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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432986/the-effects-of-thymoquinone-on-hippocampal-cytokine-level-brain-oxidative-stress-status-and-memory-deficits-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-rats
#1
Rahimeh Bargi, Fereshteh Asgharzadeh, Farimah Beheshti, Mahmoud Hosseini, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Majid Khazaei
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine the protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on brain tissues oxidative stress status, hippocampal cytokine level, and learning and memory deficits induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into the following groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) LPS (1mg/kg i.p.), (3-5) 2, 5 or 10mg/kg TQ extract 30min before LPS injection. The treatment was started since two weeks before the behavioral experiments and continued during the behavioral tests (LPS injected 2h before each behavioral experiment)...
April 19, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432768/the-fate-of-recently-fixed-carbon-after-drought-release-towards-unravelling-c-storage-regulation-in-tilia-platyphyllos-and-pinus-sylvestris
#2
Lucía Galiano Pérez, Galina Timofeeva, Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Robert Hommel, Arthur Gessler
Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos, Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~ 10 weeks and (13) C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the (13) C-label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated to drought effects and subsequent drought release...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432709/a-new-modality-for-the-estimation-of-corrected-flow-time-via-electrocardiography-as-an-alternative-to-doppler-ultrasonography
#3
Hooman Hossein-Nejad, Payam Mohammadinejad, Atefeh Zeinoddini, Seyedhossein Seyedhosseini Davarani, Mohsen Banaie
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of corrected flow time (FTc) via ultrasonography is one of the suggested modalities for the assessment of intravascular volume status. This study aimed to compare the results of FTc of carotid artery measured via ultrasonography, as a measure of mechanical outcome of the cardiac cycle, with the results of FTc estimation from a new modified formula via electrocardiography (ECG), as a measure of electrical function of the cardiac cycle. METHODS: Healthy volunteers were evaluated before and after a passive leg raising (PLR) maneuver...
April 22, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432448/resistance-to-radial-expansion-limits-muscle-strain-and-work
#4
E Azizi, A R Deslauriers, N C Holt, C E Eaton
The collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle functions to transmit force, protect sensitive structures, and generate passive tension to resist stretch. The mechanical properties of the ECM change with age, atrophy, and neuromuscular pathologies, resulting in an increase in the relative amount of collagen and an increase in stiffness. Although numerous studies have focused on the effect of muscle fibrosis on passive muscle stiffness, few have examined how these structural changes may compromise contractile performance...
April 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432140/visually-evoked-3-5-hz-membrane-potential-oscillations-reduce-the-responsiveness-of-visual-cortex-neurons-in-awake-behaving-mice
#5
Michael C Einstein, Pierre-Olivier Polack, Duy T Tran, Peyman Golshani
Low frequency membrane potential (Vm) oscillations were once thought to only occur in sleeping and anesthetized states. Recently, low frequency Vm oscillations have been described in inactive awake animals, but it is unclear if they shape sensory processing in neurons and whether they occur during active awake behavioral states. To answer these questions, we performed two-photon guided whole-cell Vm recordings from primary visual cortex layer 2/3 excitatory and inhibitory neurons in awake mice during passive visual stimulation and performance of visual and auditory discrimination tasks...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431555/reduction-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-by-phosphonate-based-surface-passivation
#6
Xiaoming Cai, Anson Lee, Zhaoxia Ji, Cynthia Huang, Chong Hyun Chang, Xiang Wang, Yu-Pei Liao, Tian Xia, Ruibin Li
BACKGROUND: The wide application of engineered nanoparticles has induced increasing exposure to humans and environment, which led to substantial concerns on their biosafety. Some metal oxides (MOx) have shown severe toxicity in cells and animals, thus safe designs of MOx with reduced hazard potential are desired. Currently, there is a lack of a simple yet effective safe design approach for the toxic MOx. In this study, we determined the key physicochemical properties of MOx that lead to cytotoxicity and explored a safe design approach for toxic MOx by modifying their hazard properties...
April 21, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431357/soil-organic-carbon-and-nitrogen-pools-drive-soil-c-co2-emissions-from-selected-soils-in-maritime-antarctica
#7
C V Pires, C E R G Schaefer, A K Hashigushi, A Thomazini, E I F Filho, E S Mendonça
The ongoing trend of increasing air temperatures will potentially affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and soil C-CO2 emissions in terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica. The effects of SOM quality on this process remain little explored. We evaluated (i) the quantity and quality of soil organic matter and (ii) the potential of C release through CO2 emissions in lab conditions in different soil types from Maritime Antarctica. Soil samples (0-10 and 10-20cm) were collected in Keller Peninsula and the vicinity of Arctowski station, to determine the quantity and quality of organic matter and the potential to emit CO2 under different temperature scenarios (2, 5, 8 and 11°C) in lab...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431206/phase-transfer-ligand-exchange-of-lead-chalcogenide-quantum-dots-for-direct-deposition-of-thick-highly-conductive-films
#8
Qianglu Lin, Hyeong Jin Yun, Wenyong Liu, Hyung-Jun Song, Nikolay S Makarov, Oleksandr Isaienko, Tom Nakotte, Gen Chen, Hongmei Luo, Victor I Klimov, Jeffrey M Pietryga
The use of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) in optoelectronic devices typically requires post-synthetic chemical surface treatments to enhance electronic coupling between QDs and allow for efficient charge transport in QD films. Despite their importance to solar cells, and infrared (IR) light-emitting diodes and photodetectors, advances in these chemical treatments for lead chalcogenide (PbE, E = S, Se, Te) QDs have lagged behind those of, for instance, II-VI semiconductor QDs. Here, we introduce a method for fast and effective ligand exchange for PbE QDs in solution, resulting in QDs completely passivated by a wide range of small anionic ligands...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430887/measurement-of-forces-and-moments-around-the-maxillary-arch-for-treatment-of-a-simulated-lingual-incisor-and-high-canine-malocclusion-using-straight-and-mushroom-archwires-in-fixed-lingual-appliances
#9
Brandon Owen, Geoffry Gullion, Giseon Heo, Jason P Carey, Paul W Major, Dan L Romanyk
Introduction: An Orthodontic SIMulator (OSIM) was used to investigate the propagation of forces and moments around a simulated archform for a gingival displaced canine and lingual displaced lateral incisor using fixed lingual orthodontic appliances. Methods: In-Ovation L self-ligating lingual brackets were bonded to anatomically shaped teeth on the OSIM, and the teeth were positioned such that a G4 NiTi 0.016" large maxillary mushroom archwire could be ligated in passive position...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430614/features-and-risk-factors-of-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-a-population-with-high-stroke-incidence-in-china
#10
Yanqiu Zhang, Lingling Bai, Min Shi, Hongyan Lu, Yanan Wu, Jun Tu, Jingxian Ni, Jinghua Wang, Li Cao, Ping Lei, Xianjia Ning
Epidemiological studies have reported associations between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) or carotid plaque. However, definite risk factors at different phases of carotid atherosclerosis remain controversial. We aimed to explore risk factors and characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis at different stages in a low-income population with a high incidence of stroke in China. Between April 2014 and January 2015, we recruited 3789 stroke-free and cardiovascular disease-free residents aged ≥ 45 years...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430320/remnant-extraction-by-using-an-intraocular-lens-injector-with-essential-flow
#11
Momoko Yamakawa, Mami Kusaka, Shogo Yamada, Masayuki Akimoto
PURPOSE: To describe a new technique for remnant removal in cases of posterior capsular rupture during cataract surgery and Soemmering ring extraction during intraocular lens (IOL) removal. METHODS: An IOL injector, inserted into the anterior chamber, provides a new exit for residual lens fragments. Passive fluid flow, supplied by an anterior chamber maintainer or some ocular viscoelastic device (OVD) injection, delivers the residual fragments into a lumen of the injector in assistance with a second device such as a phaco-chopper and vitreous cutter...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430299/effect-of-retreatment-instruments-on-microcrack-formation-a-microcomputed-tomography-study
#12
Mustafa M Koçak, Neslihan Y Çırakoğlu, Sibel Koçak, Baran C Sağlam, Ersan Çiçek, Sevinç A Türker, Emre Bodrumlu
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of microcracks in teeth prepared with different retreatment systems using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). METHODS: Forty-two freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth were used. The root canals were instrumented with stainless steel K-files to an apical size of 35/.02 using the balanced-force technique and were obturated using the passive compaction technique. The specimens were divided into 3 experimental groups according to retreatment system used (n = 14): ProTaper Universal retreatment (PTUR), Mtwo retreatment (MTR), or D-RaCe retreatment (D-RC) systems...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430255/widely-tunable-2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-continuous-wave-and-mode-locked-fiber-laser
#13
Wanzhuo Ma, Tianshu Wang, Yan Zhang, Peng Liu, Yuwei Su, Qingsong Jia, Mingzhe Bi, Peng Zhang, Huilin Jiang
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a widely tunable mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser. The laser can operate at both continuous-wave and mode-locked states at different pump power levels. A classic nonlinear polarization rotation structure is employed to obtain the passive mode-locked laser. A birefringence Lyot filter as a fiber comb filter is used to expand the tuning range. Thanks to the filtering component, the tuning range of the continuous-wave laser can reach 127 nm (1823-1950 nm). The tuning ranges of the single-wavelength and dual-wavelength mode-locked lasers are 94 nm (1835-1929 nm) and 87 nm (1831-1918 nm), respectively, with a 3...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430226/stable-nanosecond-passively-q-switched-all-fiber-erbium-doped-laser-with-a-45%C3%A2-tilted-fiber-grating
#14
Tianxing Wang, Zhijun Yan, Chengbo Mou, Kaiming Zhou, Lin Zhang
Nanosecond passive Q-switching generation from an all-fiber erbium-doped laser with a UV inscribed 45° tilted fiber grating (TFG) is systematically demonstrated. The 45° TFG is employed as a polarizer together with two polarization controllers (PCs) to realize nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR). Because of the NPR effect, stable Q-switched pulses with an average output power of 17.5 mW, a single pulse energy of 72.7 nJ, a repetition rate of 241 kHz, a pulse width of 466 ns, and a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 58...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429873/sucrose-transporters-and-plasmodesmal-regulation-in-passive-phloem-loading
#15
Johannes Liesche
An essential step for the distribution of carbon throughout the whole plant is the loading of sugars into the phloem in source organs. In many plants, accumulation of sugars in the sieve element-companion cell (SE-CC) complex is mediated and regulated by active processes. However, for poplar and many other tree species, a passive symplasmic mechanism of phloem loading has been proposed, characterized by symplasmic continuity along the pre-phloem pathway and the absence of active sugar accumulation in the SE-CC complex...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429835/levodopa-prevents-the-reinstatement-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats-via-potentiation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Silvia Antinori, Liana Fattore, Pierluigi Saba, Walter Fratta, Gian Luigi Gessa, Paola Devoto
Dopamine agonists have been proposed as therapeutic tools for cocaine addiction. We have recently demonstrated that indirect dopamine agonists, including levodopa (L-DOPA), markedly increase cocaine-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats leading to the suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. This study was aimed to understand the behavioral and neurochemical effects of L-DOPA on cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking in rats. After reaching a stable pattern of intravenous cocaine self-administration under a continuous fixed ratio (FR-1) schedule of reinforcement, male rats were treated with L-DOPA at different steps of the self-administration protocol...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429398/efficacy-of-passive-sampler-collection-for-atmospheric-no2-isotopes-under-simulated-environmental-conditions
#17
Justin G Coughlin, Zhongjie Yu, Emily M Elliott
RATIONALE: Nitrogen oxides or NOx (NOx  = NO + NO2 ) play an important role in air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate. The isotopic compositions of anthropogenic and natural NO2 sources are wide-ranging, and they can be used to constrain sources of ambient NO2 and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. While passive sample collection of NO2 isotopes has been used in field studies to determine NOx source influences on atmospheric deposition, this approach has not been evaluated for accuracy or precision under different environmental conditions...
April 20, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#18
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429273/assessment-of-the-temporal-and-spatial-distribution-of-atmospheric-pcns-and-their-air-soil-exchange-using-passive-air-samplers-in-shanghai-east-china
#19
Qingqi Die, Zhiqiang Nie, Bo Yue, Xuemei Zhu, Xingbao Gao, Jianyuan Wang, Yufei Yang, Yanyan Fang, Qifei Huang
A total of 47 passive air samples and 25 soil samples were collected to study the temporal trend, distribution, and air-soil exchange of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Shanghai, China. Atmospheric PCNs ranged from 3.44 to 44.1 pg/m(3) (average of 21.9 pg/m(3)) in summer and 13.6 to 153 pg/m(3) (average of 40.0 pg/m(3)) in winter. In the soil samples, PCN concentrations were 54.7-1382 pg/g dry weight (average of 319 pg/g). Tri-CNs and tetra-CNs were two dominant homolog groups in air samples, while di-CNs were also found at comparable proportions to tri-CNs and tetra-CNs in soil samples...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428912/biomechanical-evaluation-of-carpal-kinematics-during-simulated-wrist-motion
#20
Helen Stoesser, Clare E Padmore, Masao Nishiwaki, Braden Gammon, G Daniel G Langohr, James A Johnson
Background Flexion and extension of the wrist is achieved primarily at the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints. Carpal kinematics have been investigated, although there remains no consensus regarding the relative contribution of each bone to wrist motion. Purpose To determine the kinematics of the scaphoid, lunate, and capitate during unconstrained simulated wrist flexion/extension and to examine the effect of motion direction on the contribution of each bone. Materials and Methods Seven cadaveric upper extremities were tested in a passive wrist simulator with 10N tone loads applied to the wrist flexors/extensors...
May 2017: Journal of Wrist Surgery
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