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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922833/the-knockout-of-synapsin-ii-in-mice-impairs-social-behavior-and-functional-connectivity-generating-an-asd-like-phenotype
#1
Caterina Michetti, Angela Caruso, Marco Pagani, Mara Sabbioni, Lucian Medrihan, Gergely David, Alberto Galbusera, Monica Morini, Alessandro Gozzi, Fabio Benfenati, Maria Luisa Scattoni
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy are neurodevelopmental conditions that appear with high rate of co-occurrence, suggesting the possibility of a common genetic basis. Mutations in Synapsin (SYN) genes, particularly SYN1 and SYN2, have been recently associated with ASD and epilepsy in humans. Accordingly, mice lacking Syn1 or Syn2, but not Syn3, experience epileptic seizures and display autistic-like traits that precede the onset of seizures. Here, we analyzed social behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations emitted in 2 social contexts by SynI, SynII, or SynIII mutants and show that SynII mutants display the most severe ASD-like phenotype...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922830/connectivity-neurofeedback-training-can-differentially-change-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-performance
#2
Ayumu Yamashita, Shunsuke Hayasaka, Mitsuo Kawato, Hiroshi Imamizu
Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to provide real-time feedback on brain activity. Neurofeedback has been applied to therapeutic interventions for psychiatric disorders. Since many studies have shown that most psychiatric disorders exhibit abnormal brain networks, a novel experimental paradigm named connectivity neurofeedback, which can directly modulate a brain network, has emerged as a promising approach to treat psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in functional connectivity, and the differential change in cognitive performance according to the direction of change in connectivity...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922824/in-quest-of-the-antique-the-bazaar-exchange-and-mart-and-the-democratization-of-collecting-1926-42
#3
Heidi Egginton
The popularization of antique collecting is typically located in the second half of the twentieth century, with the rise of 'retrochic' and the emergence of new markets and online trading websites for anonymously exchanging second-hand goods. Close study of the printed literature connected with the inter-war second-hand trade, however, challenges conventional chronologies in the history of consumer culture, and can provide a new perspective on the role of collecting in British social and cultural life. This article examines the period, after the late 1920s, during which The Bazaar, Exchange and Mart reinvented itself as a forum for antique and decorative art enthusiasts...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922803/micropredator-niche-differentiation-between-bulk-soil-and-rhizosphere-of-an-agricultural-soil-depends-on-bacterial-prey
#4
Lu Zhang, Tillmann Lueders
Predation is a fundamental mechanism of all food webs, but its drivers and organismic connectivities, especially at microbial level, are still poorly understood. Specifically, competitive carbon flows in the presence of multiple micropredators, as well as trophic links within and between microbial kingdoms have rarely been resolved. Here, using maize-planted agricultural soil as a model system, we have investigated the predation of amended bacterial prey by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic micropredators. We have queried how soil compartment (rhizosphere vs bulk soil) and nature of prey (Gram-positive vs Gram-negative) influence predation outcomes...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922768/accerbatin-a-small-molecule-at-the-intersection-of-auxin-and-reactive-oxygen-species-homeostasis-with-herbicidal-properties
#5
Yuming Hu, Thomas Depaepe, Dajo Smet, Klara Hoyerova, Petr Klíma, Ann Cuypers, Sean Cutler, Dieter Buyst, Kris Morreel, Wout Boerjan, José Martins, Jan Petrášek, Filip Vandenbussche, Dominique Van Der Straeten
The volatile two-carbon hormone ethylene acts in concert with an array of signals to affect etiolated seedling development. From a chemical screen, we isolated a quinoline carboxamide designated ACCERBATIN (AEX) that exacerbates the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-induced triple response, typical for ethylene-treated seedlings in darkness. Phenotypic analyses revealed distinct AEX effects including inhibition of root hair development and shortening of the root meristem. Mutant analysis and reporter studies further suggested that AEX most probably acts in parallel to ethylene signaling...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922719/baicalein-as-a-potent-neuroprotective-agent-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan, Ponnuvel Deepa, Minju Kim, Se Jin Park, Songmun Kim
In recent times, neurodegenerative diseases are the most challenging global health problems. Neuronal cell death or damage is a key factor for many neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the development of effective neuroprotective agents, especially from natural sources. In particular, phytochemicals have shown high efficacy with low side effects in various in vitro and in vivo studies. In the various phytoconstituents, flavonoids are important bioactive products and mainly found in various vegetables and fruits...
September 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922636/effects-of-mutations-on-active-site-conformation-and-dynamics-of-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-from-coxsackievirus-b3
#7
Hujun Shen, Mingsen Deng, Yachao Zhang
Recent crystal structures of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D(pol)) from Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) revealed that a tyrosine mutation at Phe364 (F364Y) resulted in structures with open active site whereas a hydrophobic mutation at Phe364 (F364A) led to conformations with closed active site. Besides, the crystal structures showed that the F364W mutation had no preference between the open and closed active sites, similar to wild-type. In this paper, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) study on CVB3 3D(pol) in order to address some important questions raised by experiments...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922595/a-new-order-parameter-based-method-for-characterizing-radiation-damage-in-amorphous-materials
#8
Nikolaos Galanakis, Karl Patrick Travis
We present a new method of characterizing damage arising from α-recoil cascades in amorphous materials including glasses. The approach taken is topological, yielding information of atom connectivity and utilizing complete sets of orthogonal functions (spherical harmonics and Hermite functions) to compute order parameters. The utility of our new approach is demonstrated by first applying it to models of radiation damaged crystalline zircon, enabling validation against the standard defect counting method (Wigner-Seitz)...
September 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922543/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-degradation-of-microfiber-bioresorbable-coronary-scaffold
#9
Chi-Hung Huang, Sheng-Yang Lee, Sonida Horng, Louis-Georges Guy, Ting-Bin Yu
The degradation of Mirage Bioresorbable Microfiber Scaffold was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The degradation in polymer molecular weight (MW), strut morphology, and integrity was accessed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation. To simulate the physiological degradation in vitro, scaffolds were deployed in silicone mock vessels connected to a peristaltic pumping system, which pumps 37°C phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) at a constant rate. At various time points (30D, 60D, 90D, 180D, 270D, and 360D), the MW of microfibers decreased to 57...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922510/effects-of-spatial-smoothing-on-functional-brain-networks
#10
Tuomas Alakörkkö, Heini Saarimäki, Enrico Glerean, Jari Saramäki, Onerva Korhonen
Graph-theoretical methods have rapidly become a standard tool in studies of the structure and function of the human brain. Whereas the structural connectome can be fairly straightforwardly mapped onto a complex network, there are more degrees of freedom in constructing networks that represent functional connections between brain areas. For fMRI data, such networks are typically built by aggregating the BOLD signal time series of voxels into larger entities (such as Regions of Interest in some brain atlas), and determining their connection strengths from some measure of time-series correlations...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922500/total-synthesis-of-the-diglycosidic-tetramic-acid-ancorinoside-a
#11
Markus Petermichl, Rainer Schobert
Ancorinoside A, a metabolite of a sponge Ancorina sp., was prepared in 18 steps as the first derivative of this class of glycosylated 3-acyltetramic acids. It features a β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galacturonic acid linked to a D-aspartic acid derived tetramic acid via a 3-docosanoyl spacer. The diglycoside was built up by connecting the protected monosaccharides D-galactose and D-glucose via a thioglycoside glycosylation. Attachment of the spacer by a subsequent Schmidt glycosylation of this diglycoside, TEMPO oxidation to the uronic acid, functionalisation of the spacer terminus with an N-(β-ketoacyl)aspartate, and a final Dieckmann cyclisation of the latter were the key steps leading to ancorinoside A...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922485/novel-3d-semiconducting-open-frameworks-based-on-cuprous-bromides-with-visible-light-driven-photocatalytic-properties
#12
Xiao-Wu Lei, Cheng-Yang Yue, Jun-Chao Wei, Rui-Qing Li, Fu-Qi Mi, Yan Li, Lu Gao, Quan-Xiu Liu
Visible light driven photocatalysts based on crystalline microporous metal halogenides received much less attention compared with dense or composite oxide semiconductors. Using the well-known photosensitive transition metal-complexes [TM(2,2-bipy)3 ](2+) (TM=Fe, Co, Ni, Ru) as templates, a special three-dimensional (3D) metal halogenide framework of [TM(2,2-bipy)3 ]Cu4 Br6 was designed with [Cu4 Br4 ] cluster as 4-connected node. These microporous materials feature narrow band gaps and stable visible light driven photocatalytic properties including water reduction to provide H2 and photodegradation of organic pollutants...
August 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922366/optimizing-information-processing-in-neuronal-networks-beyond-critical-states
#13
Mariana Sacrini Ayres Ferraz, Hiago Lucas Cardeal Melo-Silva, Alexandre Hiroaki Kihara
Critical dynamics have been postulated as an ideal regime for neuronal networks in the brain, considering optimal dynamic range and information processing. Herein, we focused on how information entropy encoded in spatiotemporal activity patterns may vary in critical networks. We employed branching process based models to investigate how entropy can be embedded in spatiotemporal patterns. We determined that the information capacity of critical networks may vary depending on the manipulation of microscopic parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922357/analysis-of-nuclear-and-organellar-genomes-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-in-humans-reveals-ancient-population-structure-and-recent-recombination-among-host-specific-subpopulations
#14
Ernest Diez Benavente, Paola Florez de Sessions, Robert W Moon, Anthony A Holder, Michael J Blackman, Cally Roper, Christopher J Drakeley, Arnab Pain, Colin J Sutherland, Martin L Hibberd, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark
The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922346/grid-seq-reveals-the-global-rna-chromatin-interactome
#15
Xiao Li, Bing Zhou, Liang Chen, Lan-Tao Gou, Hairi Li, Xiang-Dong Fu
Higher eukaryotic genomes are bound by a large number of coding and non-coding RNAs, but approaches to comprehensively map the identity and binding sites of these RNAs are lacking. Here we report a method to capture in situ global RNA interactions with DNA by deep sequencing (GRID-seq), which enables the comprehensive identification of the entire repertoire of chromatin-interacting RNAs and their respective binding sites. In human, mouse, and Drosophila cells, we detected a large set of tissue-specific coding and non-coding RNAs that are bound to active promoters and enhancers, especially super-enhancers...
September 18, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922295/spiritual-needs-of-patients-with-cancer-in-palliative-care-an-integrative-review
#16
Ana Cláudia Mesquita, Érika de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Guilherme Antônio Moreira de Barros
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The experience of a life crisis, such as the experience of end-of-life terminality whenever facing cancer can make the spiritual needs of patients clear. The goal of this revision was to synthesize the existing evidence regarding the spiritual needs of patients with cancer in palliative care. RECENT FINDINGS: An integrated revision of the literature was conducted regarding the database sources from PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS and Scopus, without publishing year restrictions...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922165/the-gastrointestinal-brain-axis-in-humans-as-an-evolutionary-advance-of-the-root-leaf-axis-in-plants-a-hypothesis-linking-quantum-effects-of-light-on-serotonin-and-auxin
#17
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922101/this-is-who-we-are-building-community-for-hiv-prevention-with-young-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-beirut-lebanon
#18
Matt G Mutchler, Bryce Way McDavitt, Tu N Tran, Cynthia El Khoury, Ellie Ballan, Johnny Tohme, Susan M Kegeles, Glenn Wagner
Young gay men in Beirut are at significantly elevated risk of HIV infection compared with the general Lebanese population. Despite nascent HIV prevention efforts in the region, there is a need for effective community-level HIV prevention interventions tailored for young gay men. This qualitative study examined internal dynamics within Beirut's gay community as a basis for developing community-level interventions. Peer ethnographers were trained to collect field notes on conversations between young gay men in public spaces in Beirut, and conducted follow-up focus groups with young gay men...
September 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922032/holomedical3d-connecting-the-dots-for-medical-holography
#19
Giuseppe Riva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922008/crying-in-psychotherapy-the-perspective-of-therapists-and-clients
#20
Sarah Knox, Clara E Hill, Graham Knowlton, Harold Chui, Nathan Pruitt, Kevin Tate
Eighteen U.S.-based doctoral students in counseling or clinical psychology were interviewed by phone regarding experiences of crying in therapy. Specifically, they described crying as therapists with their clients, as clients with their therapists, and experiences when their therapists cried in the participants' therapy. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. When crying with their clients, therapists expressed concern about the appropriateness/impact of crying, cried only briefly and because they felt an empathic connection with their clients, thought that the crying strengthened the relationship, discussed the event with their supervisor, and wished they had discussed the event more fully with clients...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
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