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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810205/chemical-composition-source-and-process-of-urban-aerosols-during-winter-haze-formation-in-northeast-china
#1
Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yong Ren, Xin Wang, Zongbo Shi, Daizhou Zhang, Huizheng Che, Hujia Zhao, Yanfei Liu, Hongya Niu, Jianmin Chen, Xiaoye Zhang, A P Lingaswamy, Zifa Wang, Weijun Li
The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH4(+), SO4(2-), and NO3(-) concentrations in PM2.5 were 89...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777590/many-particle-entanglement-criterion-for-superradiantlike-states
#2
Mehmet Emre Tasgin
We derive a many-particle entanglement criterion for mixed states using a relation between single-mode and many-particle nonclassicalities. The criterion relies on the measurement of collective spin observables. It works very well not only in the vicinity of the Dicke states, but also for the superpositions of Dicke states: superradiant ground states of finite or infinite number of particles and time evolution of single-photon superradiance from an extended sample where random phases appear. We also obtain a criterion for ensemble-field entanglement, which is successful for such kinds of states...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772918/switching-vo%C3%A2-single-crystals-and-related-phenomena-sliding-domains-and-crack-formation
#3
Bertina Fisher, Larisa Patlagan
VO₂ is the prototype material for insulator-metal transition (IMT). Its transition at TIMT = 340 K is fast and consists of a large resistance jump (up to approximately five orders of magnitude), a large change in its optical properties in the visible range, and symmetry change from monoclinic to tetragonal (expansion by 1% along the tetragonal c-axis and 0.5% contraction in the perpendicular direction). It is a candidate for potential applications such as smart windows, fast optoelectronic switches, and field-effect transistors...
May 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765553/order-disorder-transition-in-active-nematic-a-lattice-model-study
#4
Rakesh Das, Manoranjan Kumar, Shradha Mishra
We introduce a lattice model for active nematic composed of self-propelled apolar particles, study its different ordering states in the density-temperature parameter space, and compare with the corresponding equilibrium model. The active particles interact with their neighbours within the framework of the Lebwohl-Lasher model, and move anisotropically along their orientation to an unoccupied nearest neighbour lattice site. An interplay of the activity, thermal fluctuations and density gives rise distinct states in the system...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735645/psychiatric-consultation-in-the-collaborative-care-model-the-bipolar-sieve-effect
#5
James R Phelps, James James
Around the world, psychiatrists are in exceptionally short supply. The majority of mental health treatment is delivered in primary care. In the United States, the Collaborative Care Model (CCM) addresses the shortfall of psychiatrists by providing indirect consultation in primary care. A Cochrane meta-analysis affirms the efficacy this model for depression and anxiety. However, our experience with the CCM suggests that most patients referred for consultation have problems far more complex than simple depression and anxiety...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731739/prethermalization-at-low-temperature-the-scent-of-long-range-order
#6
Vincenzo Alba, Maurizio Fagotti
Nonequilibrium time evolution in isolated many-body quantum systems generally results in thermalization. However, the relaxation process can be very slow, and quasistationary nonthermal plateaux are often observed at intermediate times. The paradigmatic example is a quantum quench in an integrable model with weak integrability breaking; for a long time, the state cannot escape the constraints imposed by the approximate integrability. We unveil a new mechanism of prethermalization, based on the presence of a symmetry of the prequench Hamiltonian, which is spontaneously broken at zero temperature and is explicitly broken by the postquench Hamiltonian...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731730/uhlmann-connection-in-fermionic-systems-undergoing-phase-transitions
#7
Bruno Mera, Chrysoula Vlachou, Nikola Paunković, Vítor R Vieira
We study the behavior of the Uhlmann connection in systems of fermions undergoing phase transitions. In particular, we analyze some of the paradigmatic cases of topological insulators and superconductors in one dimension, as well as the BCS theory of superconductivity in three dimensions. We show that the Uhlmann connection signals phase transitions in which the eigenbasis of the state of the system changes. Moreover, using the established fidelity approach and the study of the edge states, we show the absence of thermally driven phase transitions in the case of topological insulators and superconductors...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698671/morphology-composition-and-mixing-state-of-primary-particles-from-combustion-sources-crop-residue-wood-and-solid-waste
#8
Lei Liu, Shaofei Kong, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qin Yan, A P Lingaswamy, Zongbo Shi, Senlin Lv, Hongya Niu, Longyi Shao, Min Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Xiaoye Zhang, Weijun Li
Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combustion released OM and S-rich particles...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691250/obesity-in-patients-with-major-depression-is-related-to-bipolarity-and-mixed-features-evidence-from-the-bridge-ii-mix-study
#9
Eleonora Petri, Olivia Bacci, Margherita Barbuti, Isabella Pacchiarotti, Jean-Michel Azorin, Jules Angst, Charles L Bowden, Sergey Mosolov, Eduard Vieta, Allan H Young, Giulio Perugi
OBJECTIVES: The Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance and Education (BRIDGE)-II-Mix study aimed to estimate the frequency of mixed states in patients with a major depressive episode (MDE) according to different definitions. The present post-hoc analysis evaluated the association between obesity and the presence of mixed features and bipolarity. METHODS: A total of 2811 MDE subjects were enrolled in a multicenter cross-sectional study. In 2744 patients, the body mass index (BMI) was evaluated...
July 10, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687739/on-local-unitary-equivalence-of-two-and-three-qubit-states
#10
Bao-Zhi Sun, Shao-Ming Fei, Zhi-Xi Wang
We study the local unitary equivalence for two and three-qubit mixed states by investigating the invariants under local unitary transformations. For two-qubit system, we prove that the determination of the local unitary equivalence of 2-qubits states only needs 14 or less invariants for arbitrary two-qubit states. Using the same method, we construct invariants for three-qubit mixed states. We prove that these invariants are sufficient to guarantee the LU equivalence of certain kind of three-qubit states. Also, we make a comparison with earlier works...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683451/sleep-related-electrophysiology-and-behavior-of-tinamous-eudromia-elegans-tinamous-do-not-sleep-like-ostriches
#11
Ryan K Tisdale, Alexei L Vyssotski, John A Lesku, Niels C Rattenborg
The functions of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, distinct sleep substates present in both mammals and birds, remain unresolved. One approach to gaining insight into their function is to trace the evolution of these states through examining sleep in as many taxonomic groups as possible. The mammalian and avian clades are each composed of two extant groups, i.e., the monotremes (echidna and platypus) and therian (marsupial and eutherian [or placental]) mammals, and Palaeognaths (cassowaries, emus, kiwi, ostriches, rheas, and tinamous) and Neognaths (all other birds) among birds...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630346/the-role-of-jet-and-film-drops-in-controlling-the-mixing-state-of-submicron-sea-spray-aerosol-particles
#12
Xiaofei Wang, Grant B Deane, Kathryn A Moore, Olivia S Ryder, M Dale Stokes, Charlotte M Beall, Douglas B Collins, Mitchell V Santander, Susannah M Burrows, Camille M Sultana, Kimberly A Prather
The oceans represent a significant global source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles comprise sea salts and organic species in varying proportions. In addition to size, the overall composition of SSA particles determines how effectively they can form cloud droplets and ice crystals. Thus, understanding the factors controlling SSA composition is critical to predicting aerosol impacts on clouds and climate. It is often assumed that submicrometer SSAs are mainly formed by film drops produced from bursting bubble-cap films, which become enriched with hydrophobic organic species contained within the sea surface microlayer...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630083/are-fire-safe-cigarettes-actually-fire-safe-evidence-from-changes-in-us-state-laws
#13
Carl Bonander, Niklas Jakobsson, Finn Nilson
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of fire safe cigarette laws on fire mortality and cigarette-related fires in the USA. METHODS: We examined the gradual implementation of the laws to identify their average effects, using difference-in-differences analysis to account for common year effects, time-invariant state effects, state-specific trends and observable time-varying state-level covariates. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant effects on all-cause fire mortality, residential fire mortality or cigarette-caused fire rates...
June 19, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618578/nearly-maximally-predictive-features-and-their-dimensions
#14
Sarah E Marzen, James P Crutchfield
Scientific explanation often requires inferring maximally predictive features from a given data set. Unfortunately, the collection of minimal maximally predictive features for most stochastic processes is uncountably infinite. In such cases, one compromises and instead seeks nearly maximally predictive features. Here, we derive upper bounds on the rates at which the number and the coding cost of nearly maximally predictive features scale with desired predictive power. The rates are determined by the fractal dimensions of a process' mixed-state distribution...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597894/deciphering-the-aqueous-chemistry-of-glyoxal-oxidation-with-hydrogen-peroxide-using-molecular-imaging
#15
Xiao Sui, Yufan Zhou, Fei Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Zihua Zhu, Xiao-Ying Yu
Aqueous surfaces after photochemical and dark reactions of glyoxal and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been studied using a microfluidic reactor coupled with an in situ liquid time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) for the first time. Spectral principal component analysis was used to determine similarities and differences among various photochemical aging and dark reaction samples and controls. Compared with previous results using bulk solutions, our unique liquid surface molecular imaging approach provided observations of glyoxal hydration (i...
August 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593516/antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-garcinia-indica-fruit-rind-via-monoaminergic-pathway
#16
Isha Dhamija, Milind Parle, Sandeep Kumar
Depression and anxiety are the most crippling neuropsychiatric disorders of this modern era. These mostly occur as anxiety followed by depression or in mixed state. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a safe and effective treatment, which proves its worth in this ailment. What else than a conventional food would be a better choice for a convenient therapy. Therefore, Garcinia indica, commonly known as Kokam, fruit rind has been used in the present study to investigate its antidepressant and anti-anxiety potential using forced swim test, tail suspension test, and reserpine-induced hypothermia; and elevated plus maze, hole-board test, and light dark model, respectively...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585922/information-loss
#17
William G Unruh, Robert M Wald
The complete gravitational collapse of a body in general relativity will result in the formation of a black hole. Although the black hole is classically stable, quantum particle creation processes will result in the emission of Hawking radiation to infinity and corresponding mass loss of the black hole, eventually resulting in the complete evaporation of the black hole. Semiclassical arguments strongly suggest that, in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, a pure quantum state will evolve to a mixed state, i...
September 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581812/additive-classical-capacity-of-quantum-channels-assisted-by-noisy-entanglement
#18
Quntao Zhuang, Elton Yechao Zhu, Peter W Shor
We give a capacity formula for the classical information transmission over a noisy quantum channel, with separable encoding by the sender and limited resources provided by the receiver's preshared ancilla. Instead of a pure state, we consider the signal-ancilla pair in a mixed state, purified by a "witness." Thus, the signal-witness correlation limits the resource available from the signal-ancilla correlation. Our formula characterizes the utility of different forms of resources, including noisy or limited entanglement assistance, for classical communication...
May 19, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570048/aerosol-mass-spectrometer-for-simultaneous-detection-of-polyaromatic-hydrocarbons-and-inorganic-components-from-individual-particles
#19
Johannes Passig, Julian Schade, Markus Oster, Matthias Fuchs, Sven Ehlert, Cornelia Jäger, Martin Sklorz, Ralf Zimmermann
Online studies of single airborne particles represent a demanding challenge in aerosol chemistry. New technologies that help to unravel the role of ambient aerosols in earth climate and to assess local and specific health risks from air pollution are highly desired. Of particular relevance are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion processes that are associated with both acute and long-term health effects. Usually, online single particle analyses apply laser desorption/ionization (LDI) in a bipolar mass spectrometer, revealing elemental constituents and limited molecular information by detection of both positive and negative ions...
June 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558366/antidepressant-induced-hypomania-mania-in-patients-with-major-depression-evidence-from-the-bridge-ii-mix-study
#20
Margherita Barbuti, Isabella Pacchiarotti, Eduard Vieta, Jean-Michel Azorin, Jules Angst, Charles L Bowden, Sergey Mosolov, Allan H Young, Giulio Perugi
BACKGROUND: The issue of antidepressant-induced mood switches to hypomania, mania, or mixed states within the course of mayor depressive disorder (MDD) has been a controversial topic. The present post-hoc analysis of the BRIDGE-II-MIX study focuses on the clinical features of patients with history of antidepressant-induced hypomania/mania (AIHM) in a large international sample of patients with major depressive episode (MDE). METHODS: 2811 subjects with major depression were enrolled in this multicentre cross-sectional study...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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