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Beta Cell proliferation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929173/platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-beta-identifies-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-enhanced-engraftment-to-tissue-injury-and-pro-angiogenic-property
#1
Shan Wang, Miaohua Mo, Jinmei Wang, Sobia Sadia, Bihua Shi, Xiaobing Fu, Lin Yu, Edward E Tredget, Yaojiong Wu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous likely consisting of subpopulations with various therapeutic potentials. Here we attempted to acquire a subset of MSCs with enhanced effect in wound healing. We found that human placental MSCs expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR)-β exhibited greater proliferation rates and generated more colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F), compared to PDGFR-β(-) MSCs. Notably, PDGFR-β(+) MSCs expressed higher levels of pro-angiogenic factors such as Ang1, Ang2, VEGF, bFGF and PDGF...
September 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925399/dock4-promotes-loss-of-proliferation-in-glioblastoma-progenitor-cells-through-nuclear-beta-catenin-accumulation-and-subsequent-mir-302-367-cluster-expression
#2
D N Debruyne, L Turchi, F Burel-Vandenbos, M Fareh, F Almairac, V Virolle, D Figarella-Branger, N Baeza-Kallee, P Lagadec, V Kubiniek, P Paquis, D Fontaine, M-P Junier, H Chneiweiss, T Virolle
Glioblastomas (GBM) are lethal primitive brain tumours characterized by a strong intra-tumour heterogeneity. We observed in GBM tissues the coexistence of functionally divergent micro-territories either enriched in more differentiated and non-mitotic cells or in mitotic undifferentiated OLIG2 positive cells while sharing similar genomic abnormalities. Understanding the formation of such functionally divergent micro-territories in glioblastomas (GBM) is essential to comprehend GBM biogenesis, plasticity and to develop therapies...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922379/elevating-serotonin-pre-partum-alters-the-holstein-dairy-cow-hepatic-adaptation-to-lactation
#3
Samantha R Weaver, Allan S Prichard, Noah L Maerz, Austin P Prichard, Elizabeth L Endres, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Matthew S Akins, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920705/human-endothelial-progenitor-cell-derived-exosomes-increase-proliferation-and-angiogenesis-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-by-promoting-the-mesenchymal-endothelial-transition-and-reducing-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-b1-expression
#4
Xiao Ke, Dahao Yang, Jiawen Liang, Xing Wang, Shaoyun Wu, Xiaoqing Wang, Chengheng Hu
Myocardial fibrosis is a characteristic feature of cardiomyopathies. However, no effective strategies to attenuate cardiac fibrosis are currently available. Late-stage endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are precursors of endothelial cells (ECs) that repair the heart through a paracrine mechanism. In the present study, we tested whether EPC-derived exosomes regulate the differentiation of fibroblasts into ECs. We isolated late-stage EPCs from human peripheral blood (PB) and used immunofluorescence and flow cytometry to confirm their identity...
September 18, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919584/reduced-ifn-%C3%AE-production-in-chronic-brucellosis-patients
#5
Ehsanollah Ghaznavi Rad, Khadijeh Khosravi, Nader Zarinfar, Ghasem Mosayebi
BACKGROUND: Brucella is a well-known intracellular bacterium entailing acute and chronic illnesses in humans and domestic animals. The infection chronicity may be affected by the cell-mediated immunity and cytokine patterns. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the patterns of T-helper cytokines in patients suffering from chronic and acute brucellosis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 22 individuals with acute brucellosis, 21 individuals with chronic brucellosis, and 21 healthy individuals with the same genetic background were recruited from October 2015 to April 2016...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918563/development-and-validation-of-immortalized-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cell-line-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-the-study-of-mammary-gland-functions
#6
Ji-Xia Li, Abdelrahman Said, Xiu-Guo Ge, Wenxiu Wang, Yong Zhang, Tianming Jin
This study aimed to develop a bovine mammary epithelial (BME) cell line model, which provides a possibility to determine functional properties of the bovine mammary gland. The primary cell culture was derived from bovine mammary gland tissues and processed enzymatically to obtain cell colonies with epithelial-like morphology. The cultures of BME cells were purified and optimally cultured at 37 °C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The BME cells were identified as epithelial cell line by the evaluating the expression of keratin-18 using immunofluorescence staining...
September 16, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916975/flaxseed-oil-supplementation-improve-gene-expression-levels-of-ppar-%C3%AE-lp-a-il-1-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#7
Ali Akbar Hashemzadeh, Nikoo Nasoohi, Fariba Raygan, Esmat Aghadavod, Elmira Akbari, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh, Zatollah Asemi
This study was carried out to determine the effects of flaxseed oil administration on gene expression levels related to insulin, lipid and inflammation in overweight diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 diabetic patients with CHD. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to intake either 1000 mg n-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil containing 400 mg α-Linolenic acid [ALA (18:3n-3)] (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) twice a day for 12 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916148/chemokine-receptor-directed-imaging-and-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Andreas K Buck, Antje Stolzenburg, Heribert Hänscheid, Andreas Schirbel, Katharina Lückerath, Margret Schottelius, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Constantin Lapa
The C - X - C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its natural ligand CXCL12 are key factors in the process of cell migration, homing of hematopoietic stem cells to the bone marrow, and represent important mediators of angiogenesis and cell proliferation. The CXCR4/CXCL12 interplay can be disrupted by CXCR4 antagonists such as Plerixafor which are already in daily clinical use, i.e. for mobilization and subsequent harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells and stem cell transplantation. In a pathological condition, involvement in the process of metastasis and homing of cancer cells to a protective niche has been described, making CXCR4 an attractive target for imaging and treatment of malignant diseases...
September 12, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914997/synergistic-effect-of-l-ascorbic-acid-and-hyaluronic-acid-on-the-expressions-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-3-and-9-in-human-chondrocytes
#9
Teng-Le Huang, Che-Hua Yang, Goichi Yanai, Jo-Yu Liao, Shoichiro Sumi, Kai-Chiang Yang
Proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). New evidence clarifying the correlation between ROS and inflammation has indicated that oxidative stress can up-regulate inflammatory cytokines. l-Ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and improve matrix deposition in chondrocytes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA; 100 μg/mL) supplemented with AA (50 μg/mL) on human normal and interleukin-1 beta-stimulated (IL-1β, 10 ng/mL) chondrocytes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914811/leptolide-improves-insulin-resistance-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#10
Pablo Villa-Pérez, Mercedes Cueto, Ana R Díaz-Marrero, Carmen D Lobatón, Alfredo Moreno, Germán Perdomo, Irene Cózar-Castellano
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex disease linked to pancreatic beta-cell failure and insulin resistance. Current antidiabetic treatment regimens for T2DM include insulin sensitizers and insulin secretagogues. We have previously demonstrated that leptolide, a member of the furanocembranolides family, promotes pancreatic beta-cell proliferation in mice. Considering the beneficial effects of leptolide in diabetic mice, in this study, we aimed to address the capability of leptolide to improve insulin resistance associated with the pathology of obesity...
September 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910862/effects-of-newly-synthesized-recombinant-human-amyloid-%C3%AE-complexes-and-poly-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibers-on-cell-apoptosis-and-cognitive-decline
#11
Soojin Park, Jae-Won Huh, Taekil Eom, Naeun Na, Youngjeon Lee, Ju-Sung Kim, Sun-Uk Kim, Insop Shim, Sang-Rae Lee, Ekyune Kim
The main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain. Aβ has been widely used to mimic several aspects of Alzheimer's disease. However, several characteristics of amyloid-induced Alzheimer's disease pathology are not well established, especially in mice. The present study aimed to develop a new Alzheimer's disease model by investigating how amyloid beta can be effectively aggregated using prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To express the Aβ42 complex in HEK293 cells, we cloned the Aβ42 region repeatedly and incorporated the resulting construct into a eukaryotic expression vector...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905149/interactions-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-gamma-on-neuroinflammation-demyelination-and-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Noël Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Yves Lecarpentier
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is marked by neuroinflammation and demyelination with loss of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. The immune response is regulated by WNT/beta-catenin pathway in MS. Activated NF-kappaB, a major effector of neuroinflammation, and upregulated canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway positively regulate each other. Demyelinating events present an upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, whereas proper myelinating phases show a downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway essential for the promotion of oligodendrocytes precursors cells proliferation and differentiation...
September 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903471/the-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-in-the-pathophysiology-of-peritoneal-endometriosis
#13
Vicky J Young, S F Ahmad, W Colin Duncan, Andrew W Horne
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is estimated to affect 6-10% of women of reproductive age and it is associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea and subfertility. It is currently managed surgically or medically but symptoms recur in up to 75% of cases and available medical treatments have undesirable side effects. Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus with lesions typically found on the peritoneum. The aetiology of endometriosis is uncertain but there is increasing evidence that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a major role...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903396/igfbp2-plays-an-important-role-in-heat-shock-protein-27-mediated-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#14
Chin-Sheng Hung, Chien-Yu Huang, Chia-Hwa Lee, Wei-Yu Chen, Ming-Te Huang, Po-Li Wei, Yu-Jia Chang
Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a key chaperone that interacts with over 200 client proteins. The expression of Hsp27 might be correlated with poor outcome in many types of cancer. Previous study indicated that Hsp27 might be an important biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the detailed mechanism is less well understood. The shRNA-mediated silencing of Hsp27 decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells. In a xenograft model, the silencing of Hsp27 reduced tumor progression...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898431/anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidant-properties-of-schisandrin-c-promote-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-human-dental-pulp-cells
#15
J S Takanche, Y-H Lee, J-S Kim, J-E Kim, S-H Han, S-W Lee, H-K Yi
AIM: To examine the properties of Schisandrin C as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant compound, and whether its characteristics promote mitochondrial biogenesis in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). METHODOLOGY: HDPCs were extracted from fresh third molars and cultured for experiments. Reactive oxidative stress (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) formation were analyzed by a Muse cell analyzer. Western blotting and gelatin zymography were used to identify the presence of anti-oxidants, as well as anti-inflammatory and mitochondrial biogenesis with specific antibody...
September 12, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898261/aged-blood-factors-decrease-cellular-responses-associated-with-delayed-gingival-wound-repair
#16
María Paz Saldías, Christian Fernández, Alejandra Morgan, Catalina Díaz, Diego Morales, Fabián Jaña, Alvaro Gómez, Alonso Silva, Fernanda Briceño, Alejandro Oyarzún, Felipe Maldonado, Oscar Cerda, Patricio C Smith, Mónica Cáceres
Aging is a gradual biological process characterized by a decrease in cell and organism functions. Gingival wound healing is one of the impaired processes found in old rats. Here, we studied the in vivo wound healing process using a gingival repair rat model and an in vitro model using human gingival fibroblast for cellular responses associated to wound healing. To do that, we evaluated cell proliferation of both epithelial and connective tissue cells in gingival wounds and found decreased of Ki67 nuclear staining in old rats when compared to their young counterparts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884198/mouse-pancreatic-islet-macrophages-use-locally-released-atp-to-monitor-beta-cell-activity
#17
Jonathan R Weitz, Madina Makhmutova, Joana Almaça, Julia Stertmann, Kristie Aamodt, Marcela Brissova, Stephan Speier, Rayner Rodriguez-Diaz, Alejandro Caicedo
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Tissue-resident macrophages sense the microenvironment and respond by producing signals that act locally to maintain a stable tissue state. It is now known that pancreatic islets contain their own unique resident macrophages, which have been shown to promote proliferation of the insulin-secreting beta cell. However, it is unclear how beta cells communicate with islet-resident macrophages. Here we hypothesised that islet macrophages sense changes in islet activity by detecting signals derived from beta cells...
September 7, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883757/time-dependent-proteomic-and-genomic-alterations-in-toll-like-receptor-4-activated-human-chondrocytes-increased-expression-of-lamin-a-c-and-annexins
#18
Seung Hee Ha, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Nguyen Thi Tuyet Anh, Nari Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) in articular chondrocytes increases the catabolic compartment and leads to matrix degradation during the development of osteoarthritis. In this study, we determined the proteomic and genomic alterations in human chondrocytes during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of TLR-4 activation. Human chondrocytes were cultured with LPS for 12, 24, and 36 h to induce TLR-4 activation. The TLR-4-induced inflammatory response was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of increased interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression levels...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880710/serum-immune-proteins-in-limb-lymphedema-reflecting-tissue-processes-caused-by-lymph-stasis-and-chronic-dermatolymphangioadenitis-cellulitis
#19
Marzanna T Zaleska, Waldemar L Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Lymphedema of limbs affects a large mass of tissues. Pathological changes develop in skin and subcutaneous tissue. Bacterial retention in edema fluid is followed by chronic inflammatory reaction. The question arises whether the chronic processes affecting a large mass of limb tissues are reflected in the serum by appearance of specific proteins accumulating and subsequently absorbed from the lymphedematous tissues Aim: To measure the concentration of serum proteins (1) participating in cellular disintegration such as caspase 1, sFas, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and serpin, (2) cell growth regulating factors such as cortisol, human growth hormone, keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and (3) angiogenic and growth factors such as angiopoetins 1 and 2, adiponectin, leptin, and transforming growth factor beta...
September 7, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877067/diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-of-adrenal-cortical-carcinoma
#20
Ozgur Mete, Hasan Gucer, Mehmet Kefeli, Sylvia L Asa
The diagnosis of low-grade adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) confined to the adrenal gland can be challenging. Although there are diagnostic and prognostic molecular tests for ACC, they remain largely unutilized. We examined the diagnostic and prognostic value of altered reticulin framework and the immunoprofile of biomarkers including IGF-2, proteins involved in cell proliferation and mitotic spindle regulation (Ki67, p53, BUB1B, HURP, NEK2), DNA damage repair (PBK, γ-H2AX), telomere regulation (DAX, ATRX), wnt-signaling pathway (beta-catenin) and PI3K signaling pathway (PTEN, phospho-mTOR) in a tissue microarray of 50 adenomas and 43 carcinomas that were characterized for angioinvasion as defined by strict criteria, Weiss score, and mitotic rate-based tumor grade...
September 4, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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