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Zijuan Lan, Bin Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang, Qiao Zhu, Jinfeng Yuan, Liwu Zeng, Min Hu, Lingyan He
Haze in China is primarily caused by high pollution of atmospheric fine particulates (PM2.5). However, the detailed source structures of PM2.5 light extinction have not been well established, especially for the roles of various organic aerosols, which makes haze management lack specified targets. This study obtained the mass concentrations of the chemical compositions and the light extinction coefficients of fine particles in the winter in Dongguan, Guangdong Province, using high time resolution aerosol observation instruments...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Huangjun Zhu, Masahito Hayashi
A quantum measurement is Fisher symmetric if it provides uniform and maximal information on all parameters that characterize the quantum state of interest. Using (complex projective) 2-designs, we construct measurements on a pair of identically prepared quantum states that are Fisher symmetric for all pure states. Such measurements are optimal in achieving the minimal statistical error without adaptive measurements. We then determine all collective measurements on a pair that are Fisher symmetric for the completely mixed state and for all pure states simultaneously...
January 19, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jorge Cuadra, Denis G Baranov, Martin Wersäll, Ruggero Verre, Tomasz J Antosiewicz, Timur Shegai
Formation of dressed light-matter states in optical structures, manifested as Rabi splitting of the eigen energies of a coupled system, is one of the key effects in quantum optics. In pursuing this regime with semiconductors, light is usually made to interact with excitons - electrically neutral quasiparticles of semiconductors, meanwhile interactions with charged three-particle states - trions - have received little attention. Here, we report on strong interaction between localized surface plasmons in silver nanoprisms and excitons and trions in monolayer tungsten disulphide (WS2)...
January 25, 2018: Nano Letters
Jun-Li Li, Cong-Feng Qiao
Quantum entanglement has been regarded as one of the key physical resources in quantum information sciences. However, the determination of whether a mixed state is entangled or not is generally a hard issue, even for the bipartite system. In this work we propose an operational necessary and sufficient criterion for the separability of an arbitrary bipartite mixed state, by virtue of the multiplicative Horn's problem. The work follows the work initiated by Horodecki et al. and uses the Bloch vector representation introduced to the separability problem by J...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karl Y Kue, Gil C Claudio, Chao-Ping Hsu
The fragment excitation difference (FED) scheme is a useful method for calculating the complete diabatic couplings of various energy transfer systems. The lack of a good definition for the transformation of the transition density matrix to the off-diagonal FED matrix elements limits FED to single-excitation methods. We have developed a generalized FED scheme called θ-optimized FED (θ-FED) scheme which does not require transforming the transition density matrices. In θ-FED, two states of interest are linear transformed by a mixing angle θ into two mixed states...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Matteo Pacini, Icro Maremmani
Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent...
January 21, 2018: CNS Spectrums
T P Xiong, L L Yan, F Zhou, K Rehan, D F Liang, L Chen, W L Yang, Z H Ma, M Feng, V Vedral
Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold ^{40}Ca^{+} ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Geng Chen, Nati Aharon, Yong-Nan Sun, Zi-Huai Zhang, Wen-Hao Zhang, De-Yong He, Jian-Shun Tang, Xiao-Ye Xu, Yaron Kedem, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo
Improving the precision of measurements is a significant scientific challenge. Previous works suggest that in a photon-coupling scenario the quantum fisher information shows a quantum-enhanced scaling of N2, which in theory allows a better-than-classical scaling in practical measurements. In this work, utilizing mixed states with a large uncertainty and a post-selection of an additional pure system, we present a scheme to extract this amount of quantum fisher information and experimentally attain a practical Heisenberg scaling...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Svetlana Baoukina, Dmitri Rozmanov, D Peter Tieleman
Cell membranes contain multiple lipid and protein components having heterogeneous in-plane (lateral) distribution. Nanoscale rafts are believed to play an important functional role, but their phase state-domains of coexisting phases or composition fluctuations-is unknown. As a step toward understanding lateral organization of cell membranes, we investigate the difference between nanoscale domains of coexisting phases and composition fluctuations in lipid bilayers. We simulate model lipid bilayers with the MARTINI coarse-grained force field on length scales of tens of nanometers and timescales of tens of microseconds...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Lenin S Shagolsem
The behavior of dense mixtures of two topologically different diblock-copolymer (CP) chains, viz., linear(L)-CP and ring(R)-CP of same molecular weight which form lamellae is studied under confinement by two non-selective substrates. The effect of varying interaction strength between L-CP and R-CP from purely repulsive (demixed state) to weakly attractive (mixed state) on the morphology, domain size, chain conformations and distribution of chains in the film is investigated. In the demixed state, collective structure factor S(q) shows a split of the predominant peak indicating the presence of two dominant length scales...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Karoline Krane-Gartiser, Arne E Vaaler, Ole Bernt Fasmer, Kjetil Sørensen, Gunnar Morken, Jan Scott
BACKGROUND: Few actigraphy studies in mood disorders have simultaneously included unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BD) depression or BD mixed states as a separate subgroup from mania. This study compared objectively measured activity in UP, BD depression, mania and mixed states and examined if patterns differed according to time of day and/or diagnostic group. METHODS: Eighty -eight acutely admitted inpatients with mood disorders (52 UP; 18 mania; 12 BD depression; 6 mixed states) underwent 24 hours of actigraphy monitoring...
December 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Weihang Zhou, Xinhan Zhang, Yingjun Zhang, Chuan Tian, Chunyan Xu
We report experimental observation of strong coupling between surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagating on a thin silver film and excitons from excited-subband transtitions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Clear anti-crossing behaviors were observed from attenuated total reflection measurements when the SPP energy approaches the 2nd subband transition of (6,5) SWNTs. The maximum Rabi splitting of the plasmon-exciton mixed states was extracted to be up to ~166.2 meV. Moreover, the splitting was found to be dependent linearly on the square root of the SWNTs concentration, in good agreement with theoretical prediction...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
Xuejie Zhang, Bei Cheng, Cheng Liu, Weixing Shen, Jianqiang Zhu
Determining the complete optical behavior of anisotropic samples using ptychography is always a difficult problem. We propose a novel birefringence measurement method based on mixed-state ptychography that can simultaneously obtain the azimuth angle and retardation of anisotropic samples in a single scan. By using a reference system transformation, the two mutually orthogonal object states are unambiguously retrieved, and their errors are greatly reduced. The normalized root mean square errors of the obtained azimuth angle and retardation are 0...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
Qingge Feng, Huidong Cai, Haiying Lin, Siying Qin, Zheng Liu, Dachao Ma, Yuyang Ye
TiO2 aerogel is a unique three-dimensional porous nano-particle material with the characteristics of high specific surface area and good light transmittance. In this paper, a novel method involving ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel, solvent exchange, and vacuum drying was successfully developed to synthesis the TiO2 aerogel. The morphology and properties of the prepared TiO2 aerogels were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Thermogravimetric analysis-Differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy...
December 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
Chih-Sung Liang, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Pei-Shen Ho, Chia-Kuang Tsai, Wu-Chien Chien
OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has long been believed to reduce suicidal tendencies in patients with affective disorders; however, ECT recipients, who constitute the most severely ill and suicidal patients, are not eligible to participate in head-to-head randomized controlled trials. Large-scale studies are required to investigate the anti-suicidal effects of ECT vs psychopharmacotherapy. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort study design was used...
December 11, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
Xin Wang, Runyao Duan
We demonstrate the irreversibility of asymptotic entanglement manipulation under quantum operations that completely preserve the positivity of partial transpose (PPT), resolving a major open problem in quantum information theory. Our key tool is a new efficiently computable additive lower bound for the asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement with respect to PPT states, which can be used to evaluate the entanglement cost under local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We find that for any rank-two mixed state supporting on the 3⊗3 antisymmetric subspace, the amount of distillable entanglement by PPT operations is strictly smaller than one entanglement bit (ebit) while its entanglement cost under PPT operations is exactly one ebit...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Pierre Dussarrat, Maxime Perrier, Almazbek Imanaliev, Raphael Lopes, Alain Aspect, Marc Cheneau, Denis Boiron, Christoph I Westbrook
We present a free-space interferometer to observe two-particle interference of a pair of atoms with entangled momenta. The source of atom pairs is a Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a dynamical instability, and the interferometer is realized using Bragg diffraction on optical lattices, in the spirit of our recent Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment. We report on an observation ruling out the possibility of a purely mixed state at the input of the interferometer. We explain how our current setup can be extended to enable a test of a Bell inequality on momentum observables...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Bing Qi
Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) harness the intrinsic randomness in measurement processes: the measurement outputs are truly random, given the input state is a superposition of the eigenstates of the measurement operators. In the case of trusted devices, true randomness could be generated from a mixed state ρ so long as the system entangled with ρ is well protected. We propose a random number generation scheme based on measuring the quadrature fluctuations of a single mode thermal state using an optical homodyne detector...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Sergey Lazarev, Ilya Besedin, Alexey V Zozulya, Janne-Mieke Meijer, Dmitry Dzhigaev, Oleg Yu Gorobtsov, Ruslan P Kurta, Max Rose, Anatoly G Shabalin, Elena A Sulyanova, IvanA Zaluzhnyy, Alexey P Menushenkov, Michael Sprung, Andrei V Petukhov, Ivan A Vartanyants
Ptychographic coherent X-ray imaging is applied to obtain a projection of the electron density of colloidal crystals, which are promising nanoscale materials for optoelectronic applications and important model systems. Using the incident X-ray wavefield reconstructed by mixed states approach, a high resolution and high contrast image of the colloidal crystal structure is obtained by ptychography. The reconstructed colloidal crystal reveals domain structure with an average domain size of about 2 µm. Comparison of the domains formed by the basic close-packed structures, allows us to conclude on the absence of pure hexagonal close-packed domains and confirms the presence of random hexagonal close-packed layers with predominantly face-centered cubic structure within the analyzed part of the colloidal crystal film...
November 24, 2017: Small
Jialei Zhu, Joyce E Penner, Guangxing Lin, Cheng Zhou, Li Xu, Bingliang Zhuang
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) nearly always exists as an internal mixture, and the distribution of this mixture depends on the formation mechanism of SOA. A model is developed to examine the influence of using an internal mixing state based on the mechanism of formation and to estimate the radiative forcing of SOA in the future. For the present day, 66% of SOA is internally mixed with sulfate, while 34% is internally mixed with primary soot. Compared with using an external mixture, the direct effect of SOA is decreased due to the decrease in total aerosol surface area and the increase of absorption efficiency...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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