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Thorsten Tjardes, Markus Luecking
Introduction: To achieve the aim of zero preventable deaths on the battlefield a deeper understanding of uncontrolled hemorrhage from junctional or proximal extremity sources is mandatory. While tourniquet application to the extremities has drastically reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still room for improvement regarding the timing of tourniquet placement as the available evidence clearly points out a tight correlation between timing of tourniquet application and outcome. To save as many lives as possible the "point of no return" regarding the circulatory breakdown due to hemorrhage, colloquially addressed as platinum 5 min, needs to be determined...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Cassandra Rauert, Mahiba Shoieb, Jasmin K Schuster, Anita Eng, Tom Harner
Poly- and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) were monitored at 21 sites in the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network. Atmospheric concentrations previously reported from 2009 were compared to concentrations measured at these sites in 2013 and 2015, to assess trends over 7 years of monitoring. Concentrations of the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and fluorinated sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs and FOSEs) were stable at these sites from 2009 to 2015 with no significant difference (p > 0...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nick Zwart, Shan Li Nio, Corine J Houtman, Jacob De Boer, Jeroen Kool, Timo Hamers, Marja H Lamoree
Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) is a commonly used approach for effect-based identification of endocrine disruptive chemicals in complex (environmental) mixtures. For routine toxicity assessment of e.g. water samples however, current EDA approaches are considered time consuming and laborious. We achieved faster EDA and identification, by downscaling of sensitive cell-based hormone reporter gene assays and increasing fractionation resolution to allow testing of smaller fractions with reduced complexity. The high-resolution EDA approach is demonstrated by analysis of four environmental passive sampler extracts...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
P Alex Smith, Yaxin Wang, Ralph W Metcalfe, Luiz C Sampaio, Daniel L Timms, William E Cohn, O H Frazier
PURPOSE: A minimally invasive, partial-assist, intra-atrial blood pump has been proposed, which would unload the left ventricle with a flow path from the left atrium to the arterial system. Flow modulation is a common strategy for ensuring washout in the pump, but it can increase power consumption because it is typically achieved through motor-speed variation. However, if a pump's performance curve had the proper gradient, flow modulation could be realized passively. To achieve this goal, we propose a pump performance operating curve as an alternative to the more standard operating point...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Md Moniruzzaman, Young-Won Chin, Jungsook Cho
Physalis alkekengi var. francheti is an indigenous herb well known for its anti-inflammatory, sedative, antipyretic, and expectorant properties. However, the information regarding the impacts of P. alkekengi fruits (PAF) in modulation of oxidative stress and learning memory are still unknown. This study therefore evaluated the antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of PAF and its impacts on learning and memory. The antioxidant activities of PAF were evaluated in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells...
March 15, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Ahmad Alobeid, Tarek El-Bialy, Susanne Reimann, Ludger Keilig, Dirk Cornelius, Andreas Jäger, Christoph Bourauel
Background/objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth alignment with conventional and self-ligating labial and lingual orthodontic bracket systems. Materials/methods: We tested labial brackets (0.022″ slot size) and lingual brackets (0.018″ slot size). The labial brackets were: (i) regular twin brackets (GAC-Twin [Dentsply]), (ii) passive self-ligating brackets including (Damon-Q® [ORMCO]; Ortho classic H4™ [Orthoclassic]; FLI®SL [RMO]), and (iii) active self-ligating brackets (GAC In-Ovation®C [DENTSPLY] and SPEED™[Strite])...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Hui Fang, Yang Zhang, Ning Li, Gang Wang, Zhi Liu
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune and inflammatory skin disease associated with subepidermal blistering and autoantibodies directed against the hemidesmosomal components BP180 and BP230. Animal models of BP were developed by passively transferring anti-BP180 IgG into mice, which recapitulates the key features of human BP. By using these in vivo model systems, key cellular and molecular events leading to the BP disease phenotype are identified, including binding of pathogenic IgG to its target, complement activation of the classical pathway, mast cell degranulation, and infiltration and activation of neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Florian Ferreri, Alexis Bourla, Stephane Mouchabac, Laurent Karila
Background: New technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping , a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence-can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cong Lu, Yan Wang, Jingwei Lv, Ning Jiang, Bei Fan, Lina Qu, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively caused cognitive deficit, which was associated with oxidative stress induced damage. Ginsenoside Rh2 had the ability to protect against damage caused by reactive oxygen species in vitro, showing antioxidant property. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Ginsenoside Rh2 could prevent SD-induced cognitive deficit via its antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation was investigated. The mice were sleep deprived continuously for 14 days using our self-made Sleep Interruption Apparatus (SIA)...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Hong-Jing Zhou, Chen-Ye Zeng, Ting-Ting Yang, Fang-Yi Long, Xi Kuang, Jun-Rong Du
AIMS: Oxidative stress caused by aging aggravates neuropathological changes and cognitive deficits. Klotho, an anti-aging protein, shows an anti-oxidative effect. The aims of the present study were to determine the potential therapeutic effect of klotho in aging-related neuropathological changes and memory impairments in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice, and identify the potential mechanism of these neuroprotective effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A lentiviral was used to deliver and sustain the expression of klotho...
March 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Julia E Gerson, Kathleen M Farmer, Natalie Henson, Diana L Castillo-Carranza, Mariana Carretero Murillo, Urmi Sengupta, Alan Barrett, Rakez Kayed
BACKGROUND: We have evaluated the efficacy of targeting the toxic, oligomeric form of tau protein by passive immunotherapy in a mouse model of synucleinopathy. Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia are two of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and are primarily characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies. However, evidence shows that smaller, oligomeric aggregates are likely the most toxic form of the protein. Moreover, a large body of research suggests that α-synuclein interacts with tau in disease and may act in a synergistic mechanism, implicating tau oligomers as a potential therapeutic target...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Clizia Guccione, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Khaled M Awada, Vieri Piazzini, Anna Rita Bilia
The aim of this study was the development and characterization of lipid nanocarriers using food grade components for oral delivery of Serenoa repens CO2 extract, namely microemulsions (MEs) and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) to improve the oral absorption. A commercial blend (CB) containing 320 of S. repens CO2 extract plus the aqueous soluble extracts of nettle root and pineapple stem was formulated in two MEs and two SMEDDSs. The optimized ME loaded with the CB (CBM2) had a very low content of water (only 17...
March 15, 2018: Planta Medica
Haibin Zhou, Haibo Meng, Lixin Zhao, Yujun Shen, Yueqing Hou, Hongsheng Cheng, Liqiu Song
In this study, two different biochars (sawdust charcoal (SDC) and wheat straw charcoal (WSC)) and biological humic acid (BHA) were used with different addition rates in pig manure composting to illustrate the effect on heavy metals passivation. And the composts were applied to rape (Brassica campestris L.) growth to illustrate the stability of the passivation. Results showed the concentration of Cu, Cd, and Pb increased after composting, whereas the passivation rates of Cu, Pb, and Cd reached a maximum of 94...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Bishnu P Joshi, Joseph Hardie, Michelle E Farkas
The accumulation of therapeutic and imaging agents at sites of interest is critical to their efficacy. Similarly, off-target effects (especially toxicity) are a major liability for these agents. For this reason, the use of delivery vehicles to improve the distribution characteristics of bio-active agents has become ubiquitous in the field. However, the majority of traditionally employed, cargo-bearing entities rely on passive accumulation. Even in cases where 'targeting' functionalities are used, the agents must first reach the site in order for the ligand-receptor interaction to occur...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yongjie Wang, Kunyuan Lu, Lu Han, Zeke Liu, Guozheng Shi, Honghua Fang, Si Chen, Tian Wu, Fan Yang, Mengfan Gu, Sijie Zhou, Xufeng Ling, Xun Tang, Jiawei Zheng, Maria Antonietta Loi, Wanli Ma
Current efforts on lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) solar cells are mostly paid to the device architecture engineering and postsynthetic surface modification, while very rare work regarding the optimization of PbS synthesis is reported. Here, PbS QDs are successfully synthesized using PbO and PbAc2  · 3H2 O as the lead sources. QD solar cells based on PbAc-PbS have demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.82% (and independently certificated values of 10.62%), which is significantly higher than the PCE of 9...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Anne Dommaschk, Lara F Lang, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Tobias Welte, Ulrich A Maus
Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is known to mount protective adaptive immune responses in rodents and humans. However, the cellular response of the nasopharyngeal compartment to pneumococcal colonization and its importance for the ensuing adaptive immune response is only partially defined. Here we show that nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae triggered substantial expansion of both integrin αE (CD103) positive dendritic cells (DC) and T lymphocytes in nasopharynx, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN) of WT mice...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Julie Rivière, Yann Le Strat, Pascal Hendrikx, Barbara Dufour
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease of cattle and wildlife, with economic repercussions and implications for animal and human health. The surveillance of bTB in wildlife is particularly important, to shed light on the epidemiological role of wild species and for the adaptation of control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, was launched in 2011 on wild boars, red deer, roe deer and badgers. It relies on active and passive surveillance activities, constrained by practical difficulties, such as the accessibility of wild animals, and regulatory rules for the trapping of badgers, for example...
2018: PloS One
Tobias Budenz, Annette Denzinger, Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler
Bats lower the emission SPL when approaching a target. The SPL reduction has been explained by intensity compensation which implies that bats adjust the emission SPL to perceive the retuning echoes at the same level. For a better understanding of this control mechanism we recorded the echolocation signals of four Myotis myotis with an onboard microphone when foraging in the passive mode for rustling mealworms offered in two feeding dishes with different target strength, and determined the reduction rate for the emission SPL and the increase rate for the SPL of the returning echoes...
2018: PloS One
Nika Mahne, Sara E Renfrew, Bryan D McCloskey, Stefan A Freunberger
Solid alkaline carbonates are universal passivation layer components of intercalation battery materials, common side products in metal-O₂ batteries, and are believed to form and decompose reversibly in metal-O₂/CO₂ cells. In all of these cathode chemistries, Li₂CO₃ decomposes to CO₂ when exposed to potentials >3.8 V vs. Li/Li+. Notably, though, O₂ evolution is not detected, as is expected according to the decomposition reaction 2 Li₂CO₃ → 4 Li+ + 4 e- + 2 CO₂ + O₂. O-moieties were therefore previously considered unaccounted for in unidentified parasitic reactions...
March 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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