai Li, Chen-Ching Peng, Chih-Ching Wu, Chien-Hsun Chen, Meng-Jhe Shih, Mei-Yuan Huang, Yi-Ru Lai, Yung-Li Chen, Ting-Wen Chen, Petrus Tang, Yu-Sun Chang, Kai-Ping Chang, Cheng-Lung Hsu
BACKGROUND: Aberrant hypermethylation of cellular genes is a common phenomenon to inactivate genes and promote tumorigenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Methyl binding domain (MBD)-ChIP sequencing of NPC cells, microarray data of NPC biopsies and gene ontology analysis were conducted to identify a potential tumor suppressor gene CLDN11 that was both hypermethylated and downregulated in NPC. Bisulfite sequencing, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining of the NPC clinical samples and addition of methylation inhibitor, 5'azacytidine, in NPC cells were performed to verify the correlation between DNA hypermethylation and expression of CLDN11...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747452/cytokeratin-19-krt19-has-a-role-in-the-reprogramming-of-cancer-stem-cell-like-cells-to-less-aggressive-and-more-drug-sensitive-cells
#11
Subbroto Kumar Saha, Kyeongseok Kim, Gwang-Mo Yang, Hye Yeon Choi, Ssang-Goo Cho
Cytokeratin 19 ( KRT19 ) is a cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein, which is responsible for structural rigidity and multipurpose scaffolds. In several cancers, KRT19 is overexpressed and may play a crucial role in tumorigenic transformation. In our previous study, we revealed the role of KRT19 as signaling component which mediated Wnt/NOTCH crosstalk through NUMB transcription in breast cancer. Here, we investigated the function of KRT19 in cancer reprogramming and drug resistance in breast cancer cells...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743821/blockade-of-itga2-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-cell-migration-in-gastric-cancer
#12
Yu-Chang Chuang, Hsin-Yi Wu, Yu-Ling Lin, Shey-Cherng Tzou, Cheng-Hsun Chuang, Ting-Yan Jian, Pin-Rong Chen, Yuan-Ching Chang, Chi-Hsin Lin, Tse-Hung Huang, Chao-Ching Wang, Yi-Lin Chan, Kuang-Wen Liao
Background: Gastric cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages and the outcome of the treatment is often poor. Therefore, identifying new therapeutic targets for this cancer is urgently needed. Integrin alpha 2 (ITGA2) subunit and the beta 1 subunit form a heterodimer for a transmembrane receptor for extracellular matrix, is an important molecule involved in tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration...
2018: Biological Procedures Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742809/b-cell-mediated-maintenance-of-cd169-cells-is-critical-for-liver-regeneration
#13
Kristina Behnke, Yuan Zhuang, Haifeng C Xu, Balamurugan Sundaram, Maria Reich, Prashant V Shinde, Jun Huang, Nastaran Fazel Modares, Alexei V Tumanov, Robin Polz, Jürgen Scheller, Carl F Ware, Klaus Pfeffer, Verena Keitel, Dieter Häussinger, Aleksandra A Pandyra, Karl S Lang, Philipp A Lang
The liver has an extraordinary capacity to regenerate via activation of key molecular pathways. However, central regulators controlling liver regeneration remain insufficiently studied. Here we show that B cell-deficient animals failed to induce sufficient liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx). Consistently, adoptive transfer of B cells could rescue defective liver regeneration. B cell mediated lymphotoxin beta production promoted recovery from PHx. Absence of B cells coincided with loss of splenic CD169+ macrophages...
May 9, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739054/dioscin-promotes-proliferation-of-pancreatic-beta-cells-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways
#14
Fengyun Yu, Leilei Bing, Yanrong Xie, Wenjuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells is related with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dioscin, a natural steroid saponin, has many pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dioscin on apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells induced by high glucose. METHODS: Pancreatic cell line RNAKT-15 was treated with 20 mM glucose with or without different concentrations of dioscin and viability and apoptosis of cells were measured. Western blot assay was used to measure the expression levels of some proteins such as phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and β-catenin...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736712/cell-based-methods-to-identify-inducers-of-human-pancreatic-beta-cell-proliferation
#15
Courtney A Ackeifi, Ethan A Swartz, Peng Wang
Diabetes is the result of the insufficiency or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells alone or in combination with insulin resistance. The replacement or regeneration of beta cells can effectively reverse diabetes in humans and rodents. Therefore, the identification of novel small molecules that promote pancreatic beta-cell proliferation is an attractive approach for diabetic therapy. While numerous hormones, small molecules, and growth factors are able to drive rodent beta cells to replicate, only a few small molecules have demonstrated the ability to stimulate human beta-cell proliferation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735800/potential-molecular-targets-of-statins-in-the-prevention-of-hepatocarcinogenesis
#16
Ezequiel Ridruejo, Giselle Romero-Caími, María J Obregón, Diana Kleiman de Pisarev, Laura Alvarez
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents 90% of liver tumors. Statins, may reduce the incidence of various tumors, including HCC. Antitumoral activities may be mediated by changes in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) and thyroid hormones (TH) regulation. AIM: The aim of our study is to establish the statins mechanism of action and the potential key molecules involved in an in vivo and in vitro HCC model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used two models: in vivo (in rats) using diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) to develop HCC, we analyzed cell proliferation parameters (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) and cholesterol metabolism (hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, HMGCoAR)...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734668/emerging-roles-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Wen-Ting Peng, Wu-Yi Sun, Xin-Ran Li, Jia-Chang Sun, Jia-Jia Du, Wei Wei
Among a great variety of cell surface receptors, the largest superfamily is G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptors. GPCRs can modulate diverse signal-transduction pathways through G protein-dependent or independent pathways which involve &beta;-arrestins, G protein receptor kinases (GRKs), ion channels, or Src kinases under physiological and pathological conditions. Recent studies have revealed the crucial role of GPCRs in the tumorigenesis and the development of cancer metastasis...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731962/gamma-klotho-exhibits-multiple-roles-in-tumor-growth-of-human-bladder-cancer
#18
Shunta Hori, Makito Miyake, Yoshihiro Tatsumi, Yosuke Morizawa, Yasushi Nakai, Sayuri Onishi, Kenta Onishi, Kota Iida, Daisuke Gotoh, Nobumichi Tanaka, Kiyohide Fujimoto
Alpha-Klotho (KLα) and beta-Klotho (KLβ) have recently been reported to correlate with cancer prognosis in some malignancies and we previously reported the association between KLα, KLβ, and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), indicating that KLβ acts as a tumor promoter. However, the association between gamma-Klotho (KLγ) and cancer prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association between KLγ and UCB. To evaluate the effect of KLγ on human bladder cancer cell lines in vitro assays were performed...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731667/liver-enriched-activator-protein-1-as-an-isoform-of-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-beta-suppresses-stem-cell-features-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Li-Hua Yang, Ye Wang, Shi Qiao, Min-Jun Wang, Fei Chen, Xiao-Yuan Zi, Jian-Xiu Li, Hai-Bin Zhang, Bing Yu, Yi-Ping Hu
Purpose: Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to be associated with the development, survival, proliferation, metastasis, and recurrence of liver tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of liver-enriched activator protein 1 (LAP1) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver CSCs (LCSCs) and explore the impact of LAP1 on LCSCs. Materials and methods: Differences in LAP1 expression in liver cancer tissues versus matched para-tumoral liver tissues and LCSCs versus non-CSCs were analyzed by Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728578/propranolol-sensitizes-prostate-cancer-cells-to-glucose-metabolism-inhibition-and-prevents-cancer-progression
#20
Laura Brohée, Olivier Peulen, Betty Nusgens, Vincent Castronovo, Marc Thiry, Alain C Colige, Christophe F Deroanne
Propranolol, a widely used non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, was recently shown to display anticancer properties. Its potential to synergize with certain drugs has been also outlined. However, it is necessary to take into account all the properties of propranolol to select a drug that could be efficiently combined with. Propranolol was reported to block the late phase of autophagy. Hence, we hypothesized that in condition enhancing autophagy flux, cancer cells should be especially sensitive to propranolol...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
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