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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641310/potentiating-the-effects-of-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer-the-role-of-aspirin-statins-and-metformin-as-adjuncts-to-therapy
#1
K J Gash, A C Chambers, D E Cotton, A C Williams, M G Thomas
BACKGROUND: Complete tumour response (pCR) to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with a reduction in local recurrence and improved disease-free and overall survival, but is achieved in only 20-30% of patients. Drug repurposing for anti-cancer treatments is gaining momentum, but the potential of such drugs as adjuncts, to increase tumour response to chemo-radiotherapy in rectal cancer, is only just beginning to be recognised. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted and all studies investigating the use of drugs to enhance response to neo-adjuvant radiation in rectal cancer were included...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637192/an-explorative-study-examining-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-training-in-the-field-of-music-therapy
#2
Anita L Gadberry, Alison Sweeney
Background: Music therapists work with many people who require Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). As communication goals are central to music therapy practice, many music therapists would benefit from training in AAC. Objective: The purpose of this survey study was to determine the state of AAC education for music therapists at the university level, how AAC is being used in music therapy sessions, and how practicing music therapists are trained in AAC...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634003/spasticity-video-challenge-a-look-at-methods-for-addressing-difficult-cases
#3
Katharine E Alter, Mark Gormley, Atul T Patel
As seen in this CME online activity (available at http://courses.elseviercme.com/spasticity/662e), treatment of patients with spasticity due to upper motor neuron syndromes, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, and cerebral palsy, is multifaceted, involving chemodenervation, systemic medications, surgical therapy, rehabilitation efforts, and home care. Optimal care begins with the recognition that each patient's impairments are unique and must be assessed carefully to determine the impact of muscle overactivity, loss of dexterity, and weakness on passive and active function in the context of the patients' goals...
June 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633152/state-of-pelvic-and-acetabular-surgery-in-the-developing-world-a-global-survey-of-orthopaedic-surgeons-at-surgical-implant-generation-network-sign-hospitals
#4
Paul S Whiting, Duane R Anderson, Daniel D Galat, Lewis G Zirkle, Douglas W Lundy, Hassan R Mir
OBJECTIVES: To document the current state of pelvic and acetabular surgery in the developing world and to identify critical areas for improvement in the treatment of these complex injuries. DESIGN: A 50-question online survey. SETTING: International, multicenter. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-one orthopaedic surgeons at Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) hospitals, which represent a cross-section of institutions in low- and middle-income countries that treat high-energy musculoskeletal trauma...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632730/phase-2-study-of-combination-spi-1620-with-docetaxel-as-second-line-advanced-biliary-tract-cancer-treatment
#5
Richard Kim, E Gabriela Chiorean, Manik Amin, Caio Max S Rocha-Lima, Jitendra Gandhi, William P Harris, Tao Song, David Portnoy
BACKGROUND: This multicentre, open-label study evaluated the efficacy and safety of SPI-1620, an analogue of endothelin-1, administered in combination with docetaxel as second-line treatment for patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (ABTC). METHODS: Eligible patients received continuous cycles of combination therapy with SPI-1620 (11 μg m(-2)) and docetaxel (75 mg m(-2)) intravenously every 3 weeks until disease progression (PD) or intolerable toxicity...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632729/radiation-associated-breast-cancer-and-gonadal-hormone-exposure-a-report-from-the-childhood-cancer-survivor-study
#6
Chaya S Moskowitz, Joanne F Chou, Charles A Sklar, Dana Barnea, Cécile M Ronckers, Danielle Novetsky Friedman, Joseph P Neglia, Lucie Turcotte, Rebecca M Howell, Tara O Henderson, Gregory T Armstrong, Wendy M Leisenring, Leslie L Robison, Flora E van Leeuwen, Malcolm C Pike, Kevin C Oeffinger
BACKGROUND: The relationship between hormone exposure and breast cancer risk in women treated with chest radiotherapy for childhood cancer is uncertain. METHODS: Participants included 1108 females from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were diagnosed with childhood cancer 1970-1986, treated with chest radiotherapy, and survived to ages ⩾20 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from Cox models adjusted for chest radiation field, delivered dose, anthracycline exposure, and age at childhood cancer estimated risk...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632725/the-role-of-primary-tumour-sidedness-egfr-gene-copy-number-and-egfr-promoter-methylation-in-ras-braf-wild-type-colorectal-cancer-patients-receiving-irinotecan-cetuximab
#7
Laura Demurtas, Marco Puzzoni, Riccardo Giampieri, Pina Ziranu, Valeria Pusceddu, Alessandra Mandolesi, Chiara Cremolini, Gianluca Masi, Fabio Gelsomino, Carlotta Antoniotti, Cristian Loretelli, Fausto Meriggi, Alberto Zaniboni, Alfredo Falcone, Stefano Cascinu, Mario Scartozzi
BACKGROUND: The data from randomised trials suggested that primary tumour sidedness could represent a prognostic and predictive factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, particularly during treatment with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. However, an in-deep molecular selection might overcome the predictive role of primary tumour location in this setting. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis in which tumour samples from RAS/BRAF wild-type (WT) metastatic CRC patients treated with second-third-line irinotecan/cetuximab were analysed for EGFR gene copy number (GCN) and promoter methylation...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631748/ccl-2-as-a-possible-early-marker-for-remission-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#8
R A Heller, T F Raven, T Swing, K Kunzmann, V Daniel, P Haubruck, M Akbar, P A Grützner, G Schmidmaier, B Biglari, A Moghaddam
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. OBJECTIVES: To describe the correlation between CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-4 and CXCL-5 serum levels and remission after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in a human protocol compared with animal studies. SETTING: Germany, Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz). METHODS: We examined the serum levels of CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-4 and CXCL-5 over a 12-week period; in particular, at admission and 4, 9 and 12 h, 1 and 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after trauma...
June 20, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631746/prevalence-of-androgen-deficiency-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-patients-suffering-from-erectile-dysfunction
#9
M Behnaz, Z Majd, M Radfar, H Ajami, M Qorbani, A Kokab
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of biochemical androgen deficiency in Iranian spinal cord injured men suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED) and to determine factors related to this problem. SETTING: An andrology clinic of a teaching hospital in Tehran. METHODS: Men, 18 years of age and older, with chronic (>2 years) spinal cord injury (SCI) suffering from ED were recruited...
June 20, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631728/acg-and-cag-clinical-guideline-management-of-dyspepsia
#10
Paul M Moayyedi, Brian E Lacy, Christopher N Andrews, Robert A Enns, Colin W Howden, Nimish Vakil
We have updated both the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) guidelines on dyspepsia in a joint ACG/CAG dyspepsia guideline. We suggest that patients ≥60 years of age presenting with dyspepsia are investigated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to exclude organic pathology. This is a conditional recommendation and patients at higher risk of malignancy (such as spending their childhood in a high risk gastric cancer country or having a positive family history) could be offered an endoscopy at a younger age...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631723/pharmacogenetic-biomarkers-of-response-in-crohn-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
T M Linares-Pineda, M Cañadas-Garre, A Sánchez-Pozo, M Á Calleja-Hernández
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic condition, which affects the immune system. It can also affect any part of the digestive tract and be associated with external manifestations. The causes of the disease remain unknown, although it seems to be the result of a combination of factors, such as genetic predisposition, environment, lifestyle and the composition of the microbiota, among others. The treatment protocol begins with a change in eating and smoking habits, and is continued with different lines of treatment, including corticosteroids, immunomodulators and biologic therapy (infliximab and adalimumab), which have shown differences in response among patients, especially with biologic treatment...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631720/contemporary-management-of-men-with-high-risk-localized-prostate-cancer-in-the-united-states
#12
A B Weiner, R S Matulewicz, E M Schaeffer, S L Liauw, J M Feinglass, S E Eggener
BACKGROUND: Surgery and radiation-based therapies are standard management options for men with clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Contemporary patterns of care are unknown. We hypothesize the use of surgery has steadily increased in more recent years. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Data Base for 2004-2013, all men diagnosed with high-risk localized PCa were identified using National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. Temporal trends in initial management were assessed...
June 20, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630763/malignant-tumours-of-the-foot-and-ankle
#13
E Mascard, N Gaspar, L Brugières, C Glorion, S Pannier, A Gomez-Brouchet
Most of tumours of the foot are tumour-like (synovial cyst, foreign body reactions and epidermal inclusion cyst) or benign conditions (tenosynovial giant cells tumours, planta fibromatosis). Malignant tumours of the soft-tissue and skeleton are very rare in the foot and their diagnosis is often delayed with referral to specialised teams after initial inappropriate procedures or unplanned excisions. The adverse effect of these misdiagnosed tumours is the increasing rate of amputation or local recurrences in the involved patients...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630748/treatment-of-chronic-orthopaedic-infection
#14
Heinz Winkler
Chronic infections are one of the major challenges in orthopaedic surgery, both for surgeons and patients. They are characterised by obstinate persistency of the causing microorganisms and resulting long-term disablement of the patients, associated with remarkable costs for the health care system.Difficulties derive from the biofilm-mode of living of pathogens with resistances against immunological defence and antimicrobial substances, and osseous defects resulting from the disease itself and surgical interventions...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629764/oral-versus-topical-calcium-channel-blockers-for-chronic-anal-fissure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Shaheel M Sahebally, Khalid Ahmed, Raminta Cerneveciute, Asif Iqbal, Stewart R Walsh, Myles R Joyce
BACKGROUND: Chemical sphincterotomy with pharmacological agents is recommended as first line therapy for chronic anal fissures (CAF). Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are associated with similar efficacy but fewer side effects compared to nitrates. However, the optimal formulation (oral versus topical) is unknown. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of oral and topical CCB in the treatment of CAF. METHODS: PubMed and Embase online databases were searched for relevant articles...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628768/internet-delivered-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-antenatal-depression-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Erik Forsell, Marie Bendix, Fredrik Holländare, Barbara Szymanska von Schultz, Josefine Nasiell, Margareta Blomdahl-Wetterholm, Caroline Eriksson, Sara Kvarned, Johanna Lindau van der Linden, Elin Söderberg, Jussi Jokinen, Katarina Wide, Viktor Kaldo
Major depression occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with many negative effects for mother and child, yet treatment options are scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first published randomised controlled trial on Internet delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) for this group. OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a pregnancy adapted version of an existing 10-week ICBT-program for depression as well as assessing acceptability and adherence DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628680/current-perspectives-among-u-s-dermatologists-on-chemoprevention-of-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-a-survey-based-study
#17
Brittany Oliver, Serena Durrani, Joel L Cohen, Adam J Friedman
<p>Introduction: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in the US Primary prevention of NMSC with physical photoprotective measures are often not sufficient to impact skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals. Chemoprevention is the use of agents to prevent, suppress, and reverse carcinogenic progression. Many agents have been investigated, but preclinical and clinical studies are often inconsistent.</p> <p>Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to assess current practices, perceptions, and general knowledge of U...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626431/artificial-intelligence-assisted-online-social-therapy-for-youth-mental-health
#18
Simon D'Alfonso, Olga Santesteban-Echarri, Simon Rice, Greg Wadley, Reeva Lederman, Christopher Miles, John Gleeson, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
Introduction: Benefits from mental health early interventions may not be sustained over time, and longer-term intervention programs may be required to maintain early clinical gains. However, due to the high intensity of face-to-face early intervention treatments, this may not be feasible. Adjunctive internet-based interventions specifically designed for youth may provide a cost-effective and engaging alternative to prevent loss of intervention benefits. However, until now online interventions have relied on human moderators to deliver therapeutic content...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626237/cd4-t-cells-memorize-obesity-and-promote-weight-regain
#19
Jianghuan Zou, Beibei Lai, Mingzhu Zheng, Qin Chen, Shujun Jiang, Anying Song, Zan Huang, Peiliang Shi, Xin Tu, Di Wang, Linrong Lu, Zhaoyu Lin, Xiang Gao
Body weight regain often causes failure of obesity therapies while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that immune cells, especially CD4+ T cells, mediate the 'memory' of previous obese status. In a weight gain-loss-regain model, we found that C57BL/6J mice with an obesity history showed a much faster rate of body weight regain. This obesity memory could last for at least 2 months after previously obese mice were kept at the same body weight as non-obese mice. Surprisingly, such obesity memory was abrogated by dexamethasone treatment, whereas immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) and H2A(-/-) mice failed to establish such memory...
June 19, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626219/base-excision-repair-proteins-couple-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-and-endonuclease-g-during-replication-stress-induced-mll-destabilization
#20
B Gole, E Mian, M Rall, L Wiesmüller
The breakpoint cluster region of the MLL gene (MLLbcr) is frequently rearranged in therapy-related and infant acute leukaemia, but the destabilizing mechanism is poorly understood. We recently proposed that DNA replication stress results in MLLbcr cleavage via Endonuclease G (EndoG) and represents the common denominator of genotoxic therapy-induced MLL destabilization. Here we performed a siRNA screen for new factors involved in replication stress-induced MLL rearrangements employing an EGFP-based reporter system...
June 19, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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