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Beta Cell proliferation

Naoyuki Kitao, Akinobu Nakamura, Hideaki Miyoshi, Hiroshi Nomoto, Kiyohiko Takahashi, Kazuno Omori, Kohei Yamamoto, Kyu Yong Cho, Yasuo Terauchi, Tatsuya Atsumi
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether glucokinase and insulin receptor substrate-2 were required for beta cell proliferation induced by short-term high-fat (HF) diet feeding, as has been shown for long-term HF diet. METHODS: Eight-week-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to either a standard chow (SC) or HF diet. After 1 week on the diet, histopathological beta cell proliferation and gene expression in isolated islets were examined. Additionally, 8-week-old beta cell-specific glucokinase haploinsufficient (Gck+/- ) and Irs2 knockout (Irs2-/- ) mice were exposed to either an SC or HF diet...
March 12, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jiaqiang Ren, Dawn Ward, Steven Chen, Katherine Tran, Ping Jin, Marianna Sabatino, Pamela G Robey, David F Stroncek
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have classically been cultured in media supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). As an alternative to FBS, pooled solvent detergent apheresis platelets, HPGF-C18, was evaluated for BMSC culture. METHODS: A comparison of passage 2 BMSC growth revealed that 10% HPGF-C18 produced similar cell numbers as 20% FBS. Marrow aspirates from 5 healthy subjects were cultured for 4 passages in 10% HPGF-C18 or 20% FBS and were analyzed for proliferation, colony formation efficiency (CFE), surface marker expression, suppression of mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs), global gene and microRNA expression analysis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Takahiko Niwa, Yasuo Yamakoshi, Hajime Yamazaki, Takeo Karakida, Risako Chiba, Jan C-C Hu, Takatoshi Nagano, Ryuji Yamamoto, James P Simmer, Henry C Margolis, Kazuhiro Gomi
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is critical for cell proliferation and differentiation in dental pulp. Here, we show the dynamic mechanisms of TGF-β in porcine dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin. The mRNA of latent TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 is predominantly expressed in odontoblasts, whereas the mRNA expression level of latent TGF-β2 is high in dental pulp. TGF-β1 is a major isoform of TGF-β, and latent TGF-β1, synthesized in dental pulp, is primarily activated by matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wen Hui, Shenghua Liu, Jie Zheng, Zujun Fang, Qiang Ding, Chenchen Feng
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, and CTNNB1 is frequently mutated in ACC. Our study aims to screen for effective agents with antineoplastic activity against ACC with CTNNB1 mutation. In-silico screening of the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) database was conducted. Drug sensitivity in cells with CTNNB1 mutation was analyzed and further in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using the compound. Only one compound, Nutlin-3a, an MDM2 inhibitor, was significantly sensitive in 18 cancer cells with CTNNB1 mutation...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Yan Sun, Xiao-Li Liu, Dai Zhang, Fang Liu, Yu-Jing Cheng, Yue Ma, Yu-Jie Zhou, Ying-Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Intraplaque angiogenesis, the process of generating new blood vessels mediated by endothelial cells, contributes to plaque growth, intraplaque hemorrhage, and thromboembolic events. Platelet-derived exosomes (PLT-EXOs) affect angiogenesis in multiple ways. The ability of miR-126, one of the best-characterized miRNAs that regulates angiogenesis, carried by PLT-EXOs to influence angiogenesis via the regulation of the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Gali Epstein Shochet, Lutz Wollin, David Shitrit
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. Activated fibroblasts are the key effector cells in fibrosis, producing excessive amounts of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Whether the ECM conditioned by IPF fibroblasts determines the phenotype of naïve fibroblasts is difficult to explore. METHODS: IPF-derived primary fibroblasts were cultured on Matrigel and then cleared using ammonium hydroxide, creating an IPF-conditioned matrix (CM)...
March 12, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Fang Fang, Bangxing Huang, Si Sun, Man Xiao, Jing Guo, Xiaoqing Yi, Jing Cai, Zehua Wang
High-risk human papillomavirus infection is essential for the malignant transformation of cervical cancer and can inhibit host miR-27a expression. We investigated the role and mechanism of miR-27a in cervical cancer progression. miR-27a is decreased in cervical cancer cell lines and miR-27a-agomir inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion properties of HeLa (adenocarcinoma) cells, but not in SiHa cells (squamous cell carcinoma). Luciferase assays revealed that miR-27a directly targets the 3'-UTR of transforming growth factor beta receptor I (TGF-βRI) and downregulates TGF-β signaling...
March 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Yuanyuan Tang, Joshua Berlind, Nirmala Mavila
BACKGROUND: The WNT-beta-catenin pathway is known to regulate cellular homeostasis during development and tissue regeneration. Activation of WNT signaling increases the stability of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and enhances its nuclear translocation. Nuclear beta-catenin function is regulated by transcriptional co-factors such as CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. Hyper-activated WNT-beta-catenin signaling is associated with many cancers. However, its role in inducing stemness to liver cancer cells, its autoregulation and how it regulates tumor suppressor pathways are not well understood...
March 12, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Kanchan Maji, Sudip Dasgupta, Krishna Pramanik, Akalabya Bissoyi
The primary aim of this study was to fabricate gelatin/chitosan/β-TCP (GCT) composite scaffold to improve its compressive mechanical behaviour and in-vivo biocompatibility with predictable degradation rate. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder was synthesized in size range between 70-100 nm using aqueous precipitation route at a fixed Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5:1 at pH 10 and after subsequent heat treatment of as precipitated powder at 800 °C for 4 hours. The composite scaffolds were fabricated using solid-liquid phase separation of the slurry containing gelatin, chitosan, β-tricalcium phosphate in varying proportion and subsequent lyophilisation of the phase separated mixture...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Hegui Huang, Lian Liu, Jing Li, Chunyan Zhu, Xiaoyu Xie, Ying Ao, Hui Wang
Autophagy plays a vital role in embryonic development and cell differentiation. Our previous study demonstrated that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) resulted in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and adrenal developmental toxicities in rat offspring. The present study focused on PEE-induced autophagy as an underlying mechanism and its biological significance in female fetal rats. Female fetuses in the PEE group exhibited lower body weights and suffered adrenal structural abnormalities compared to the controls...
March 7, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ali C M Johnson, Richard A Zager
Background: P21, a cyclin kinase inhibitor, is upregulated by renal 'ischemic preconditioning' (IPC), and induces a 'cytoresistant' state. However, P21-induced cell cycle inhibition can also contribute to cellular senescence, a potential adverse renal event. Hence, this study assessed whether: (i) IPC-induced P21 upregulation is associated with subsequent renal senescence; and (ii) preconditioning can be established 'independent' of P21 induction and avoid a post-ischemic senescent state? Methods: CD-1 mice were subjected to either IPC (5-15 min) or to a recently proposed 'oxidant-induced preconditioning' (OIP) strategy (tin protoporphyrin-induced heme oxygenase inhibition +/- parental iron administration)...
March 7, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Maria Touri, Fathollah Moztarzadeh, Noor Azuan Abu Osman, Mohammad Mehdi Dehghan, Masoud Mozafari
Tissue engineering scaffolds with oxygen generating elements have shown to be able to increase the level of oxygen and cell survivability in specific conditions. In this study, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with the composition of 60% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 40% beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), which have shown a great potential for bone tissue engineering applications, were fabricated by a direct-write assembly (robocasting) technique. Then, the three-dimensional (3D)-printed scaffolds were coated with different ratios of an oxygen releasing agent, calcium peroxide (CPO), which encapsulated within a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix through dip-coating, and used for in situ production of oxygen in the implanted sites...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Hong-Qiang Chen, Ji Zhao, Yan Li, Li-Xiong He, Yu-Jing Huang, Wei-Qun Shu, Jia Cao, Wen-Bin Liu, Jin-Yi Liu
Microcystin (MC) is a cyclic heptapeptide compound which could lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying epigenetic regulation mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, microcystin-LR (L: lysine, R: arginine, MC-LR) was used to induce the malignant transformation of human hepatocyte L02 cell line. The profile of gene expression, microRNA (miRNA) and DNA methylation were detected through high-throughput sequencing. Compared with control group, the expression of 826 genes and 187 miRNAs changed significantly in MC-LR treated group...
March 5, 2018: Toxicology Letters
M G Matera, P Rogliani, L Calzetta, G W Canonica, M Cazzola
Benralizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed at the a subunit of the interleukin-5 receptor (IL-5R) that is under clinical development. The binding of benralizumab with the alpha chain of IL-5R results in inhibition of hetero-oligomerization of alpha and beta subunits and thus no signal transduction occurs. Consequently, this inhibition prevents proliferation of eosinophils and basophils and the cascade of events following it. Several pivotal trials have documented that benralizumab reduces asthma exacerbation rates with a significant increase in time to the next exacerbation, statistically improves prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and disease-specific health-related quality of life, and is well tolerated in patients with severe asthma and blood eosinophil counts greater than or equal to 150 cells/mcL...
December 2017: Drugs of Today
Zengli Zhang, Hanyi Jiang, Yongsheng Wang, Minhua Shi
Background: Due to high metastasis and recurrence rate. Recent studies indicated that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was involved in the progression and metastasis in cancer. Some reports also indicate that HS3ST3B1 played a role in angiogenesis and the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we aim to investigate its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) . Materials and Methods: All cell lines were purchased from ATCC and cultured in our central lab...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Yang Jiao, Yan Wu, Dong Du
Polydatin, a small molecule from Polygonum cuspidatum, has many biological functions, particularly anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of polydatin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been examined yet. In the present study, MTT assay, BrdU assay, transwell invasion assay, and wound healing assay were performed to determine cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to measure cell apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting assays were used to determine mRNA and protein expression levels...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Jenny F López, Jertta-Riina Sarkanen, Outi Huttala, Ilkka S Kaartinen, Hannu O Kuokkanen, Timo Ylikomi
Growth factors are the key elements in wound healing signaling for cell migration, differentiation and proliferation. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), one of the most studied sources of growth factors, has demonstrated to promote wound healing in vitro and in vivo. Adipose tissue is an alternative source of growth factors. Through a simple lipoaspirate method, adipose derived growth factor-rich preparation (adipose tissue extract; ATE) can be obtained. The authors set out to compare the effects of these two growth factor sources in cell proliferation and migration (scratch) assays of keratinocyte, fibroblast, endothelial and adipose derived stem cells...
March 6, 2018: Cytotechnology
Yu Huang, Yang Kong, Lufei Zhang, Tianyu He, Xiaohu Zhou, Yingcai Yan, Linshi Zhang, Dongkai Zhou, Sinan Lu, Jiarong Zhou, Lin Zhou, Haiyang Xie, Shusen Zheng, Weilin Wang
Integrin subunit alpha 3 (ITGA3) interacts with a beta 1 subunit to form a member of the integrin family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins that serve as cell surface adhesion proteins. In this research, we investigated the biological function of this protein in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) for the first time. Here, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays, we discovered that ITGA3 was overexpressed in ICC cell lines and ICC patients. Moreover, we found ITGA3 expression correlated with several clinicopathological features, including tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and the TNM stage...
2018: BioMed Research International
Salam Pradeep Singh, Khumukcham Nongalleima, Ningthoujam Indrajit Singh, Pradip Doley, Chingakham Brajakisor Singh, Thiyam Ramsing Singh, Dinabandhu Sahoo
Zerumbone is a known anti-cancer herbal compound. However, the actual protein target is not fully understood or known. This investigation focus on the association of zerumbone in HCT116 colon cancer cell proliferation and its link with TNF-alpha. The study shows that with the increasing concentration of zerumbone, there was a reduction of HCT116 cells proliferation based on the cell line study and hence higher TNF-alpha inhibition based on the TNF-alpha assay. The study also emphasizes on the computational aspect by investigating the molecular docking analysis of zerumbone against TNF-alpha...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ai-Ling Tian, MingMin Lu, Guillermo Calderón-Mantilla, Evangelia Petsalaki, Tania Dottorini, XiaoWei Tian, YuJian Wang, Si-Yang Huang, Jun-Ling Hou, XiangRui Li, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: The molecular structure of Fasciola gigantica 14-3-3 protein has been characterized. However, the involvement of this protein in parasite pathogenesis remains elusive and its effect on the functions of innate immune cells is unknown. We report on the cloning and expression of a recombinant F. gigantica 14-3-3 epsilon protein (rFg14-3-3e), and testing its effects on specific functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: rFg14-3-3e protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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