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Chih-Sung Liang, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Pei-Shen Ho, Chia-Kuang Tsai, Wu-Chien Chien
OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has long been believed to reduce suicidal tendencies in patients with affective disorders; however, ECT recipients, who constitute the most severely ill and suicidal patients, are not eligible to participate in head-to-head randomized controlled trials. Large-scale studies are required to investigate the anti-suicidal effects of ECT vs psychopharmacotherapy. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort study design was used...
December 11, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
Xin Wang, Runyao Duan
We demonstrate the irreversibility of asymptotic entanglement manipulation under quantum operations that completely preserve the positivity of partial transpose (PPT), resolving a major open problem in quantum information theory. Our key tool is a new efficiently computable additive lower bound for the asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement with respect to PPT states, which can be used to evaluate the entanglement cost under local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We find that for any rank-two mixed state supporting on the 3⊗3 antisymmetric subspace, the amount of distillable entanglement by PPT operations is strictly smaller than one entanglement bit (ebit) while its entanglement cost under PPT operations is exactly one ebit...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Pierre Dussarrat, Maxime Perrier, Almazbek Imanaliev, Raphael Lopes, Alain Aspect, Marc Cheneau, Denis Boiron, Christoph I Westbrook
We present a free-space interferometer to observe two-particle interference of a pair of atoms with entangled momenta. The source of atom pairs is a Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a dynamical instability, and the interferometer is realized using Bragg diffraction on optical lattices, in the spirit of our recent Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment. We report on an observation ruling out the possibility of a purely mixed state at the input of the interferometer. We explain how our current setup can be extended to enable a test of a Bell inequality on momentum observables...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Bing Qi
Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) harness the intrinsic randomness in measurement processes: the measurement outputs are truly random, given the input state is a superposition of the eigenstates of the measurement operators. In the case of trusted devices, true randomness could be generated from a mixed state ρ so long as the system entangled with ρ is well protected. We propose a random number generation scheme based on measuring the quadrature fluctuations of a single mode thermal state using an optical homodyne detector...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Sergey Lazarev, Ilya Besedin, Alexey V Zozulya, Janne-Mieke Meijer, Dmitry Dzhigaev, Oleg Yu Gorobtsov, Ruslan P Kurta, Max Rose, Anatoly G Shabalin, Elena A Sulyanova, IvanA Zaluzhnyy, Alexey P Menushenkov, Michael Sprung, Andrei V Petukhov, Ivan A Vartanyants
Ptychographic coherent X-ray imaging is applied to obtain a projection of the electron density of colloidal crystals, which are promising nanoscale materials for optoelectronic applications and important model systems. Using the incident X-ray wavefield reconstructed by mixed states approach, a high resolution and high contrast image of the colloidal crystal structure is obtained by ptychography. The reconstructed colloidal crystal reveals domain structure with an average domain size of about 2 µm. Comparison of the domains formed by the basic close-packed structures, allows us to conclude on the absence of pure hexagonal close-packed domains and confirms the presence of random hexagonal close-packed layers with predominantly face-centered cubic structure within the analyzed part of the colloidal crystal film...
November 24, 2017: Small
Jialei Zhu, Joyce E Penner, Guangxing Lin, Cheng Zhou, Li Xu, Bingliang Zhuang
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) nearly always exists as an internal mixture, and the distribution of this mixture depends on the formation mechanism of SOA. A model is developed to examine the influence of using an internal mixing state based on the mechanism of formation and to estimate the radiative forcing of SOA in the future. For the present day, 66% of SOA is internally mixed with sulfate, while 34% is internally mixed with primary soot. Compared with using an external mixture, the direct effect of SOA is decreased due to the decrease in total aerosol surface area and the increase of absorption efficiency...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Heinz Grunze, Eduard Vieta, Guy M Goodwin, Charles Bowden, Rasmus W Licht, Jean-Michel Azorin, Lakshmi Yatham, Sergey Mosolov, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Siegfried Kasper
OBJECTIVES: Although clinically highly relevant, the recognition and treatment of bipolar mixed states has played only an underpart in recent guidelines. This WFSBP guideline has been developed to supply a systematic overview of all scientific evidence pertaining to the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar mixed states in adults. METHODS: Material used for these guidelines is based on a systematic literature search using various data bases. Their scientific rigour was categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F), and different grades of recommendation to ensure practicability were assigned...
November 3, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Alexander Streltsov, Swapan Rana, Paul Boes, Jens Eisert
Quantum coherence is an essential feature of quantum mechanics which is responsible for the departure between the classical and quantum world. The recently established resource theory of quantum coherence studies possible quantum technological applications of quantum coherence, and limitations that arise if one is lacking the ability to establish superpositions. An important open problem in this context is a simple characterization for incoherent operations, constituted by all possible transformations allowed within the resource theory of coherence...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Robert M Nosofsky, Jason M Gold
Research is reported that provides evidence for a significant role of mixed states and guessing processes in tasks of visual working memory (VWM). Subjects engaged in a complete-identification VWM task. The stimulus set consisted of 16 colors roughly equally spaced around a color circle. On each trial, a memory-set drawn from the colors was briefly presented, followed by a location probe. Subjects attempted to reproduce the color of the probed item by clicking on the appropriate response button of a discrete color wheel...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Tom J P Irons, James W Furness, Matthew S Ryley, Jan Zemen, Trygve Helgaker, Andrew M Teale
A recently proposed variation principle [N. I. Gidopoulos, Phys. Rev. A 83, 040502(R) (2011)] for the determination of Kohn-Sham effective potentials is examined and extended to arbitrary electron-interaction strengths and to mixed states. Comparisons are drawn with Lieb's convex-conjugate functional, which allows for the determination of a potential associated with a given electron density by maximization, yielding the Kohn-Sham potential for a non-interacting system. The mathematical structure of the two functionals is shown to be intrinsically related; the variation principle put forward by Gidopoulos may be expressed in terms of the Lieb functional...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jan Broekaert, Irina Basieva, Pawel Blasiak, Emmanuel M Pothos
Quantum probability theory (QPT) has provided a novel, rich mathematical framework for cognitive modelling, especially for situations which appear paradoxical from classical perspectives. This work concerns the dynamical aspects of QPT, as relevant to cognitive modelling. We aspire to shed light on how the mind's driving potentials (encoded in Hamiltonian and Lindbladian operators) impact the evolution of a mental state. Some existing QPT cognitive models do employ dynamical aspects when considering how a mental state changes with time, but it is often the case that several simplifying assumptions are introduced...
November 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Giuseppe Tavormina, Francesco Franza, Giuseppe Stranieri, Luigi Juli, Maria Rosaria Juli
The rating scale "G.T. MSRS" has been designed to improve the clinical effectiveness of the clinician psychiatrists, by enabling them to make an early "general" diagnosis of mixed states. The knowledge of the clinical features of the mixed states and of the symptoms of the "mixity" of mood disorders is crucial: to mis-diagnose or mis-treat patients with these symptoms may increase the suicide risk and make worse the evolution of mood disorders going to the dysphoric state. This study is the second validation study of the "G...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
Seishi Shimizu, Nobuyuki Matubayasi
Solubilization or mixing in the presence of hydrotropes is often accompanied by the increase of scattering intensity. When the scattering corresponding to mesoscale structuring grows, the mixed state is called the "pre-ouzo" aggregate, which appears often and is distinct from critical density fluctuation, yet its precise mechanism of appearance is still obscure. Combining the results from the theories of scattering and thermodynamic phase stability with differential geometry, we have constructed a theory which can account for hydrotrope mixing thermodynamics and the pre-ouzo effect in a unified manner...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Gustavo H Vázquez, María Lolich, Casimiro Cabrera, Ruzica Jokic, Dusan Kolar, Leonardo Tondo, Ross J Baldessarini
BACKGROUND: The DSM-5 mixed features specifier for mood disorders encourages renewed interest in mixed states and led us to pool research findings regarding prevalence of mixed features in episodes of major depressive (MDD) and bipolar disorders (BD). METHODS: We systematically searched to July 2017 for reports on mixed symptoms in depressive episodes of MDD and in depression and mania or hypomania in types I and II BD. For primary mood-states and diagnostic groups we compared rates of the presence of mixed symptoms: as defined by DSM-5 (≥3 features opposite to the dominant mood-polarity but not overlapping those of the primary disorder) or as having any ≥3 features of opposite polarity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gabor Gaszner, Gabor Barna, Peter Dome
The history of antipsychotics began with the discovery of chlorpromazine in the 1950s. Since then this group of medications has become one of the most important element of the armamentarium of psychopharmacology. While initially these pharmacons were used in the treatment of psychotic states (including psychotic mania) in the last approximately 10-15 years new indications - such as treatment of depressive, manic and mixed states and also mood-stabilization in bipolar disorder and also the treatment of major depressive disorder - for several second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) agents have been introduced...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Maria Montagna, Riccardo Spezia, Enrico Bodo
We have studied the solvation of Th(4+) in water, in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and in their equimolar mixture by using molecular dynamics based on an Amoeba-derived polarizable force field. We have performed an extended structural analysis in order to provide a complete picture of the chemical-physical features of the interaction of Th(4+) with the two solvents in their pure and mixed states. Through our simulations we found that, very likely, the first solvation shell in DMSO is not unlike the one found in pure water and contains 9 solvent molecules...
October 2, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
L V Olexenko, D E Vybornykh
This literature review differentially describes mental disorders in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) with an emphasis on psychotic disorders, affective states and adjustment disorders. Psychotic disorders observed in patients with HL include affective, delusional conditions, delirium. There are different psychogenic states among the adjustment disorders. Attention is drawn to the frequency of anxious, depressive or mixed states. Conversion disorders and behavioral disorders that lead to non-compliance in patients with HL are described as well...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
W J Choi, Y I Seo, D Ahmad, Yong Seung Kwon
We report on the thermally activated flux flow dependency on the doping dependent mixed state in NaFe1-x Co x As (x = 0.01, 0.03, and 0.07) crystals using the magnetoresistivity in the case of B//c-axis and B//ab-plane. It was found clearly that irrespective of the doping ratio, magnetoresistivity showed a distinct tail just above the T c,offset associated with the thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) in our crystals. Furthermore, in TAFF region the temperature dependence of the activation energy follows the relation [Formula: see text] with q = 1...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Li Li, Ping Wu, Shiping Zhang, Li Wang
The vertical, horizontal, and three-dimensional (3D) distribution of binary particles with different diameters are investigated simultaneously in a cylindrical container under coupling vibration and airflow. Airflow is blown into the vertically vibrating granular bed from its bottom with vibration frequency of f = 15, 30, and 45 Hz; vibration acceleration Γ = 2-7; and air velocity u = 0-1.82 m s(-1) (fluidization number u/umf = 0-1.49). In our experiments, several distribution states have been observed, such as the mixing state, where particles are uniformly mixed; Brazil nut separation (BN), where large particles rise to the top; reverse Brazil nut separation (RBN), where large particles sink to the bottom; horizontal separation (HS), where binary particles separate horizontally; and combined distribution of BN/RBN and HS, in which one type of particles is above the other and close to one side of the container wall...
October 11, 2017: Soft Matter
Jane E Persons, William H Coryell, David A Solomon, Martin B Keller, Jean Endicott, Jess G Fiedorowicz
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether suicidal behavior during mixed states exceeds that expected from the manic or depressive components alone. METHODS: This study included 429 participants with bipolar disorder from the National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). Mood and suicidal behavior were captured using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation and the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Suicidal behavior during each mood state, relative to euthymia, was analyzed using Cox regression to allow for repeated events, with a frailty term to account for intra-participant correlation...
August 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
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