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Beta Cell proliferation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526921/glp-1-signalling-compensates-for-impaired-insulin-signalling-in-regulating-beta-cell-proliferation-in-%C3%AE-irko-mice
#1
Dan Kawamori, Jun Shirakawa, Chong Wee Liew, Jiang Hu, Tomoaki Morioka, Alokesh Duttaroy, Bryan Burkey, Rohit N Kulkarni
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate potential interactions between insulin and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 signalling pathways in the regulation of beta cell-cycle dynamics in vivo, in the context of the therapeutic potential of GLP-1 to modulate impaired beta cell function. METHODS: Beta cell-specific insulin receptor knockout (βIRKO) mice, which exhibit beta cell dysfunction and an age-dependent decrease in beta cell mass, were treated with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525372/overexpression-of-a-novel-candidate-oncogene-kif14-correlates-with-tumor-progression-and-poor-prognosis-in-prostate-cancer
#2
Yixiang Zhang, Yeqing Yuan, Pei Liang, Zhaoxia Zhang, Xiaojing Guo, Ligang Xia, Yingying Zhao, Xing-Sheng Shu, Shengkun Sun, Ying Ying, Yingduan Cheng
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. The mechanism underlying tumorigenesis and development of PCa is largely unknown. Here, we identified Kinesin family member 14 (KIF14) as a novel candidate oncogene in PCa. We found that KIF14 was overexpressed in multiple PCa cell lines and primary PCa tissues. Knockdown of KIF14 in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing demonstrated that KIF4 suppression led to transcriptional changes of genes involved in p53 and TGF-beta signaling pathway...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518142/mir-130a-3p-attenuates-activation-and-induces-apoptosis-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-nonalcoholic-fibrosing-steatohepatitis-by-directly-targeting-tgfbr1-and-tgfbr2
#3
Yang Wang, Jinghua Du, Xuemin Niu, Na Fu, Rongqi Wang, Yuguo Zhang, Suxian Zhao, Dianxing Sun, Yuemin Nan
Nonalcoholic fibrosing steatohepatitis is a uniform process that occurs throughout nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the biological processes, but the role and molecular mechanism of miRNAs in NAFLD are not entirely clear. In this study, we observed a significant reduction in the expression of miR-130a-3p in livers of a mouse model with fibrosis induced by a methionine-choline-deficient diet, of NAFLD patients, and in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512058/downregulation-of-mir-224-and-let-7i-contribute-to-cell-survival-and-chemoresistance-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cells-by-regulating-st3gal-iv-expression
#4
Huimin Zhou, Yang Li, Bing Liu, Yujia Shan, Yan Li, Lifen Zhao, Zhen Su, Jia Li
Acquired resistance to imatinib is frequently associated with poor clinical outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patient. To date, evidence indicates that protein glycosylation and its upstream regulators might be implicated in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance occurrence. In current study we initially explored N-glycan profiles on the surface of CML cell lines and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) of CML patients by using mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. An elevated sialylation was detected in K562R cells (CML cells with imatinib resistance phenotype) compare to K562 cells...
May 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509877/human-beta-defensin-2-selectively-inhibits-hiv-1-in-highly-permissive-ccr6%C3%A2-%C2%BAcd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cells
#5
Mark K Lafferty, Lingling Sun, Aaron Christensen-Quick, Wuyuan Lu, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
Chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)⁺CD4⁺ T cells are preferentially infected and depleted during HIV disease progression, but are preserved in non-progressors. CCR6 is expressed on a heterogeneous population of memory CD4⁺ T cells that are critical to mucosal immunity. Preferential infection of these cells is associated, in part, with high surface expression of CCR5, CXCR4, and α4β7. In addition, CCR6⁺CD4⁺ T cells harbor elevated levels of integrated viral DNA and high levels of proliferation markers...
May 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508471/needleless-emulsion-electrospinning-for-the-regulated-delivery-of-susceptible-proteins
#6
Matej Buzgo, Eva Filova, Andrea Mickova Staffa, Michala Rampichova, Miroslav Doupnik, Karolina Vocetkova, Vera Lukasova, Radka Kolcun, David Lukas, Alois Necas, Evzen Amler
In the present work, we developed a novel needleless emulsion electrospinning technique which improves the production rate of the core/shell production process. The nanofibers are based on PCL as a continuous phase combined with a droplet phase based on Pluronic F-68 (PF-68). The PCL-PF-68 nanofibers show a time-regulated release of active molecules. Needleless emulsion electrospinning was used to encapsulate diverse set of compounds to the core phase (i.e. 5-DTAF-PF68, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), TRITC-dextran, insulin growth factor I (IGF-I), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF))...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506709/behavior-of-macrophage-and-osteoblast-cell-lines-in-contact-with-the-%C3%AE-tcp-biomaterial-beta-tricalcium-phosphate
#7
B Arbez, H Libouban
Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a synthetic ceramic used for filling bone defects. It is a good alternative to autologous grafts since it is biocompatible, resorbable and osteoconductive. Previous in vivo studies have shown that macrophages are one of the first cells coming in contact with the biomaterial followed by osteoclasts and osteoblasts that will elaborate new bone packets. Studies have focused on osteoclast morphology and very few of them have investigated the role of macrophages. The aims of this study were to characterize (i) the biomaterial surface; (ii) the in vitro behavior of macrophages (J774...
May 12, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504695/epigenetic-pathway-inhibitors-represent-potential-drugs-for-treating-pancreatic-and-bronchial-neuroendocrine-tumors
#8
K E Lines, M Stevenson, P Filippakopoulos, S Müller, H E Lockstone, B Wright, S Grozinsky-Glasberg, A B Grossman, S Knapp, D Buck, C Bountra, R V Thakker
Cancer is associated with alterations in epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications and methylation of DNA, and inhibitors targeting epigenetic mechanisms represent a novel class of anti-cancer drugs. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas (PNETs) and bronchus (BNETs), which may have 5-year survivals of <50% and as low as 5%, respectively, represent targets for such drugs, as >40% of PNETs and ~35% of BNETs have mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, which encodes menin that modifies histones by interacting with histone methyltransferases...
May 15, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502832/sexually-dimorphic-expression-in-developing-and-adult-gonads-shows-an-important-role-of-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-during-sex-differentiation-in-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#9
Yuezhong Liu, Wei Zhang, Xinxin Du, Jun Zhao, Xiaobing Liu, Xiaojing Li, Quanqi Zhang, Xubo Wang
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is a new member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. As a teleost- and gonad-specific growth factor, gsdf has been indicated to play an important role in early germ cell development. However, little is known about its significance in germ cell development of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In the present study, a 1338 bp gsdf gene was isolated from P. olivaceus for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genomic structure and synteny relationship of gsdf in teleosts were conserved...
May 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500235/beta-catenin-inhibitor-bc2059-is-efficacious-as-monotherapy-or-in-combination-with-proteasome-inhibitor-bortezomib-in-multiple-myeloma
#10
Ioanna Savvidou, Tiffany Khong, Andrew Cuddihy, Catriona McLean, Stephen Horrigan, Andrew Spencer
Currently available treatment options are unlikely to be curative for the majority of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, emphasizing a continuing role for the introduction of investigational agents that can overcome drug resistance. The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway, essential for self-renewal, growth and survival, has been found to be dysregulated in MM, particularly in advanced stages of disease. This provides the rationale for evaluating the novel beta-catenin inhibitor BC2059 as monotherapy and in combination with proteasome inhibitors in vitro and in vivo...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499972/simvastatin-ameliorates-memory-impairment-and-neurotoxicity-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#11
Shun-Chang Fang, Hang Xie, Fang Chen, Mei Hu, Yan Long, Hong-Bin Sun, Ling-Yi Kong, Hao Hong, Su-Su Tang
Diabetes comes with an additional burden of moderate to severe hyperlipidemia, but little is known about the effects of lipid-lowering therapy on diabetic complications such as diabetes-associated cognitive decline. Herein we investigated the effects of statins on memory impairment and neurotoxicity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Our data indicated that oral administration of simvastatin at 10 or 20mg/kg for 4weeks significantly ameliorated diabetes-associated memory impairment reflected by performance better in the Morris water maze and Y-maze tests...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499784/gsk-3-as-a-novel-prognostic-indicator-in-leukemia
#12
REVIEW
Peter P Ruvolo
While leukemias represent a diverse set of diseases with malignant cells derived from myeloid or lymphoid origin, a common feature is the dysregulation of signal transduction pathways that influence leukemogeneisis, promote drug resistance, and favor leukemia stem cells. Mutations in PI3K, PTEN, RAS, or other upstream regulators can activate the AKT kinase which has central roles in supporting cell proliferation and survival. A major target of AKT is Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3). GSK3 has two isoforms (alpha and beta) that were studied as regulators of metabolism but emerged as central players in cancer in the early 1990s...
May 8, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494187/the-screening-of-the-functional-microrna-binding-site-snps-in-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-genes
#13
Hongjuan He, Lei Lei, Erfei Chen, Xiaona Xu, Lili Wang, Junqiang Pan, Fangfang Yang, Min Wang, Jing Dong, Jin Yang
Sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, but few genetic markers have been identified and utilized for its early detection. MicroRNAs are diverse cellular regulators in cancer pathogenesis that bind to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of their target mRNAs, and variants within the miRNA target sites on sCRC-related genes may influence its pathogenesis. To investigate this possibility, we used a bioinformatical method to screen SNPs for putative changes in miRNA recognition sites within the 3'-UTR of sCRC-related genes...
May 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493377/neonatal-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-show-reduced-apoptosis-and-immunosuppressive-activity-upon-infection-with-escherichia-coli
#14
Anja Leiber, Julian Schwarz, Natascha Köstlin, Bärbel Spring, Birgit Fehrenbach, Nenad Katava, Christian F Poets, Christian Gille
BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to infection during the neonatal period and reduced control of inflammation in neonates are attributed to immunosuppression persisting from fetal life. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid progenitors with suppressive activity and increased numbers in cord blood. We hypothesized that MDSCs contribute to innate host defence in neonates, paralleled by anti-inflammatory signalling. METHODS: Phagocytic activity, infection induced apoptosis, expression of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family proteins, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokine production and T-cell suppression of neonatal granulocytic-MDSCs (G-MDSCs) after infection with Escherichia coli (E...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488541/microrna-124-suppresses-proliferation-and-glycolysis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-by-targeting-akt-glut1-hkii
#15
Xiaojian Zhao, Caiping Lu, Weiwei Chu, Bing Zhang, Qiang Zhen, Renfeng Wang, Yaxiao Zhang, Zhe Li, Baolei Lv, Huixian Li, Jiabao Liu
Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for 85% of all types of lung cancer and is the leading cause of worldwide cancer-associated mortalities. MiR-124 is epigenetically silenced in various types of cancer and plays important roles in tumor development and progression. MiR-124 was also significantly downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Glycolysis has been considered as a feature of cancer cells; hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha/beta and Akt are key enzymes in the regulation of glycolysis and energy metabolism in cancer cells...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485397/corrigendum-advances-in-pancreatic-islet-monolayer-culture-on-glass-surfaces-enable-super-resolution-microscopy-and-insights-into-beta-cell-ciliogenesis-and-proliferation
#16
Edward A Phelps, Chiara Cianciaruso, Jaime Santo-Domingo, Miriella Pasquier, Gabriele Galliverti, Lorenzo Piemonti, Ekaterine Berishvili, Olivier Burri, Andreas Wiederkehr, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Steinunn Baekkeskov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482921/the-autocrine-role-of-proteoglycan-4-prg4-in-modulating-osteoarthritic-synoviocyte-proliferation-and-expression-of-matrix-degrading-enzymes
#17
Ali Alquraini, Maha Jamal, Ling Zhang, Tannin Schmidt, Gregory D Jay, Khaled A Elsaid
BACKGROUND: Lubricin/proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and superficial zone chondrocytes. Recently, we showed that recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4) is a putative ligand for CD44 receptor. rhPRG4-CD44 interaction inhibits cytokine-induced rheumatoid arthritis synoviocyte proliferation. The objective of this study is to decipher the autocrine function of PRG4 in regulating osteoarthritic synoviocyte proliferation and expression of catabolic and pro-inflammatory mediators under basal and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated conditions...
May 8, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476164/wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-modulating-anticancer-immune-response
#18
REVIEW
Sachin Gopalkrishna Pai, Benedito A Carneiro, Jose Mauricio Mota, Ricardo Costa, Caio Abner Leite, Romualdo Barroso-Sousa, Jason Benjamin Kaplan, Young Kwang Chae, Francis Joseph Giles
Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a highly conserved pathway through evolution, regulates key cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration, genetic stability, apoptosis, and stem cell renewal. The Wnt pathway mediates biological processes by a canonical or noncanonical pathway, depending on the involvement of β-catenin in signal transduction. β-catenin is a core component of the cadherin protein complex, whose stabilization is essential for the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. As multiple aberrations in this pathway occur in numerous cancers, WNT-directed therapy represents an area of significant developmental therapeutics focus...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476069/elac-3-12-di-o-acetyl-8-o-tigloilingol-a-plant-derived-lathyrane-diterpene-induces-subventricular-zone-neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-through-protein-kinase-c-beta-activation
#19
Maribel Murillo-Carretero, Noelia Geribaldi-Doldán, Eugenia Flores-Giubi, Francisco García-Bernal, Elkin A Navarro, Manuel Carrasco-Viñuela, Antonio J Macías-Sánchez, Pilar Herrero-Foncubierta, Antonio Delgado-Ariza, Cristina Verástegui, Jesús Domínguez-Riscart, Mourad Daoubi, Rosario Hernández-Galán, Carmen Castro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pharmacological strategies aimed to facilitate neuronal renewal in the adult brain, by promoting endogenous neurogenesis, constitute promising therapeutic options for pathologic or traumatic brain lesions. We have previously shown that non-tumor-promoting PKC-activating compounds (12-deoxyphorbols) promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in vitro and in vivo, enhancing the endogenous neurogenic response of the brain to a traumatic injury. Here, we show for the first time that a diterpene with lathyrane skeleton can also activate PKC and promote NPC proliferation...
May 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473657/human-cytomegalovirus-immediate-early-protein-promotes-survival-of-glioma-cells-through-interacting-and-acetylating-atf5
#20
Ming Hu, Bin Wang, Dongmeng Qian, Mengyuan Wang, Rui Huang, Li Wei, Ling Li, Li Zhang, David X Liu
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a widespread beta-herpes virus, infects a high percentage of gliomas. HCMV is specifically detected in human gliomas at a low level of expression raises the possibility that it may regulate the malignant phenotype in a chronic manner. Although HCMV is not recognized as an oncogenic virus, it might dysregulate signaling pathways involved in initiation and promotion of malignancy.Here, our immunohistochemical staining reveals that nucleus staining of the HCMV 86-kDa immediate-early protein (IE86) is markedly increased in GBM (58...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
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