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Transcraneal magnetic stimulation

Ariadna Aparicio-Juárez, Mariana Duhne, Esther Lara-González, Fátima Ávila-Cascajares, Vladimir Calderón, Elvira Galarraga, José Bargas
Previously, we have shown that chemical excitatory drives such as N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) are capable of activating the striatal microcircuit exhibiting neuronal ensembles that alternate their activity producing temporal sequences. One aim of this work was to demonstrate whether similar activity could be evoked by delivering cortical stimulation. Dynamic calcium imaging allowed us to follow the activity of dozens of neurons with single-cell resolution in mus musculus brain slices. A train of electrical stimuli in the cortex evoked network activity similar to the one induced by bath application of NMDA...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Johannes Tünnerhoff, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Reidenis Torres-Vega, Paolo Belardinelli, Jacqueline Medrano-Montero, Arnoy Peña-Acosta, Nalia Canales-Ochoa, Yaimeé Vázquez-Mojena, Yanetza González-Zaldivar, Georg Auburger, Ulf Ziemann
Clinical signs of corticospinal tract dysfunction are a common feature of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) patients. The objective of this study is to assess dysfunction of the corticospinal tract in SCA2 using corticomuscular coherence. Testing corticomuscular coherence and rating of ataxia severity and non-ataxia symptoms were performed in 19 SCA2 patients and 24 age-matched controls. Central motor conduction times (CMCT) to upper and lower right limbs were obtained for the SCA2 group using Transcraneal magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
April 2017: Cerebellum
Carlotta Lega, Marianne A Stephan, Robert J Zatorre, Virginia Penhune
Interactions between the auditory and the motor systems are critical in music as well as in other domains, such as speech. The premotor cortex, specifically the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), seems to play a key role in auditory-motor integration, and in mapping the association between a sound and the movement used to produce it. In the present studies we tested the causal role of the dPMC in learning and applying auditory-motor associations using 1 Hz repetitive Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). In this paradigm, non-musicians learn a set of auditory-motor associations through melody training in two contexts: first when the sound to key-press mapping was in a conventional sequential order (low to high tones mapped onto keys from left to right), and then when it was in a novel scrambled order...
2016: PloS One
Carlotta Lega, Tomaso Vecchi, Egidio D'Angelo, Zaira Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: Growing neuroimaging and clinical evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a critical role in perception. In the auditory domain, the cerebellum seems to be important in different aspects of music and sound processing. Here we investigated the possible causal role of the cerebellum in two auditory tasks, a pitch discrimination and a timbre discrimination task. Specifically, participants performed a pitch and a timbre discrimination task prior and after receiving offline low frequency transcranical magnetic stimulation (TMS) over their (right) cerebellum...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Kimberly Weldon, Alexandra Woolgar, Anina Rich, Mark Williams
Neuroimaging evidence indicates that visual information about objects in the periphery is fed back to foveal retinotopic cortex in a new and separate representation. Additionally, delayed disruption of foveal confluence via transcranical magnetic stimulation impairs discrimination of objects in the periphery, suggesting this feedback mechanism is essential for extra-foveal perception. In this study, we developed a behavioural paradigm to further explore the nature of this feedback mechanism and provide a behavioural measure...
2015: Journal of Vision
Helmut Niederhofer
Excessive hyperactivity, impulsiveness and attentional difficulties characterize attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this case report is to signal the possible therapeutic effectiveness of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Low frequency (1Hz, 1200 stim/die for five days) was applied on the impending scalp in the motor additional area of a patient suffering from combined type ADHD who received methylphenidate (MPH). We saw a significant improvement, especially according to criteria associated with hyperactivity...
January 1, 2012: Clinics and Practice
Kelly L Williams, Jennifer A Fifita, Steve Vucic, Jennifer C Durnall, Matthew C Kiernan, Ian P Blair, Garth A Nicholson
OBJECTIVE: Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat in C9ORF72 are a common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a small proportion of sporadic ALS cases. We sought to examine clinical and neurophysiological features of familial and sporadic ALS with C9ORF72 expansions. METHODS: C9ORF72 was screened for expansions in familial and sporadic ALS. Clinical features of expansion positive cases are described. Cortical excitability studies used novel threshold tracking transcranal magnetic stimulation techniques with motor evoked responses recorded over the abductor pollicis brevis...
August 2013: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Luisa Rocha
In spite of the high success rate of many surgical procedures for pharmacoresistant epilepsy, a substantial number of patients do not become seizure-free. Different strategies for electrical modulation of the brain such as Deep Brain Stimulation, Vagal Nerve Stimulation and Transcraneal Magnetic Stimulation have gained considerable interest in the last decade as alternative therapies for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Research into the mechanism of action of the strategies for electrical modulation of the brain suggests a crucial role of different molecules and channels such as glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, adenosine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, calcium channels, sodium channels as well as extracellular potassium...
May 2013: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nicola De Pisapia, Marco Sandrini, Todd S Braver, Luigi Cattaneo
Integration is a fundamental working memory operation, requiring the insertion of information from one task into the execution of another concurrent task. Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested the involvement of left anterior prefrontal cortex (L-aPFC) in relation to working memory integration demands, increasing during presentation of information to be integrated (loading), throughout its maintenance during a secondary task, up to the integration step, and then decreasing afterward (unloading). Here we used short bursts of 5 Hz repetitive Transcranic Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to modulate L-aPFC activity and to assess its causal role in integration...
2012: PloS One
Takashi Hanakawa
Here we propose multidimensional non-invasive imaging to understand the functional anatomy of neural circuits of the human brain. The multidimensional network imaging technique currently employs anatomical, functional and evoked connectivity imaging in various combinations. The anatomical and functional connectivity imaging can be achieved by the analysis of diffusion-weighted and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), respectively. New analysis techniques such as probabilistic diffusion tractography and tract-based statistics have refined the anatomical connectivity imaging, especially in combination with fMRI for setting up regions-of-interest...
November 2010: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Naoyuki Takeuchi, Takeo Tada, Masahiko Toshima, Takayo Chuma, Yuichiro Matsuo, Katsunori Ikoma
OBJECTIVE: Recent reports demonstrated that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the unaffected hemisphere improved the affected hand function in chronic stroke patients. We investigated whether 1 Hz rTMS improved the motor learning of the affected hand in patients after stroke. DESIGN: A double-blind study. PATIENTS: Twenty patients with chronic subcortical stroke. METHODS: The patients were randomly assigned to receive either a sub-threshold rTMS over the unaffected hemisphere (1 Hz, 25 minutes) or sham stimulation, and all patients performed a pinching task after stimulation...
April 2008: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Helmut Niederhofer
ADHD it is a syndrome characterized by the progressive development of excessive hyperactivity, impulsiveness and attentional difficulties. The purpose of our study is to verify the therapeutic effectiveness of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (low frequency (1Hz, 1200 stim/die for five days)), applied on the impending scalp additional motor area, in a subject affected by ADHD. Results show a significant improvement that lasted for at least 4 weeks. Placebo control did not show any improvement.
March 2008: Psychiatria Danubina
Leonid S Godlevsky, Evgeniy V Kobolev, Egidius L J M van Luijtelaar, Antony M L Coenen, Konstantin I Stepanenko, Igor V Smirnov
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) impulses, (0.5 Hz, 3 impulses) were presented at threshold intensity to male WAG/Rij rats. One group received stimuli, which involved motor responses of hindlimbs, rats of the second group received sham stimulation. Electrocorticograms (ECoG) were recorded before and up to 2 hr from the moment of transcranial magnetic stimulation. It was established that such stimulation engendered a reduction of spike-wave discharge (SWD) bursts duration. This effect was most pronounced in 30 min from the moment of cessation of stimulation, when a decrease of 31...
December 2006: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Luigi Trojano, Massimiliano Conson, Raffaele Maffei, Dario Grossi
Using repetitive transcranical magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we investigated the functional relevance of posterior parietal cortex for categorical and coordinate judgements in the spatial imagery domain. In the coordinate task, subjects were asked to imagine two analogue clock faces based on acoustically presented pairs of times, and to judge at which of the two times the clock hands form the greater angle (mental clock task); in the categorical task subjects were again asked to imagine an analogue clock face showing the time verbally presented by the examiner, but in this case they had to judge whether both hands lay in the half of the clock face cued by an auditorily presented label...
2006: Neuropsychologia
A Nezu, S Kimura, S Takeshita
OBJECTIVES: To study the topographical difference in the developmental profile of the central motor conduction time (CMCT) in upper extremity muscles, electromyographic (EMG) responses to transcranical magnetic stimulation (TMS) were examined in the first dorsal interosseous, extensor carpi radialis (ECR), biceps (BCP), and deltoid (DT) muscles of 25 neurologically normal subjects aged from 2 to 26 years. METHODS: The motor cortex and cervical spinal roots were magnetically stimulated, and CMCT was measured as the onset latency difference between these EMG responses...
September 1999: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
M Kaminogo, M Morikawa, H Ishimaru, M Ochi, M Onizuka, Y Shirakawa, H Takahashi, S Shibata
PURPOSE: The accuracy of preoperative mappings in patients with brain tumors near the central sulcus using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or transcranical magnetic stimulation (TCS) was evaluated by comparative reference to intraoperative mapping. METHODS: The thumb movement was evoked by TCS for the mapping of the motor cortex. After the placement of the marker determined by TCS on the scalp, fMRI under motor tasks consisting of repetitive grasping was performed...
May 1999: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Y Mano, T Chuma, S Morimoto, T Takayanagi
Plasticity within the human central motor system has been studied with transcranical magnetic stimulation in patients with peripheral and central nervous diseases. In 4 patients with a complete upper limb palsy due to traumatic cervical root avulsion, surgical anastomosis of intercostal to musculocutaneous nerves was performed to restore function in the biceps brachii muscle. The motor unit discharges became independent from respirations gradually over 1 to 2 years. Motor cortex mapping of the reinnervated biceps muscle showed a gradual change over 4 to 33 months from the area of the intercostal muscles to that of the arm area, which was more lateral on the motor cortex...
December 1995: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
H Kawakita, O Kameyama, R Ogawa, A Tsubura
The efficacy of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by magnetic brain stimulation was investigated experimentally for assessing acute spinal cord injury. Twenty-five rabbits were employed for the acute spinal cord injury model. Following laminectomy under intravenous and intraperitoneal anesthesia, the spinal cord at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra wsa injured by Allen's weight drop method. MEPs from the tibialis anterior muscle (M-MEP) were recorded using bipolar electrodes: prior to the injury; immediately after the injury; at 30 min, 1 hour, 3 hours, and at 5 hours after the injury...
December 1995: Nihon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi
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