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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641219/comparison-of-brand-versus-generic-antiepileptic-drug-adverse-event-reporting-rates-in-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers
#1
Md Motiur Rahman, Yasser Alatawi, Ning Cheng, Jingjing Qian, Annya V Plotkina, Peggy L Peissig, Richard L Berg, David Page, Richard A Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Despite the cost saving role of generic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), debate exists as to whether generic substitution of branded AEDs may lead to therapeutic failure and increased toxicity. This study compared adverse event (AE) reporting rates for brand vs. authorized generic (AG) vs. generic AEDs. Since AGs are pharmaceutically identical to brand but perceived as generics, the generic vs. AG comparison minimized potential bias against generics. METHODS: Events reported to the U...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626875/effect-of-ketogenic-diet-and-other-dietary-therapies-on-anti-epileptic-drug-concentrations-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#2
G Heo, S H Kim, M J Chang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet for patients with refractory epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of the KD and other dietary therapies on the concentrations of anticonvulsants in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy who were treated with the KD and other dietary therapies for more than 30 days with at least one measurement performed both before and during the diet were evaluated...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608235/ferulic-acid-supplementation-for-management-of-depression-in-epilepsy
#3
Tanveer Singh, Taranjot Kaur, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Neuroinflammation driven altered neurochemical milieu have been reported to play a significant role in pathogenesis of comorbid depression in epilepsy. Most of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as levetiracetam, taigabine, topiramate have not been reported any significant effect in alleviating neuroinflammation, which may explain their ineffectiveness in ameliorating depression associated with epilepsy. The supplementation of antidepressants (ADs) attracts various pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with AEDs and was considered unsafe in epilepsy...
June 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608234/genomics-guided-precise-anti-epileptic-drug-development
#4
Norman Delanty, Gianpiero Cavallleri
Traditional antiepileptic drug development approaches have yielded many important clinically valuable anti-epileptic drugs. However, the screening of promising compounds has been naturally agnostic to epilepsy etiology in individual human patients. Now, genomic medicine is changing the way we view human disease. International collaborations are unraveling the many molecular genetic causes of the epilepsies, including the early onset epileptic encephalopathies, and some of the familial focal epilepsies. Further advances in precision diagnostics will be facilitated by ongoing large collaborations and the wider availability of whole exome and whole genome sequencing in clinical practice...
June 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605632/seizure-related-variables-are-predictive-of-attention-and-memory-in-children-with-epilepsy
#5
Danielle N Lordo, Ryan Van Patten, Eliana L Sudikoff, Lisa Harker
Children with epilepsy (CWE) are at greater risk for cognitive deficits and behavioral difficulties than are typically developing healthy children, and particular epileptic symptoms and treatments may contribute to this risk. The current study examined the relationships between four seizure-related variables and attention and memory functioning in a sample of 207 CWE (ages 6-16) using both neurocognitive and parent/teacher-report measures. Sociodemographic, medical, and neuropsychological data were collected from patients' medical charts in a retrospective fashion...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599984/prevention-and-management-of-postoperative-seizures-in-neuro-oncology
#6
F Chassoux, E Landre
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy related to brain tumors is often difficult to treat and may impact the quality of life. We performed a review of current recommendations for the prevention of postoperative seizures and optimizing the anti-epileptic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on studies performed since 2000 we conducted the review by (1) analyzing the incidence of tumoral epilepsy and mechanisms of epileptogenicity; (2) describing the current medical and surgical strategy according to oncologic treatments; (3) discussing the management of postoperative seizures; (4) considering the drug withdrawal after oncologic therapy...
June 6, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598192/evaluation-of-a-human-neural-stem-cell-culture-method-for-prediction-of-the-neurotoxicity-of-anti-epileptics
#7
Abdal-Jabbar Al-Rubai, Peter Wigmore, Margaret K Pratten
Human neural stem cells have been proposed as an in vitro model to predict neurotoxicity. In this study, the potential of in vitro cultures of human-derived neurospheres to predict the effects of various anti-epileptic drugs (sodium valproate, phenytoin, carbamazepine and phenobarbitone) was evaluated. In general, these drugs had no significant effects on cell viability, total cellular protein, and neuronal process length at low doses, but at high doses these parameters were reduced significantly. Therapeutic doses of sodium valproate and phenytoin had a clear effect on neurosphere size and cell migration, with a significant reduction in both parameters when compared with the control group...
May 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596596/optical-mapping-of-neuronal-activity-during-seizures-in-zebrafish
#8
L Turrini, C Fornetto, G Marchetto, M C Müllenbroich, N Tiso, A Vettori, F Resta, A Masi, G Mannaioni, F S Pavone, F Vanzi
Mapping neuronal activity during the onset and propagation of epileptic seizures can provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying this pathology and improve our approaches to the development of new drugs. Recently, zebrafish has become an important model for studying epilepsy both in basic research and in drug discovery. Here, we employed a transgenic line with pan-neuronal expression of the genetically-encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6s to measure neuronal activity in zebrafish larvae during seizures induced by pentylenetretrazole (PTZ)...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590582/remarkable-modulation-of-self-assembly-in-short-gamma-peptides-by-neighboring-ions-and-orthogonal-h-bonding
#9
Sandip V Jadhav, Paolo Amabili, Hans-Georg Stammler, Norbert Sewald
Gabapentin, an anti-epileptic drug, is known to form stable helical structures in short peptides. Distinctly, we report on the newly synthesized gamma-analogue of gabapentin, i.e. gamma-gabapentin (gamma-Gpn), manifests beta-sheet character at molecular and nanofibrous hydrogel at supramolecular level. We have undertaken the study to investigate the influence of proximally immobilized cationic amino acids (lysine and arginine) on self-assembly of backbone expanded tripeptide motif. Interestingly, arginine was found to be superior, both physically and mechanically, over lysine in driving hydrogelation...
June 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588450/puzzling-out-synaptic-vesicle-2-family-members-functions
#10
REVIEW
Odile Bartholome, Priscilla Van den Ackerveken, Judit Sánchez Gil, Orianne de la Brassinne Bonardeaux, Pierre Leprince, Rachelle Franzen, Bernard Rogister
Synaptic vesicle proteins 2 (SV2) were discovered in the early 80s, but the clear demonstration that SV2A is the target of efficacious anti-epileptic drugs from the racetam family stimulated efforts to improve understanding of its role in the brain. Many functions have been suggested for SV2 proteins including ions or neurotransmitters transport or priming of SVs. Moreover, several recent studies highlighted the link between SV2 and different neuronal disorders such as epilepsy, Schizophrenia (SCZ), Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585316/patterns-of-antiepileptic-drug-prescription-in-sweden-a%C3%A2-register-based-approach
#11
K Bolin, F Berggren, P Berling, S Morberg, H Gauffin, A-M Landtblom
OBJECTIVES: To determine drug utilization pathways from the incident healthcare visit due to epilepsy and three years onward. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anti-epileptic drug utilization was calculated using individual information on inpatient- and outpatient care utilization and drug sales. Throughout, we used national register information pertaining to pharmaceutical sales linked to diagnosis-related healthcare utilization. Information on pharmaceutical sales was collected for the 2007-2013 period...
June 5, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583510/lamotrigine-induced-lymphadenopathy-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
S J Pomeroy, R Ndikumana, J P Cavanagh
Lamotrigine is an anti-epileptic drug often prescribed to children and young females. Side effects include rash, dizziness and diplopia. Over the last twenty years, two cases of lymphadenopathy due to lamotrigine have been reported. We will present the case of a 17-year old female with persistent lymphadenopathy due to lamotrigine. The purpose of this case report is to inform clinicians that lymphadenopathy is a possible side effect of lamotrigine and to highlight the need for further research.
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580160/oxcarbazepine-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome-a-pediatric-case-report
#13
Burçin Beken, Ceren Can, Aysegül Örencik, Nuray Can, Mehtap Yazıcıoğlu
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis are two rare but life-threatening diseases characterized by detachment of epidermis, bullous skin lesions and mucous membrane erosions. Anti-epileptic drugs are highly suspected to be the causative agents. Although carbamazepine (CBZ) is the most associated anti-epileptic drug, oxcarbazepine (OXC), which is a monohydrated derivative of CBZ, is proposed to be safer because of the different metabolism of the two drugs. Herein, we report a case of SJS induced by oxcarbazepine...
June 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566726/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-second-and-third-generation-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-refractory-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis
#14
Chuanjun Zhuo, Ronghuan Jiang, Gongying Li, Mingjing Shao, Ce Chen, Guangdong Chen, Hongjun Tian, Jie Li, Rong Xue, Deguo Jiang
This study was proposed to compare the relative efficacy and tolerability of the second and third generation AEDs for refractory epilepsy. The 50% responder rate (RR) was selected as the efficacy outcome whereas the incidence of dizziness and somnolence were considered to evaluate the tolerability of AEDs. Odds ratio (OR) and their 95% credible interval (CrI) were obtained using a consistency model and surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) value was calculated to rank AEDs. Topiramate appeared to be significantly more effective than placebo, eslicarbazepine acetate, perampanel, pregabalin, zonisamide, gabapentin and lamotrigine with respect to the 50% RR (all OR > 1)...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542253/repurposing-the-anti-epileptic-drug-sodium-valproate-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-for-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#15
Clare L Killick-Cole, William G B Singleton, Alison S Bienemann, Daniel J Asby, Marcella J Wyatt, Lisa J Boulter, Neil U Barua, Steven S Gill
Targeting epigenetic changes in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) may provide a novel treatment option for patients. This report demonstrates that sodium valproate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), can increase the cytotoxicity of carboplatin in an additive and synergistic manner in DIPG cells in vitro. Sodium valproate causes a dose-dependent decrease in DIPG cell viability in three independent ex vivo cell lines. Furthermore, sodium valproate caused an increase in acetylation of histone H3. Changes in cell viability were consistent with an induction of apoptosis in DIPG cells in vitro, determined by flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V staining and assessment of apoptotic markers by western blotting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534299/adsorption-onto-mesoporous-silica-using-supercritical-fluid-technology-improves-dissolution-rate-of-carbamazepine-a-poorly-soluble-compound
#16
Aditya V Gandhi, Priyanka Thipsay, Bharat Kirthivasan, Emilio Squillante
The purpose of this research was to design and characterize an immediate-release formulation of carbamazepine (CBZ), a poorly soluble anti-epileptic drug, using a porous silica carrier. Carbon dioxide in its supercritical state (2000 psi, 30-35°C) was used as an anti-solvent to precipitate CBZ onto two particle size variants of silica. Adsorption isotherms were used as a pre-formulation strategy to select optimum ratios of silica and CBZ. The obtained drug-silica formulations were characterized by dissolution studies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
May 22, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528284/biomarkers-in-epilepsy-a-modelling-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Sven C van Dijkman, Rob A Voskuyl, Elizabeth C de Lange
Biomarkers can be categorised from type 0 (genotype or phenotype), through 6 (clinical scales), each level representing a part of the processes involved in the biological system and drug treatment. This classification facilitates the identification and connection of information required to fully (mathematically) model a disease and its treatment using integrated information from biomarkers. Two recent reviews thoroughly discussed the current status and development of biomarkers for epilepsy, but a path towards the integration of such biomarkers for the personalisation of anti-epileptic drug treatment is lacking...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#18
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities, and antiabsence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521703/recent-advances-in-antiepileptic-herbal-medicine
#19
Stephen M Manchishi
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. Most cases of epilepsy are idiopathic, though brain injury, brain tumor, severe systemic infection and genetic mutations have been implicated in some cases. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) currently in existence are not sufficient to contain the disorder. This is not only because of their limited availability and cost, but also their adverse side effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508994/disease-modifying-effects-of-neural-regeneration-peptide-2945-in-the-gaers-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#20
Gabi Dezsi, Frank Sieg, Mark Thomas, Terence J O'Brien, Marieke van der Hart, Nigel C Jones
Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Current anti-epileptic drugs are only effective and tolerated in ~70% of patients, leaving a substantial proportion of patients untreated. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new therapies. We assessed the anti-seizure activity of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 (NRP 2945) in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy. Drug effects on seizures were assessed using two study designs. Male adult GAERS were implanted with EEG electrodes to measure seizure frequency...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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