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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339635/the-impact-of-zonisamide-on-the-development-and-course-of-alcohol-dependence-in-rabbits-a-pharmaco-eeg-study
#1
Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Ewa Zwierzynska, Anna Kordala, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Zonisamide is a new anti-epileptic drug whose mechanism of action is associated with neurotransmission systems also involved in the pathogenesis of addiction. Recently, the role of memory processes and the hippocampus (Hp) is underlined in dependence. In our previous study, we determined that zonisamide decreases changes in hippocampal bioelectric activity induced by a single dose of ethanol. Methods: This study uses a pharmaco-EEG method to examine the impact of zonisamide on the development and course of alcohol dependence in rabbits...
February 17, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332054/a-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-mouse-model
#2
Duveau Venceslas, Roucard Corinne
Among the different forms of epilepsies, mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common and represents the main pharmaco-resistant form of epilepsy. There is therefore an urgent need to better understand this form of epilepsy to develop better anti-epileptic drugs. Many rodent models are mimicking some aspects of the human temporal lobe epilepsy but only few are addressing most of the human mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy. In this article, we describe the main characteristics of a mouse of model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327947/factors-associated-with-pre-and-postoperative-seizures-in-1033-patients-undergoing-supratentorial-meningioma-resection
#3
William C Chen, Stephen T Magill, Dario J Englot, Joe D Baal, Sagar Wagle, Jonathan W Rick, Michael W McDermott
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for pre- and postoperative seizures in supratentorial meningiomas are understudied compared to other brain tumors. OBJECTIVE: To report seizure frequency and identify factors associated with pre- and postoperative seizures in a large single-center population study of patients undergoing resection of supratentorial meningioma. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 1033 subjects undergoing resection of supratentorial meningioma at the author's institution (1991-2014)...
March 15, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325299/potent-anti-seizure-effects-of-locked-nucleic-acid-antagomirs-targeting-mir-134-in-multiple-mouse-and-rat-models-of-epilepsy
#4
Cristina R Reschke, Luiz F Almeida Silva, Braxton A Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán M Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall
Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323007/intrathecal-application-of-the-microglial-inhibitor-minocycline-attenuates-sympathoexcitatory-and-proarrhythmogenic-changes-in-rats-with-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Amol M Bhandare, Komal Kapoor, Kim L Powell, Emma Braine, Pablo Casillas-Espinosa, Terence J O'Brien, Melissa M J Farnham, Paul M Pilowsky
The incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is highest in people with chronic and drug resistant epilepsy. Chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures cause cardiorespiratory autonomic dysfunctions. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is neuroprotective, whereas microglia produce both pro- and anti- inflammatory effects in the CNS. During acute seizures in rats, PACAP and microglia produce sympathoprotective effect at the intermediolateral cell column (IML), whereas their action on the presympathetic rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neurons mediates proarrhythmogenic changes...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315449/prophylactic-levetiracetam-for-seizure-control-after-cranioplasty-a-multicenter-prospective-controlled-study
#6
Shuli Liang, Ping Ding, Shaohui Zhang, Junchen Zhang, Jiwu Zhang, Yuping Wu
PURPOSE: To study the efficacy and safety of prophylactic levetiracetam (LEV) administration in adults undergoing cranioplasty. METHODS: Two hundred adults undergoing cranioplasty were prospectively enrolled and randomly divided into LEV group (prophylactic LEV for 24 weeks) and control group (no prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs). The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, occurrence of postoperative seizure, changes in intelligence quotient (IQ), memory quotient (MQ), and activities of daily living (ADL) scores, as well as postoperative hospital stay side effects, were all analyzed at 2-, 24-, and 48-week follow-up visits...
March 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295557/parachlorophenylalanine-induced-5-ht-depletion-alters-behavioural-and-brain-neurotransmitters-levels-in-6-hertz-psychomotor-seizure-model-in-mice
#7
Kausar Jahan, Krishna K Pillai, Divya Vohora
The present study was designed to investigate the role of serotonin and other neurotransmitters namely dopamine (DA), histamine, noradrenaline (NA), glutamate and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) in the 6-hertz (6 Hz) induced psychomotor seizures in Swiss albino mice. Parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg/day, i.p for 3 days) treated mice were given 6 Hz stimulation. Sodium valproate (SVP) [200 mg/kg/day, p.o for 3 days] was used as a reference anti-epileptic drug. The behavioral changes induced by 6Hz including increased rearing and grooming, Straub's tail, behavioral arrest, stun position etc were amplified by PCPA...
March 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284381/mechanisms-of-drug-induced-interstitial-nephritis
#8
REVIEW
Rajeev Raghavan, Saed Shawar
Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (DI-AIN) is a drug hypersensitivity reaction (DHR) that manifests 7 to 10 days after exposure to the culprit drug. DHRs account for fewer than 15% of reported adverse drug reactions. The kidneys are susceptible to DHR because: (1) the high renal blood flow whereby antigens are filtered, secreted, or concentrated, and (2) it is a major site of excretion for drugs and drug metabolites. More than 250 different drugs from various classes have been incriminated as causative agents of DI-AIN, the third most common cause of acute kidney injury in the hospital...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281500/recent-advances-in-epilepsy-research-in-india
#9
Aparna B Dixit, Jyotirmoy Banerjee, P Sarat Chandra, Manjari Tripathi
There are more than 10 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) in India. Despite availability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), there is a large treatment gap varying from 50 to 70% among PWE. For treatable epilepsy, this gap can be attributed to poor education, poverty, cultural beliefs, stigma, and poor healthcare infrastructure; whereas for chronic epilepsy, this gap can be attributed to lack of proper diagnosis and treatment. To prevent, treat, and cure epilepsy, researchers worldwide have made exciting advances across all areas of epilepsy research...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281493/use-of-resting-state-fmri-in-planning-epilepsy-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Sharon Chiang, Zulfi Haneef, John M Stern, Jerome Engel
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal neuronal excitability and synchronization, affecting 0.5-1% of the population worldwide. Although anti-seizure drugs are often effective, a significant number of patients with epilepsy continue to experience refractory seizures and are candidates for surgical resection. Whereas standard presurgical evaluation has relied on intracranial electroencephalography (icEEG) and direct cortical stimulation to identify epileptogenic tissue and areas of cortex for which resection would produce clinical deficits, the invasive nature and limited spatial extent of icEEG has led to the investigation of less invasive imaging modalities as adjunctive tools in the presurgical workup...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279893/population-pharmacokinetics-and-dose-response-relationship-of-levetiracetam-in-adult-patients-with-epilepsy
#11
Su-Jin Rhee, Jung-Won Shin, SeungHwan Lee, Jangsup Moon, Tae-Joon Kim, Ki-Young Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee
Levetiracetam (LEV) is commonly used as a mono- or adjunctive therapy for treating patients with partial and generalized epilepsy. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model of LEV, based on sparse data, and to explore LEV efficacy relative to its PK properties in patients with epilepsy. We included 483 LEV concentrations from 425 patients with epilepsy that received multiple oral LEV doses. We performed a population PK analysis, implemented in NONMEM (version 7.2). In addition, we explored the relationships between seizure control and PK variables (i...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279159/changes-in-prevalence-of-psychotropic-drug-use-and-alcohol-consumption-among-the-elderly-in-germany-results-of-two-national-health-interview-and-examination-surveys-1997-99-and-2008-11
#12
Ingrid-Katharina Wolf, Yong Du, Hildtraud Knopf
BACKGROUND: Psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption among older adults need to be monitored over time as their use or combined use bears risks of harms. Representative data on changes in prevalence, patterns and co-relates of substance use are lacking in Germany. METHODS: Participants were older adults (60-79 years) from two German National Health Surveys: 1997-99 (GNHIES98, N = 1,606) and 2008-11 (DEGS1, N = 2,501). Included were drugs acting on the nervous system used during the last 7 days...
March 9, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276448/blood-dna-methylation-pattern-is-altered-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Hong-Yu Long, Li Feng, Jin Kang, Zhao-Hui Luo, Wen-Biao Xiao, Li-Li Long, Xiao-Xin Yan, Luo Zhou, Bo Xiao
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common epileptic disorder; little is known whether it is associated with peripheral epigenetic changes. Here we compared blood whole genomic DNA methylation pattern in MTLE patients (n = 30) relative to controls (n = 30) with the Human Methylation 450 K BeadChip assay, and explored genes and pathways that were differentially methylated using bioinformatics profiling. The MTLE and control groups showed significantly different (P < 1.03e-07) DNA methylation at 216 sites, with 164 sites involved hyper- and 52 sites hypo- methylation...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268939/towards-an-implantable-bio-sensor-platform-for-continuous-real-time-monitoring-of-anti-epileptic-drugs
#14
Abbas Hammoud, Ahmad Chamseddine, Dang K Nguyen, Mohamad Sawan
The need of continuous real-time monitoring device for in-vivo drug level detection has been widely articulated lately. Such monitoring could guide drug posology and timing of intake, detect low or high drug levels, in order to take adequate measures, and give clinicians a valuable window into patients' health and their response to therapeutics. This paper presents a novel implantable bio-sensor based on impedance measurement capable of continuously monitoring various antiepileptic drug levels. This portable point-of-care microsystem replaces large and stationary conventional macrosystems, and is a one of a kind system designed with an array of electrodes to monitor various anti-epileptic drugs rather than one drug...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249817/the-direct-actions-of-cannabidiol-and-2-arachidonoyl-glycerol-at-gabaa-receptors
#15
T Bakas, P S van Nieuwenhuijzen, S O Devenish, I S McGregor, J C Arnold, M Chebib
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-intoxicating component of cannabis and possesses anti-epileptic, anxiolytic and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The mechanism of action of CBD in producing such effects remains unclear. Despite evidence that some endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids interact with GABAA receptors, no-one has yet investigated the effects of CBD. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of CBD with those of the major central endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on human recombinant GABAA receptors (synaptic α1-6βγ2 and extrasynaptic α4β2δ) expressed on Xenopus oocytes...
February 27, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247440/clinical-features-imaging-characteristics-and-long-term-outcome-of-dogs-with-cranial-meningocele-or-meningoencephalocele
#16
K Lazzerini, R Gutierrez-Quintana, R José-López, F McConnell, R Gonçalves, J McMurrough, S De Decker, C Muir, S L Priestnall, L Mari, F Stabile, L De Risio, C Loeffler, A Tauro, C Rusbridge, S Rodenas, S Añor, C de la Fuente, A Fischer, A Bruehschwein, J Penderis, J Guevar
BACKGROUND: The term meningoencephalocele (MEC) describes a herniation of cerebral tissue and meninges through a defect in the cranium, whereas a meningocele (MC) is a herniation of the meninges alone. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, and outcomes of dogs with cranial MC and MEC. ANIMALS: Twenty-two client-owned dogs diagnosed with cranial MC or MEC. METHODS: Multicentric retrospective descriptive study...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242287/chronic-administration-of-gabapentin-and-a-gabapentin-carbamazepine-combination-reversibly-suppress-testicular-function-in-male-wistar-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#17
Opeyemi Samson Osuntokun, Gbola Olayiwola, Ayowole Oladele, Idowu Ola, Oludele AyokaAbiodun
The effect of chronic administration of gabapentin, carbamazepine or a gabapentin-carbamazepine combination on testicular function in male rats was investigated to determine the effect of combining reduced doses of anti-epileptic drugs on the management of seizures, particularly with respect to the testis sequellae of chronic anti-epileptic administration. Male rats were randomized into four groups (n=10). Each group received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections for 28days as follows: Group I, normal saline 0...
February 13, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239917/decrease-in-mortality-of-adult-epilepsy-patients-since-1980-lessons-learned-from-a-hospital-based-cohort
#18
C A Granbichler, W Oberaigner, G Kuchukhidze, J-P Ndayisaba, A Ndayisaba, A Taylor, G Bauer, G Luef, E Trinka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on mortality in patients with epilepsy have been available since the 1800s. They consistently show a 2-3-fold increase compared to the general population. Despite major advances in diagnostic tools and treatment options, there is no evidence for a decrease in premature deaths. The temporal trend of mortality in a hospital-based epilepsy cohort over three decades was assessed. METHODS: A hospital-based incidence cohort was recruited from a specialized epilepsy outpatient clinic at Innsbruck Medical University between 1980 and 2007, divided by decade into three cohorts and followed for 5 years after initial epilepsy diagnosis...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238621/psychiatric-and-behavioral-side-effects-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-adolescents-and-children-with-epilepsy
#19
B Chen, K Detyniecki, H Choi, L Hirsch, A Katz, A Legge, R Wong, A Jiang, R Buchsbaum, P Farooque
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to compare the psychiatric and behavioral side effect (PBSE) profiles of both older and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in children and adolescent patients with epilepsy. METHOD: We used logistic regression analysis to test the correlation between 83 non-AED/patient related potential predictor variables and the rate of PBSE. We then compared for each AED the rate of PBSEs and the rate of PBSEs that led to intolerability (IPBSE) while controlling for non-AED predictors of PBSEs...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235604/mir-466b-1-3p-regulates-p-glycoprotein-expression-in-rat-cerebral-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#20
Xiaobo Yang, Weimin Ren, Yiye Shao, Yinghui Chen
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, and approximately one-third of epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment with anti-epileptic drug (AED). P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multi-drug transporter that is thought to play a pivotal role in multiple drug resistance (MDR) in epilepsy. The regulatory mechanism of P-gp remains largely unknown; however, recent studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) may regulate the chemo-resistance mediated by P-gp. This study investigated the effect of specific miRNAs that regulate P-gp expression in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (RCMECs)...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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