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Angelo Picardi, Laura Fonzi, Mauro Pallagrosi, Antonella Gigantesco, Massimo Biondi
The current debate about the diagnostic significance of delusion revolves around two positions. The neurocognitive position conceives delusion as a non-specific, though polymorphic, symptom. The psychopathological position views features of delusion such as content and structure as having meaningful connections with diagnostic entities. This study aims at contributing to this debate by examining the association between delusional themes and diagnosis in a sample of 830 adult psychotic patients. All diagnoses were made by experienced psychiatrists according to DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria, and in 348 patients were established with the SCID-I...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Xue Dong, Xingchen Pan, Cheng Liu, Jianqiang Zhu
A single shot multi-wavelength phase retrieval method is proposed by combining common coherent modulation imaging (CMI) and a low rank mixed-state algorithm together. A radiation beam consisting of multi-wavelength is illuminated on the sample to be observed, and the exiting field is incident on a random phase plate to form speckle patterns, which is the incoherent superposition of diffraction patterns of each wavelength. The exiting complex amplitude of the sample including both the modulus and phase of each wavelength can be reconstructed simultaneously from the recorded diffraction intensity using a low rank mixed-state algorithm...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Luís Mendes, Maria I Gini, George Biskos, Ian Colbeck, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Ultrafine particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured on the platform of a metro station in Athens, Greece, and compared with those recorded at an urban background station. The volatility of the sampled particles was measured in parallel, providing further insights on the mixing state and composition of the sampled particles. Particle concentration exhibited a mean value of 1.2 × 104 # cm-3 and showed a weak correlation with train passage frequency, but exhibited a strong correlation with urban background particle concentrations...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Saehee Lim, Meehye Lee, Sang-Woo Kim, Paolo Laj
Black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) aerosols that are released from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass are of great concern because of their light-absorbing ability and great abundance associated with various anthropogenic sources, particularly in East Asia. However, the optical properties of ambient aerosols are dependent on the mixing state and the chemical composition of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols. Here we examined how, in East Asian outflows, the parameters of the aerosol optical properties can be altered seasonally in conjunction with the mixing state and the chemical composition of aerosols, using 3-year aerosol measurements...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susanne Jung, Sonja Sielker, Marcel R Hanisch, Viktor Libricht, Edgar Schäfer, Till Dammaschke
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an epoxy resin-based (AH-Plus), a zinc oxide eugenol containing (Pulp-Canal-Sealer) and two calcium silicate containing (MTA-Fillapex and BioRoot-RCS) sealers on primary human osteoblasts (hOB) in freshly mixed and set state. All sealers were mixed strictly according to the manufacturers´ instructions and identically samples were produced. In a pretest cytotoxic sealer concentrations were determined. Thus, for the main cell culture study, dilutions of sealer extract 1:1, 1:2, and 1:10 were used...
2018: PloS One
Dola Sengupta, Sandip Kar
Neural stem cells (NSCs) often give rise to a mixed population of cells during differentiation. However, the dynamical origin of these mixed states is poorly understood. In this article, our mathematical modeling study demonstrates that the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) mediated disparate differentiation dynamics of NSCs in central and peripheral nervous systems essentially function through two distinct bistable switches that are mutually interconnected via a mushroom-like bifurcation. Stochastic simulations of the model reveal that the mixed population originates due to the existence of these bistable switching regulations and that the maintenance of such mixed states depends on the level of stochastic fluctuations of the system...
February 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
S S Zhang, W Gao, H Cheng, L You, H P Liu
We report the observation of a controlled Landau-Zener transition (LZT) in Rydberg atoms by breaking the symmetry of the underlying Hamiltonian. For a nonhydrogenic Rydberg atom inside a changing electric (F) field, a LZT occurs between the avoided crossing energy levels of neighboring Rydberg states only for a sufficiently high changing rate. If a transverse magnetic (B) field is applied as we implement, the atomic level symmetry is broken, which causes the Stark manifolds denoted by a different |m| (m is the magnetic quantum number) to interact with each other...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Réka Szakács
The link between creativity, as the highest expression form of human achievement, and bipolar disorder came into focus of scientific investigations and research. Accomplished writers, composers and visual artists show a substantially higher rate of affective disorders, prodominantly bipolar mood disorders, comparing to the general population. Then again, patients afflicted with bipolar II subtype (hypomania and depression), as well as persons presenting the mildest form of bipolar mood swings (cyclothymia) possess higher creative skills...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Zijuan Lan, Bin Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang, Qiao Zhu, Jinfeng Yuan, Liwu Zeng, Min Hu, Lingyan He
Haze in China is primarily caused by high pollution of atmospheric fine particulates (PM2.5). However, the detailed source structures of PM2.5 light extinction have not been well established, especially for the roles of various organic aerosols, which makes haze management lack specified targets. This study obtained the mass concentrations of the chemical compositions and the light extinction coefficients of fine particles in the winter in Dongguan, Guangdong Province, using high time resolution aerosol observation instruments...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Huangjun Zhu, Masahito Hayashi
A quantum measurement is Fisher symmetric if it provides uniform and maximal information on all parameters that characterize the quantum state of interest. Using (complex projective) 2-designs, we construct measurements on a pair of identically prepared quantum states that are Fisher symmetric for all pure states. Such measurements are optimal in achieving the minimal statistical error without adaptive measurements. We then determine all collective measurements on a pair that are Fisher symmetric for the completely mixed state and for all pure states simultaneously...
January 19, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jorge Cuadra, Denis G Baranov, Martin Wersäll, Ruggero Verre, Tomasz J Antosiewicz, Timur Shegai
Formation of dressed light-matter states in optical structures, manifested as Rabi splitting of the eigen energies of a coupled system, is one of the key effects in quantum optics. In pursuing this regime with semiconductors, light is usually made to interact with excitons - electrically neutral quasiparticles of semiconductors, meanwhile interactions with charged three-particle states - trions - have received little attention. Here, we report on strong interaction between localized surface plasmons in silver nanoprisms and excitons and trions in monolayer tungsten disulphide (WS2)...
January 25, 2018: Nano Letters
Jun-Li Li, Cong-Feng Qiao
Quantum entanglement has been regarded as one of the key physical resources in quantum information sciences. However, the determination of whether a mixed state is entangled or not is generally a hard issue, even for the bipartite system. In this work we propose an operational necessary and sufficient criterion for the separability of an arbitrary bipartite mixed state, by virtue of the multiplicative Horn's problem. The work follows the work initiated by Horodecki et al. and uses the Bloch vector representation introduced to the separability problem by J...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karl Y Kue, Gil C Claudio, Chao-Ping Hsu
The fragment excitation difference (FED) scheme is a useful method for calculating the complete diabatic couplings of various energy transfer systems. The lack of a good definition for the transformation of the transition density matrix to the off-diagonal FED matrix elements limits FED to single-excitation methods. We have developed a generalized FED scheme called the θ-optimized FED (θ-FED) scheme which does not require transforming the transition density matrices. In θ-FED, two states of interest are linearly transformed by a mixing angle θ into two mixed states...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Matteo Pacini, Icro Maremmani
Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent...
January 21, 2018: CNS Spectrums
T P Xiong, L L Yan, F Zhou, K Rehan, D F Liang, L Chen, W L Yang, Z H Ma, M Feng, V Vedral
Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold ^{40}Ca^{+} ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Geng Chen, Nati Aharon, Yong-Nan Sun, Zi-Huai Zhang, Wen-Hao Zhang, De-Yong He, Jian-Shun Tang, Xiao-Ye Xu, Yaron Kedem, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo
Improving the precision of measurements is a significant scientific challenge. Previous works suggest that in a photon-coupling scenario the quantum fisher information shows a quantum-enhanced scaling of N2 , which in theory allows a better-than-classical scaling in practical measurements. In this work, utilizing mixed states with a large uncertainty and a post-selection of an additional pure system, we present a scheme to extract this amount of quantum fisher information and experimentally attain a practical Heisenberg scaling...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Svetlana Baoukina, Dmitri Rozmanov, D Peter Tieleman
Cell membranes contain multiple lipid and protein components having heterogeneous in-plane (lateral) distribution. Nanoscale rafts are believed to play an important functional role, but their phase state-domains of coexisting phases or composition fluctuations-is unknown. As a step toward understanding lateral organization of cell membranes, we investigate the difference between nanoscale domains of coexisting phases and composition fluctuations in lipid bilayers. We simulate model lipid bilayers with the MARTINI coarse-grained force field on length scales of tens of nanometers and timescales of tens of microseconds...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Lenin S Shagolsem
The behavior of dense mixtures of two topologically different diblock copolymer (CP) chains, viz., linear (L)-CP and ring (R)-CP of the same molecular weight, which form lamellae is studied under confinement by two nonselective substrates. The effect of varying interaction strength between L-CP and R-CP from purely repulsive (demixed state) to weakly attractive (mixed state) on the morphology, domain size, chain conformations, and distribution of chains in the film is investigated. In the demixed state, collective structure factor S(q) shows a split of the predominant peak indicating the presence of two dominant length scales, while there is only one predominant peak in the mixed state, and hence a lamellar structure with single domain size...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Karoline Krane-Gartiser, Arne E Vaaler, Ole Bernt Fasmer, Kjetil Sørensen, Gunnar Morken, Jan Scott
BACKGROUND: Few actigraphy studies in mood disorders have simultaneously included unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BD) depression or BD mixed states as a separate subgroup from mania. This study compared objectively measured activity in UP, BD depression, mania and mixed states and examined if patterns differed according to time of day and/or diagnostic group. METHODS: Eighty -eight acutely admitted inpatients with mood disorders (52 UP; 18 mania; 12 BD depression; 6 mixed states) underwent 24 hours of actigraphy monitoring...
December 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Weihang Zhou, Xinhan Zhang, Yingjun Zhang, Chuan Tian, Chunyan Xu
We report experimental observation of strong coupling between surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagating on a thin silver film and excitons from excited-subband transtitions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Clear anti-crossing behaviors were observed from attenuated total reflection measurements when the SPP energy approaches the 2nd subband transition of (6,5) SWNTs. The maximum Rabi splitting of the plasmon-exciton mixed states was extracted to be up to ~166.2 meV. Moreover, the splitting was found to be dependent linearly on the square root of the SWNTs concentration, in good agreement with theoretical prediction...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
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