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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929472/-ivermectin-as-an-adjunct-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy
#1
J A Diazgranados-Sanchez, J L Mejia-Fernandez, L S Chan-Guevara, M H Valencia-Artunduaga, J L Costa
INTRODUCTION: Ivermectin, a 22'23 dihydro derivative of avermectins beta-1a, is a highly effective veterinary and human anti parasitic, used to treat endoparasites of difficult control such as filariasis and onchocerciasis, with a median plasma life of at least of 16 hours. The recommended therapeutic doses range from 0.05 to 0.40 mg/kg, without undesirable effects or risk to human life. It went from being a great success in animal health to its application in humans, where it has had great impact...
October 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929415/pediatric-neurocysticercosis
#2
REVIEW
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminth infection of nervous system in humans caused by the encysted larvae of Taenia solium. It is a major cause of epilepsy in tropical areas and the most common cause of focal-onset seizures in North Indian children. Children with neurocysticercosis have pleomorphic manifestations depending on the location, number and viability of the cysts and host response. In endemic areas, neurocysticercosis should be clinically suspected in any child with recent-onset seizures, headache or focal motor deficits where there is no other suggestion of an underlying neurological disorder...
September 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928441/effects-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-on-spreading-depolarization-induced-epileptiform-activity-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#3
Ching-Huei Lin, Shih-Pin Hsu, Ting-Chun Cheng, Chin-Wei Huang, Yao-Chang Chiang, I-Han Hsiao, Ming-Hsueh Lee, Mei-Lin Shen, Dong Chuan Wu, Ning Zhou
Epilepsy and spreading depolarization (SD) are both episodic brain disorders and often exist together in the same individual. In CA1 pyramidal neurons of mouse hippocampal slices, induction of SD evoked epileptiform activities, including the ictal-like bursts, which occurred during the repolarizing phase of SD, and the subsequent generation of paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDSs), which are characterized by mild depolarization plateau with overriding spikes. The duration of the ictal-like activity was correlated with both the recovery time and the depolarization potential of SD, whereas the parameters of PDSs were not significantly correlated with the parameters of SD...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922856/building-up-absence-seizures-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-from-network-to-cellular-epileptogenic-processes
#4
Guillaume Jarre, Tristan Altwegg-Boussac, Mark S Williams, Florian Studer, Mathilde Chipaux, Olivier David, Stéphane Charpier, Antoine Depaulis, Séverine Mahon, Isabelle Guillemain
The epileptogenic processes leading to recurrent seizures in Genetic Epilepsies are largely unknown. Using the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rat from Strasbourg, we investigated in vivo the network and single neuron mechanisms responsible for the early emergence of epileptic activity. Local field potential recordings in the primary somatosensory cortex (SoCx), from the second post-natal week to adulthood, showed that immature cortical discharges progressively evolved into typical spike-and-wave discharges following a 3-step maturation process...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920564/intentional-overdose-of-the-novel-anti-epileptic-drug-eslicarbazepine-presenting-with-recurrent-seizures-and-ventricular-dysrhythmias
#5
Jesse Thompson, James D Powell, Daniel H Ovakim
Eslicarbazepine is a novel anti-epileptic agent indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. We present the case of an 18 year old female that presented to the Emergency Department four hours after a reported intentional ingestion of an estimated 5600 mg of eslicarbazepine. Although initially hemodynamically stable and neurologically normal, shortly after arrival she developed confusion, rigidity and clonus, followed by recurrent seizures, hypoxemia and cardiac arrest which responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and wide complex tachycardia requiring defibrillation...
September 18, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917389/alternative-treatment-strategies-for-catatonia-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Scott R Beach, Federico Gomez-Bernal, Jeff C Huffman, Gregory L Fricchione
BACKGROUND: Catatonia is a commonly encountered syndrome, affecting 10-20% of various psychiatric populations and carrying significant medical co-morbidities. However, there are few established alternative treatment strategies when benzodiazepines are ineffective and electroconvulsive therapy is unavailable. OBJECTIVE: The authors systematically review evidence for alternative treatment strategies for catatonia using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
September 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903093/chlorination-chloramination-and-ozonation-of-carbamazepine-enhance-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-multi-endpoint-evaluation-and-identification-of-its-genotoxic-transformation-products
#7
Yingnan Han, Mei Ma, Na Li, Rui Hou, Chao Huang, Yoshimitsu Oda, Zijian Wang
Investigations have focused on the removal and transformation of pharmaceuticals during drinking water and wastewater treatment. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the changes of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity based on different modes of action (MoAs) during chlorination, chloramination and ozonation processes of the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ). The results illustrated that ozonation enhanced the cytotoxicity and the chromosome damage effects on CHO-K1 cells detected by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay based on high-content screening technique, though ozonation showed the highest removal efficiency for CBZ...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893584/levetiracetam-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-binary-systems-a-contribution-to-the-development-of-new-solid-dosage-forms
#8
Sara M T Machado, Ricardo A E Castro, Teresa M R Maria, João Canotilho, M Ermelinda S Eusébio
A study has been carried out of binary solid systems made up of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam, LEV, and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID, capable of managing the inflammation that accompanies epileptic activity. One aim of this research was to identify eutectic mixtures and co-crystals, which are able to impact positively on their biopharmaceutical properties. The NSAIDs studied are (S)- and (R,S)-ibuprofen, (S)- and (R,S)-naproxen, (R,S)-ketoprofen and (R,S)-flurbiprofen, all class II in the Biopharmaceutical Classification System...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870817/-prrt2-mutation-and-infantile-convulsions
#9
M Mathot, D Lederer, S Gerard, E Gueulette, M Deprez
New genetic techniques have made it possible to better understand the implications of the PRRT2 gene (proline rich transmembrane protein 2) in various neurological disorders. Mutations within this gene are responsible for kinesigenic paroxysmal dyskinesias (PKD) as well as for benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), a disease associating infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA), a form of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM type 4), paroxysmal benign torticollis of childhood, and episodic ataxia. We describe the case of an infant, carrying a mutation of the PRRT2 gene, with a classical presentation...
September 1, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867038/-therapeutic-management-of-neonatal-arterial-cerebral-infarction-and-neuroprotection-perspectives
#10
O Baud, S Auvin, E Saliba, V Biran
Neonatal seizure related to stroke is a common diagnostic feature. Their treatment, although widely debated even today must be initiated in case of status epilepticus, clinical seizures of more than 5 minutes duration or short (> 30 secondes) and repeated clinical seizures (2 or more per hour). The treatment of neonatal seizures is a challenge that remains only partially solved. It should take into account the etiology of seizures, type of brain lesions and clinical/electrical response to treatment after the first line treatment...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865097/suspected-phenobarbital-induced-pseudolymphoma-in-a-dog
#11
R Lampe, J Manens, N Sharp
Pseudolymphoma is a drug reaction to anti-epileptics that is well recognized in humans; it has been reported in one cat but not dogs. In this report, lymphoma-like clinical signs are suspected to be secondary to phenobarbital administration in a dog. A 2.5-year-old male, neutered Shepherd mix presented for a 3-day history of progressive ataxia, dazed mentation, pyrexia, and lethargy. While hospitalized, the dog developed generalized lymphadenopathy and sustained pyrexia. The dog was receiving levetiracetam and phenobarbital for epilepsy, and serum concentrations of both were within standard therapeutic ranges...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863398/anti-epileptic-drug-trials-for-patients-with-drug-resistant-idiopathic-generalised-epilepsy-a-meta-analysis
#12
Niamh Colleran, Tom O Connor, Julie Jordan O Brien
PURPOSE: Determine the impact of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) for drug resistant patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing an Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Epilepsy Group Central Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase and Lenus was performed. Nine randomised controlled trials were included. All trials compared antiepileptic drugs to placebo...
August 20, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857118/anti-epileptic-drug-exposure-and-risk-of-foetal-death-in-utero
#13
F J E Vajda, T J O'Brien, J Graham, A A Hitchcock, C M Lander, M J Eadie
OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether anti-epileptic drug exposure during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of intrauterine foetal death. METHODS: Analysis of data from 2064 pregnancies with known outcomes included in the Australian Register of Antiepileptic Drugs in Pregnancy, 170 of the pregnancies being unexposed to the drugs in at least the first half of pregnancy. RESULTS: The relative risk (6.46; 95% C.I. 0.90, 46.22) of intrauterine death appeared higher, though not statistically significantly higher, in drug-exposed pregnancies compared with unexposed ones (3...
August 31, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856943/probing-voltage-sensing-domain-of-kcnq2-channel-as-a-potential-target-to-combat-epilepsy-a-comparative-study
#14
Pakhuri Mehta, Shubham Srivastava, Bhanwar Singh Choudhary, Manish Sharma, Ruchi Malik
Multidrug resistance along with side-effects of available anti-epileptic drugs and unavailability of potent and effective agents in submicromolar quantities presents the biggest therapeutic challenges in anti-epileptic drug discovery. The molecular modeling techniques allow us to identify agents with novel structures to match the continuous urge for its discovery. KCNQ2 channel represents one of the validated targets for its therapy. The present study involves identification of newer anti-epileptic agents by means of a computer-aided drug design adaptive protocol involving both structure-based virtual screening of Asinex library using homology model of KCNQ2 and 3D-QSAR based virtual screening with docking analysis, followed by dG bind and ligand efficiency calculations with ADMET studies, of which 20 hits qualified all the criterions...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856694/fetal-growth-and-premature-delivery-in-pregnant-women-on-anti-epileptic-drugs
#15
Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Thomas F McElrath, Page B Pennell, W Allen Hauser, Mark Yerby, Lewis B Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AED) use during pregnancy on fetal growth and preterm delivery. METHODS: This study included singleton liveborns born to women enrolled in the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry between 1997 and 2016. Data were collected prospectively through telephone interviews. The prevalence of preterm birth (<37 weeks) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among infants exposed prenatally to AED when used by women with epilepsy (WWE) or women without epilepsy (WWOE) was compared with that among infants unexposed to AEDs and born to WWOE...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841161/disease-modifying-effects-of-the-spider-toxin-parawixin2-in-the-experimental-epilepsy-model
#16
Lívea Dornela Godoy, José Luiz Liberato, Marcus Vinícius Batista Celani, Leonardo Gobbo-Neto, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos
(1) Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults. It is also the one with the highest percentage of drug-resistance to the current available anti-epileptic drugs (AED). Additionaly, most antiepileptic drugs are only able to control seizures in epileptogenesis, but do not decrease the hippocampal neurodegenerative process. TLE patients have a reduced population of interneuronal cells, which express Parvalbumin (PV) proteins. This reduction is directly linked to seizure frequency and severity in the chronic period of epilepsy...
August 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835938/valproic-acid-induces-histologic-changes-and-decreases-androgen-receptor-levels-of-testis-and-epididymis-in-rats
#17
Sitthichai Iamsaard, Wannisa Sukhorum, Supatcharee Arun, Nichapa Phunchago, Nongnuch Uabundit, Porntip Boonruangsri, Malivalaya Namking
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA), an anti-epileptic drug, can cause male subfertility. However, the degree to which testicular and epididymal histopathologies and androgen receptor (AR) expression are changed under VPA treatment has never been reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the histopathological changes and AR protein levels of testis and epididymis in VPA-treated rats for every single day. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and VPA-treated groups (n=8/ each)...
April 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829421/electroconvulsive-seizures-in-rats-and-fractionation-of-their-hippocampi-to-examine-seizure-induced-changes-in-postsynaptic-density-proteins
#18
Sung-Soo Jang, Han Gil Jeong, Hee Jung Chung
Electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) is an experimental animal model of electroconvulsive therapy, the most effective treatment for severe depression. ECS induces generalized tonic-clonic seizures with low mortality and neuronal death and is a widely-used model to screen anti-epileptic drugs. Here, we describe an ECS induction method in which a brief 55-mA current is delivered for 0.5 s to male rats 200 - 250 g in weight via ear-clip electrodes. Such bilateral stimulation produced stage 4 - 5 clonic seizures that lasted about 10 s...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818558/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-obesity-in-australia
#19
REVIEW
Samantha Hocking, Anthony Dear, Michael A Cowley
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major issue in Australia and globally. Many individuals struggle to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modification, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy may help. Historically, there have been limited pharmacotherapies for managing obesity. In addition, previous treatments such as phentermine-fenfluramine, rimonabant and sibutramine were withdrawn due to safety issues, resulting in lingering safety concerns. METHODS: This is a narrative review of published data examining four new pharmacotherapy options for weight management in Australia...
August 14, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818511/vitamin-d-enhances-antiepileptic-and-cognitive-effects-of-lamotrigine-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats
#20
Ali F Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed A Afify, Amal M Mahfouz, Naiyer Shahzad, Ghazi A Bamagous, Saeed S Al Ghamdi
Despite long use of antiepileptic drugs, it remains a challenge to achieve seizure control while reducing adverse effects and preventing cognitive impairment. Several lines of evidence suggest a role of vitamin D in epilepsy. So this study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D on epileptogenesis, cognitive dysfunction and antiepileptic activity of lamotrigine, in a rat model of chemical kindling. Rats were kindled by pentylenetetrazole injections every other day over four weeks, together with daily oral treatment by either vehicle, vitamin D, lamotrigine or combination of vitamin D and lamotrigine...
August 14, 2017: Brain Research
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