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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768433/the-long-term-outcomes-of-epilepsy-surgery
#1
Midhun Mohan, Simon Keller, Andrew Nicolson, Shubhabrata Biswas, David Smith, Jibril Osman Farah, Paul Eldridge, Udo Wieshmann
OBJECTIVE: Despite modern anti-epileptic drug treatment, approximately 30% of epilepsies remain medically refractory and for these patients, epilepsy surgery may be a treatment option. There have been numerous studies demonstrating good outcome of epilepsy surgery in the short to median term however, there are a limited number of studies looking at the long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to ascertain the long-term outcome of resective epilepsy surgery in a large neurosurgery hospital in the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763803/study-of-the-mozart-effect-in-children-with-epileptic-electroencephalograms
#2
Eliza Grylls, Max Kinsky, Amy Baggott, Cecile Wabnitz, Ailsa McLellan
PURPOSE: To establish if listening to Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major (K448) has an anti-epileptic effect on the EEGs (electroencephalograms) of children. METHODS: Forty five children (2-18 years; mean 7 years 10 months) who had epileptiform activity on EEG were recruited from those attending for scheduled EEG investigations. Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major (K448) and an age-appropriate control music were played during the EEG. There were five consecutive states during the record, each lasting 5 min; before Mozart music (baseline), during Mozart music, after Mozart music/before control music, during control music and after control music...
May 9, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758901/pharmaceutical-residues-are-widespread-in-baltic-sea-coastal-and-offshore-waters-screening-for-pharmaceuticals-and-modelling-of-environmental-concentrations-of-carbamazepine
#3
Berndt Björlenius, Mátyás Ripszám, Peter Haglund, Richard H Lindberg, Mats Tysklind, Jerker Fick
The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758362/the-anti-epileptic-drugs-valproate-carbamazepine-and-levetiracetam-cause-bone-loss-and-modulate-wnt-inhibitors-in-normal-and-ovariectomised-rats
#4
Bushra Parveen, Ambrish Kumar Tiwari, Moon Jain, Subhashis Pal, Naibedya Chattopadhyay, Manjari Tripathi, Divya Vohora
Secondary osteoporosis is the major concern associated with long term intake of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Women are the vulnerable targets owing to post-menopausal bone loss. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of treatment with AED therapy (carbamazepine, CBZ, 75 mg/kg; sodium valproate, SVP, 300 mg/kg; levetiracetam, LTM, 150 mg/kg) on bone mineral density and microarchitecture at femoral epiphysis, lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibia of normal and ovariectomised Wistar rats...
May 11, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723989/anti-epileptic-drug-toxicity-in-children
#5
EDITORIAL
Imti Choonara
Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have had a major impact on children, improving their quality of life and significantly reducing both morbidity and mortality. They are, however, associated with significant toxicity. Behavioural problems and somnolence are the most frequent adverse drug reactions for many AEDs. Unfortunately, the comparative risk of drug toxicity for different AEDs has been inadequately studied. Drug toxicity is poorly reported in randomised controlled trials. Prospective cohort studies are the best way to study drug toxicity...
May 1, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720941/neonatal-seizure-models-to-study-epileptogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Yuka Kasahara, Yuji Ikegaya, Ryuta Koyama
Current therapeutic strategies for epilepsy include anti-epileptic drugs and surgical treatments that are mainly focused on the suppression of existing seizures rather than the occurrence of the first spontaneous seizure. These symptomatic treatments help a certain proportion of patients, but these strategies are not intended to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the primary process of epilepsy development, i.e., epileptogenesis. Epileptogenic changes include reorganization of neural and glial circuits, resulting in the formation of an epileptogenic focus...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718742/an-rnai-mediated-screen-identifies-novel-targets-for-next-generation-antiepileptic-drugs-based-on-increased-expression-of-the-homeostatic-regulator-pumilio
#7
Wei-Hsiang Lin, Miaomiao He, Yuen Ngan Fan, Richard A Baines
Despite availability of a diverse range of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), only about two-thirds of epilepsy patients respond well to drug treatment. Thus, novel targets are required to catalyse the design of next-generation AEDs. Manipulation of neuron firing-rate homoeostasis, through enhancing Pumilio (Pum) activity, has been shown to be potently anticonvulsant in Drosophila. In this study, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in S2R + cells, using a luciferase-based dPum activity reporter and identified 1166 genes involved in dPum regulation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718108/the-antiepileptic-drug-lamotrigine-inhibits-the-cyp17a1-lyase-reaction-in-vitro
#8
Cecilie Hurup Munkboel, Lise Rudbæk Christensen, Julie Islin, Silvia Bonomo, Lars Olsen, Flemming Steen Jørgensen, Bjarne Styrishave
The potential endocrine disrupting effects of the commonly prescribed anti-epileptic drug lamotrigine (LAM) was investigated using the H295R steroidogenic in vitro assay and computational chemistry methods. The H295R cells were exposed to different concentrations of LAM and a multi-steroid LC-MS/MS method was applied to quantify the amount of secreted steroid hormones. LAM affected several steroid hormones in the steroidogenesis at therapeutic concentrations. All progestagens as well as 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone increased 100-200% with increasing concentrations of LAM suggesting a selective inhibitory effect of LAM on CYP17A1, in particular on the lyase reaction...
April 26, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700175/preliminary-assessment-of-cognitive-impairments-in-canine-idiopathic-epilepsy
#9
Joshua Winter, Rowena Mary Anne Packer, Holger Andreas Volk
In humans, epilepsy can induce or accelerate cognitive impairment (CI). There is emerging evidence of CI in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) from recent epidemiological studies. The aim of our study was to assess CI in dogs with IE using two tests of cognitive dysfunction designed for use in a clinical setting. Dogs with IE (n=17) were compared against controls (n=18) in their performance in two tasks; a spatial working memory task and a problem-solving task. In addition, owners completed the Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Rating (CCDR) scale for their dog...
April 26, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696042/bone-metabolism-disorder-in-epileptic-children
#10
MAaryam Nakhaee Moghadam, Alireza Teimouri, Ali Khajeh, Seyed Bahare Hoseini
Objective: There are frequent anti-epileptic drugs used in management of epilepsy. Anti-epileptic drugs may have some complications on bone and vitamin D metabolism. This study aimed to comparison the bone metabolism disorder in epileptic children with healthy child in Zahedan, eastern Iran from Jul 2014 to Jun 2015. Materials & Methods: This case-control study was performed on bone metabolism disorder in epileptic children between 2014-2015. Forty epileptic children were enrolled based on accessibility scheme and 40 participants randomly selected for control group from those referred to the pediatric ward and clinic of Ali Ebn Abi Talib Hospital and Ali Asghar Clinic in Zahedan City, Sistan & Baluchestan Province, eastern Iran...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693461/an-update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents
#11
Ritu Goel, Ji Su Hong, Robert L Findling, Na Young Ji
To date, no medication is proven to be effective in treating core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Psychotropic medications are widely used to target emotional and behavioural symptoms in ASD. This article reviewed evidence for pharmacotherapy, novel therapeutic agents, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in children and adolescents with ASD. Currently, only risperidone and aripiprazole have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of irritability associated with ASD in children and adolescents...
April 25, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673714/discovery-and-evaluation-of-nna-v-1-5-sodium-channel-blockers-with-potent-cell-invasion-inhibitory-activity-in-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Shilpa Dutta, Osbaldo Lopez Charcas, Samuel Tanner, Frédéric Gradek, Virginie Driffort, Sébastien Roger, Katri Selander, Sadanandan E Velu, Wayne Brouillette
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are a well-established drug target for anti-epileptic, anti-arrhythmic and pain medications due to their presence and the important roles that they play in excitable cells. Recently, their presence has been recognized in non-excitable cells such as cancer cells and their overexpression has been shown to be associated with metastatic behavior in a variety of human cancers. The neonatal isoform of the VGSC subtype, Nav 1.5 (nNav 1.5) is overexpressed in the highly aggressive human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231...
April 3, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653321/neurodevelopmental-comorbidities-and-seizure-control-24-months-after-a-first-unprovoked-seizure-in-children
#13
Eva Åndell, Torbjörn Tomson, Sofia Carlsson, Kristina Tedroff, Per Åmark
PURPOSE: To follow children with newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures to determine (1) whether the prevalence of neurodevelopmental comorbidities and cerebral palsy (CP) changed after the initial seizure, and (2) the association between studied comorbidities and seizures 13-24 months after seizure onset or initiation of treatment. METHODS: Analyses were based on 750 children (28 days-18 years) with a first unprovoked seizure (index) included in a population-based Incidence Registry in Stockholm between 2001 and 2006...
March 20, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651178/transformation-products-of-carbamazepine-cbz-after-ozonation-and-their-toxicity-evaluation-using-pseudomonas-sp-strain-ksh-1-in-aqueous-matrices
#14
Kshitiz Dwivedi, Ashwinkumar P Rudrashetti, Tapan Chakrabarti, R A Pandey
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anti-epileptic and anti-convulsant drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy and other bipolar disorders. Ozone as an advanced oxidation process has been widely used for the degradation of CBZ resulting in the formation of transformation products (ozonides). The present research aims to isolate and identify potential microorganism, capable of degradation of CBZ and its transformation products. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of pure CBZ and their ozone transformation products were evaluated using the cells of Pseudomonas sp...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649684/the-rome-retrospective-observational-multicenter-study-on-eslicarbazepine-study-efficacy-and-behavioural-effects-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-as-adjunctive-therapy-for-adults-with-partial-onset-seizures-in-real-life
#15
G Assenza, O Mecarelli, J Lanzone, F Assenza, M Tombini, V Di Lazzaro, P Pulitano
PURPOSE: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a third-generation member of the dibenzazepine family approved in 2009 by the European Medicines Agency with the indication of adjunctive therapy in adult people with partial-onset seizures (PPOS). We aimed at assessing the ESL impact on seizure frequency and quality of life in PPOS with a particular attention to sleepiness and depression. METHODS: We evaluated 50 adult PPOS (>18 years; 48 ± 14 years-old; 23 males) treated with adjunctive ESL for ≥2months with a retrospective multi-centric design...
March 30, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609145/seizure-characteristics-and-the-use-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-children-and-young-people-with-brain-tumours-and-epileptic-seizures-analysis-of-regional-paediatric-cancer-service-population
#16
Chiara Pilotto, Jo-Fen Liu, David A Walker, William P Whitehouse
PURPOSE: Epileptic seizures complicate the management of childhood brain tumours. There are no published standards for clinical practice concerning risk factors, treatment selection or strategies to withdraw treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED). METHOD: we undertook a case note review of 120 patients with newly diagnosed brain tumours, referred to a regional paediatric cancer service. RESULTS: data was available on 117/120 (98%) children <18 years: median age at tumour presentation was 8...
March 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593509/tantrums-emotion-reactions-and-their-eeg-correlates-in-childhood-benign-rolandic-epilepsy-vs-complex-partial-seizures-exploratory-observations
#17
Michael Potegal, Elena H Drewel, John T MacDonald
We explored associations between EEG pathophysiology and emotional/behavioral (E/B) problems of children with two types of epilepsy using standard parent questionnaires and two new indicators: tantrums recorded by parents at home and brief, emotion-eliciting situations in the laboratory. Children with Benign Rolandic epilepsy (BRE, N = 6) reportedly had shorter, more angry tantrums from which they recovered quickly. Children with Complex Partial Seizures (CPS, N = 13) had longer, sadder tantrums often followed by bad moods...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593494/antiepileptogenic-effect-of-subchronic-palmitoylethanolamide-treatment-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-epilepsy
#18
Julia M Post, Sebastian Loch, Raissa Lerner, Floortje Remmers, Ermelinda Lomazzo, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila
Research on the antiepileptic effects of (endo-)cannabinoids has remarkably progressed in the years following the discovery of fundamental role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in controlling neural excitability. Moreover, an increasing number of well-documented cases of epilepsy patients exhibiting multi-drug resistance report beneficial effects of cannabis use. Pre-clinical and clinical research has increasingly focused on the antiepileptic effectiveness of exogenous administration of cannabinoids and/or pharmacologically induced increase of eCBs such as anandamide (also known as arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA])...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579305/seizure-outcomes-of-supratentorial-brain-tumor-resection-in-pediatric-patients
#19
Fadi S Saadeh, Edward F Melamed, Nolan D Rea, Mark D Krieger
Background: This study aims to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for seizure development after supratentorial brain tumor resection in pediatric patients. This could be used to guide the postoperative management and usage of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods: Retrospective study was conducted for patients between 0 and 21 years with supratentorial tumor resection between 2005 and 2015 at a single institution. Results: Two hundred patients (114 males/86 females) were identified...
March 20, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574880/cannabidiol-exerts-antiepileptic-effects-by-restoring-hippocampal-interneuron-functions-in-a-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-model
#20
Archie A Khan, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Ayatakin Khalil, Matthew C Walker, Afia B Ali
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), shows promising results as an effective potential antiepileptic drug in some forms of refractory epilepsy. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms by which CBD exerts its anti-seizure effects, we investigated the effects of CBD at synaptic connections, and the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and two major inhibitory interneurons: fast spiking, parvalbumin -expressing (PV) and adapting, cholecystokinin-expressing (CCK) interneurons...
March 25, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
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