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Beta Cell proliferation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086804/comparative-analysis-of-the-root-transcriptomes-of-cultivated-sweetpotato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-and-its-wild-ancestor-ipomoea-trifida-kunth-g-don
#1
Sathish K Ponniah, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Ketaki Bhide, Venu Kal Kalavacharla, Muthusamy Manoharan
BACKGROUND: The complex process of formation of storage roots (SRs) from adventitious roots affects sweetpotato yield. Identifying the genes that are uniquely expressed in the SR forming cultivated species, Ipomoea batatas (Ib), and its immediate ancestral species, Ipomoea trifida (It), which does not form SRs, may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying SR formation in sweetpotato. RESULTS: Illumina paired-end sequencing generated ~208 and ~200 million reads for Ib and It, respectively...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078385/glucose-and-fatty-acids-synergistically-and-reversibly-promote-beta-cell-proliferation-in-rats
#2
Valentine S Moullé, Kevin Vivot, Caroline Tremblay, Bader Zarrouki, Julien Ghislain, Vincent Poitout
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The mechanisms underlying pancreatic islet mass expansion have attracted considerable interest as potential therapeutic targets to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. While several factors promoting beta cell proliferation have been identified, in the context of nutrient excess the roles of glucose or NEFA in relation to insulin resistance remain unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that glucose and NEFA synergistically and reversibly promote beta cell proliferation in the context of nutrient-induced insulin resistance...
January 11, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078190/loss-of-quiescence-and-self-renewal-capacity-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-in-an-in-vitro-leukemic-niche
#3
Natalia-Del Pilar Vanegas, Jean-Paul Vernot
BACKGROUND: Leukemic and mesenchymal stem cells interact in the leukemic microenvironment and affect each other differently. This interplay has also important implications for the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) biology and function. This study evaluated human HSC self-renewal potential and quiescence in an in vitro leukemic niche without leukemic cells. METHODS: A leukemic niche was established by co-culturing mesenchymal stem cells with a fresh conditioned medium obtained from a leukemic (REH) cell line...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077619/relative-importance-of-%C3%AE-cyto-and-%C3%AE-cyto-actin-in-primary-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts
#4
Xiaobai Patrinostro, Allison R O'Rourke, Christopher M Chamberlain, Branden S Moriarity, Benjamin J Perrin, James M Ervasti
The highly homologous beta (βcyto) and gamma (γcyto) cytoplasmic actins are hypothesized to carry out both redundant and unique essential functions, but studies using targeted gene knockout and siRNA mediated transcript knockdown to examine βcyto- and γcyto-isoform specific functions in various cell types have yielded conflicting data. Here, we quantitatively characterized actin transcript and protein levels as well as cellular phenotypes in both gene- and transcript-targeted primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069397/influence-of-neuropeptide-y-and-pancreatic-polypeptide-on-islet-function-and-beta-cell-survival
#5
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt
BACKGROUND: In the present study we assessed the impact of neuropeptide Y receptor (NPYR) modulators, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), on islet function and beta-cell survival. METHODS: The effects of NPY and PP on beta-cell function were examined in BRIN BD11 and 1.1B4 beta-cells, as well as isolated mouse islets. Involvement of both peptides in pancreatic islet adaptations to streptozotocin and hydrocortisone, as well as effects on beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis was also evaluated...
January 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067794/the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad4-signaling-pathway-in-pancreatic-carcinogenesis-and-its-clinical-significance
#6
REVIEW
Sunjida Ahmed, Azore-Dee Bradshaw, Shweta Gera, M Zahidunnabi Dewan, Ruliang Xu
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most fatal human cancers due to its complicated genomic instability. PDAC frequently presents at an advanced stage with extensive metastasis, which portends a poor prognosis. The known risk factors associated with PDAC include advanced age, smoking, long-standing chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and diabetes. Its association with genomic and somatic mutations is the most important factor for its aggressiveness. The most common gene mutations associated with PDAC include KRas2, p16, TP53, and Smad4...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065853/sitagliptin-inhibit-human-lymphocytes-proliferation-and-th1-th17-differentiation-in-vitro
#7
Marcelo Maia Pinheiro, Caroline Lais Stoppa, Claudete Justina Valduga, Cristina Eunice Okuyama, Renata Gorjão, Regina Mara Silva Pereira, Susana Nogueira Diniz
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agents that are widely used in clinical practice to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 is also known as lymphocyte cell surface protein, CD26, and plays an important role in T-cell immunity. Recent studies suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors improve beta-cell function and attenuate autoimmunity in type 1 diabetic mouse models. To investigate the direct effect of DPP4 in immune response, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy volunteers were obtained by Ficoll gradient and cultivated in the absence (control) or presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), or stimulated with PHA and treated with sitagliptin...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063004/tubulin-alpha-8-is-expressed-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-is-induced-in-transformed-hepatocytes
#8
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Rebekka Pohl, Elisabeth M Haberl, Sebastian Zimny, Maximilian Neumann, Kristina Eisinger, Thomas S Weiss, Sabrina Krautbauer, Christa Buechler
Tubulin alpha 8 (TUBA8) is highly abundant in murine liver tumors suggesting a role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a risk factor for HCC. In mice that are fed with a methionine-choline deficient diet for two weeks to induce advanced murine NASH, we do see increased hepatic levels of TUBA8 protein. In animals given a high-fat diet for 14 weeks or an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks, hepatic TUBA8 is unchanged. TUBA8 is highly expressed in human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and co-localizes with the HSC marker desmin in the murine liver...
January 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059551/wnt-signaling-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#9
Robert Böscke, Eszter K Vladar, Michael Könnecke, Birgit Hüsing, Robert Linke, Ralph Pries, Norbert Reiling, Jeffrey D Axelrod, Jayakar V Nayak, Barbara Wollenberg
The signaling pathways that sustain the disease process of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remain poorly understood. We sought to determine the expression levels of Wnt signaling genes in CRSwNP, and to study the role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation and epithelial remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Microarrays and RT-qPCR comparing gene expression in matched nasal polyps (NP) and inferior turbinates (IT) revealed that WNT2B, WNT3A, WNT4, WNT7A, WNT7B and FZD2 were upregulated, and FZD1, LRP5, LRP6 and WIF1 downregulated in NPs...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049551/beta-catenin-can-induce-hair-follicle-stem-cell-differentiation-into-transit-amplifying-cells-through-c-myc-activation
#10
Qiong Shen, Weirong Yu, Yong Fang, Min Yao, Penggao Yang
Hair follicle stem cells play important roles in maintaining homeostasis and skin tissue self-renewal. Transit-amplifying cells represent the transition of cells from hair follicle stem cells into differentiated epidermal cells. Thus far, the signaling pathway and the molecular biological mechanism that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells remain unclear. In this paper, we studied the relationship between β-catenin and c-myc during the process of the differentiation of hair follicle stem cells into transit-amplifying cells...
December 21, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049043/perfluoroalkyl-acids-induced-liver-steatosis-effects-on-genes-controlling-lipid-homeostasis
#11
Kaberi P Das, Carmen R Wood, Mimi J Lin, Anatoly A Starkov, Christopher Lau, Kendall B Wallace, J Christopher Corton, Barbara D Abbott
Persistent presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment is due to their extensive use in industrial and consumer products, and their slow decay. Biochemical tests in rodent demonstrated that these chemicals are potent modifiers of lipid metabolism and cause hepatocellular steatosis. However, the molecular mechanism of PFAAs interference with lipid metabolism remains to be elucidated. Currently, two major hypotheses are that PFAAs interfere with mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and/or they affect the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in liver...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043904/liver-cancer-cell-of-origin-molecular-class-and-effects-on-patient-prognosis
#12
REVIEW
Daniela Sia, Augusto Villanueva, Scott L Friedman, Josep M Llovet
Primary liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and therefore a major public health challenge. We review hypotheses of the cell of origin of liver tumorigenesis, and clarify the classes of liver cancer, based on molecular features and how these affect patient prognosis. Primary liver cancer comprises hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), and other rare tumors, notably fibrolamellar carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. The molecular and clinical features of HCC vs iCCA are distinct, although they have overlapping risk factors and pathways of oncogenesis...
December 30, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036116/hmgb1-down-regulation-mediates-terameprocol-vascular-anti-proliferative-effect-in-experimental-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
Rita Nogueira-Ferreira, Manuel J Ferreira-Pinto, Ana Filipa Silva, Rui Vitorino, Joana Justino, Raquel Costa, Daniel Moreira-Gonçalves, Jean-François Quignard, Thomas Ducret, Jean-Pierre Savineau, Adelino F Leite-Moreira, Rita Ferreira, Tiago Henriques-Coelho
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease with a poor prognosis. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play a crucial role in PAH pathophysiology, displaying a hyperproliferative and apoptotic-resistant phenotype. In the present study, we evaluated the potential therapeutic role of terameprocol (TMP), an inhibitor of cellular proliferation and promoter of apoptosis, in a well-established pre-clinical model of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT) and studied the biological pathways modulated by TMP in PASMCs...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032743/sustained-local-release-of-ngf-from-a-chitosan-sericin-composite-scaffold-for-treating-chronic-nerve-compression
#14
Lei Zhang, Wen Yang, Kaixiong Tao, Yu Song, Hongjian Xie, Jian Wang, Xiaolin Li, Xiaoming Shuai, Jinbo Gao, Panpan Chang, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang, Lin Wang
Chronic nerve compression (CNC), such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), is a common cause of peripheral nerve dysfunction and chronic peripheral nerve pain. Current available treatments for CNC are ineffective as they usually aim to alleviate symptoms at the acute phase with limited capability towards restoring injured nerve function. New approaches for effective recovery of CNC injury are highly desired. Here we report for the first time a tissue-engineered approach for the repair of CNC. A genipin cross-linked chitosan-sericin 3D scaffold for delivering nerve growth factor (NGF) was designed and fabricated...
December 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031536/use-of-non-selective-%C3%AE-blockers-is-associated-with-decreased-tumor-proliferative-indices-in-early-stage-breast-cancer
#15
Alexa Montoya, Clarissa N Amaya, Andres Belmont, Nabih Diab, Richard Trevino, Geri Villanueva, Steven Rains, Luis A Sanchez, Nabeel Badri, Salman Otoukesh, Ali Khammanivong, Danielle Liss, Sarah T Baca, Renato J Aguilera, Erin B Dickerson, Alireza Torabi, Alok K Dwivedi, Aamer Abbas, Karinn Chambers, Brad A Bryan, Zeina Nahleh
Previous studies suggest beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonists (β-blockers) decrease breast cancer progression, tumor metastasis, and patient mortality; however the mechanism for this is unknown. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue revealed overexpression of β1-AR and β3-AR in breast cancer. A retrospective cross-sectional study of 404 breast cancer patients was performed to determine the effect of β-blocker usage on tumor proliferation. Our analysis revealed that non-selective β-blockers, but not selective β-blockers, reduced tumor proliferation by 66% (p < 0...
December 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030611/silibinin-inhibits-platelet-derived-growth-factor-driven-cell-proliferation-via-downregulation-of-n-glycosylation-in-human-tenon-s-fibroblasts-in-a-proteasome-dependent-manner
#16
Yi-Hao Chen, Ching-Long Chen, Da-Wen Lu, Chang-Min Liang, Ming-Cheng Tai, Jiann-Torng Chen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silibinin on cell proliferation in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-treated human Tenon's fibroblasts (HTFs). The effect of silibinin on cell proliferation in PDGF-treated HTFs was determined by examining the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and performing WST-1 assays. Cell cycle progression was evaluated using flow cytometry. The related cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) were also analyzed using western blot. A modified rat trabeculectomy model was established to evaluate the effect of silibinin on cell proliferation in vivo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028178/c-flipl-modulated-wnt-beta-catenin-activation-via-association-with-tip49-protein
#17
Jing Zhang, Heng-Yi Jiang, Lin-Kai Zhang, Wen-Ling Xu, Yi-Ting Qiao, Xu-Guo Zhu, Wan Liu, Qian-Qian Zheng, Zi-Chun Hua
Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) is a key inhibitory protein in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Recent studies showed that c-FLIPL could translocate into the nucleus and might be involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. The nuclear function of c-FLIPL was still unclear. Here we found a novel c-FLIPL-associated protein TIP49, which is a nuclear protein identified as a cofactor in the transcriptional regulation of β-catenin. They had co-localization in the nucleus and the DED domain of c-FLIPL was required for the association with TIP49...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028036/reduced-islet-function-contributes-to-impaired-glucose-homeostasis-in-fructose-fed-mice
#18
Zeenat A Asghar, Andrew Cusumano, Zihan Yan, Maria S Remedi, Kelle H Moley
Increased sugar consumption, particularly fructose, in the form of sweetened beverages and sweeteners in our diet adversely affects metabolic health. Because these effects are associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in humans, the direct effect of fructose on pancreatic islet function is unknown. We therefore examined the islet phenotype of mice fed excess fructose. Fructose-fed mice exhibited fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, but not hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, or hyperuricemia...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012947/the-gsk-3-inhibitor-vp2-51-produces-antidepressant-effects-associated-with-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#19
Paloma Pérez-Domper, Valle Palomo, Simona Gradari, Carmen Gil, María L de Ceballos, Ana Martínez, Jose Luis Trejo
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active kinase that has been implicated in the mechanism of action of mood stabilizers. According to the neurogenic hypothesis of depression, newborn neurons in the adult dentate gyrus are required for the antidepressant effects of certain agents. We demonstrate that administration of the GSK-3 inhibitor VP2.51 (2.5 mg/kg ip, for 3.5 weeks) increases cell proliferation (pH3(+) cells), as well as the short- and long-term survival of newborn neurons (assessed by the 24 h survival of BrdU(+) and DCX(+) neurons), while significantly increasing the commitment of cells to the granule neuron lineage (Prox1 immunoreactivity)...
December 22, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011945/orexin-a-modulates-ins-1e-cell-proliferation-and-insulin-secretion-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-and-transient-receptor-potential-channels
#20
M Skrzypski, N Khajavi, S Mergler, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexins A (OXA) and B (OXB) control energy homeostasis by regulating food intake, energy expenditure and sleep-wake cycle. Several studies showed that OXA stimulates insulin secretion and proliferation of beta cells. However, mechanisms of action are still not well understood. Here, we investigated whether ERK and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) play a role in mediating the effect of OXA on cell growth, insulin production, and secretion using the established INS-1E cell line. Cell proliferation was measured using BrdU assay...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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