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Omar N Pathmanaban, Kerry A Burke, Paul Leach, John Thorne, Ian D Kamaly-Asl
BACKGROUND: Positional plagiocephaly is the most common cause of cranial asymmetry. The underlying cause of Chiari-1 malformation has many possible theories, and anecdotally some pediatric neurosurgeons have had experience of severe cases of positional brachycephaly with Chiari-1. However, to date there have been no published cases linking non-synostotic plagiocephaly with Chiari-1 malformation. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-month-old boy presented with a head injury...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Richmond Darko, Jessica L Mashburn
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and its associated complications have become a significant public health concern. Zika virus is a Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization reported the first locally acquired transmission of ZIKV in Brazil, the first case in the Western Hemisphere. There have also been reports of increased incidence of microcephaly and other neurologic complications associated with ZIKV infection, as well as a 20-fold increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome during ZIKV outbreaks...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Yair Shachar, Allan Billig, Katya Chapchay, Jhonatan Elia, Neta Adler, Alexander Margulis
BACKGROUND: Large congenital melanocytic nevi entail significant medical and cosmetic ramifications for patients and families. Reconstruction is a challenging endeavor, especially when the lesion is present on the limbs. The literature describes various methods by which a plastic surgeon can address reconstruction; yet, to date, there has been no series describing a method that provides consistent results with low complication rates. In this study, we describe our surgical technique for reconstruction of the upper extremity after excision of large circumferential CNM with a pre-expanded bi-pedicled flap, namely the "sleeve" flap...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Maryam Zarean, Mojtaba Keikha, Parinaz Poursafa, Pooyan Khalighinejad, Mohammadmehdi Amin, Roya Kelishadi
Di (ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a global environmental pollutant. This study aims to systematically review the literature on health effects of exposure to DEHP including effects on reproductive health, carcinogenesis, pregnancy outcome, and respiratory system. The literature search was done through Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, and the reference lists of previous review articles to identify relevant articles published to June 2016 in each subject area. The inclusion criteria were as follows: original research, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, interventional studies, and review articles...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yingkang Jin, Li Huang, Huifeng Fan, Gen Lu, Yi Xu, Zhiyuan Wu
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immune disorder that may be inherited or secondary to infection, malignancy or rheumatological disease. The aim of the present study was to highlight the clinical features of scrub typhus-associated HLH in children. A retrospective study was performed on 6 pediatric patients with scrub typhus-associated HLH. For each patient, medical records were reviewed and analyzed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory data and outcomes were collected. The duration of fever prior to admission ranged between 4 and 12 days...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Elizabeth Park, Tiny Masupe, Joseph Joseph, Ari Ho-Foster, Afton Chavez, Swetha Jammalamadugu, Andrew Marek, Ruth Arumala, Dineo Ketshogileng, Ryan Littman-Quinn, Carrie Kovarik
BACKGROUND: Since the UN Human Rights Council's recognition on the subject in 2011, the right to access the Internet and information is now considered one of the most basic human rights of global citizens [1,2]. Despite this, an information gap between developed and resource-limited countries remains, and there is scant research on actual information needs of workers themselves. The Republic of Botswana represents a fertile ground to address existing gaps in research, policy, and practice, due to its demonstrated gap in access to information and specialists among rural health care workers (HCWs), burgeoning mHealth capacity, and a timely offer from Orange Telecommunications to access Wikipedia for free on mobile platforms for Botswana subscribers...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
G Di Nardo, C Di Lorenzo, A Lauro, V Stanghellini, N Thapar, T B Karunaratne, U Volta, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) represents the most severe form of gastrointestinal dysmotility with debilitating and potentially lethal consequences. Symptoms can be non-specific, and result in this condition being diagnosed incorrectly or too late with consequences for morbidity and even mortality. PURPOSE: The present article aims to provide pediatric and adult gastroenterologists with an up to date review about clinical features, diagnosis and therapeutic options for CIPO...
September 29, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Sheena Mukkada, Jeannette Kirby, Nopporn Apiwattanakul, Randall T Hayden, Miguela A Caniza
Fungal diseases are an important cause of mortality in immunocompromised hosts, and their incidence in pediatric cancer patients in low- to middle-income countries is underestimated. In this review, we present relevant, up-to-date information about the most common opportunistic and endemic fungal diseases among children with cancer, their geographic distribution, and recommended diagnostics and treatment. Efforts to improve the care of children with cancer and fungal disease must address the urgent need for sustainable and cost-effective solutions that improve training, fungal disease testing capability, and the use of available resources...
September 2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
Zulma Tovar-Spinoza, Hoon Choi
BACKGROUND: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) account for approximately half of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. The low-grade gliomas' first line of treatment is gross total resection. However, when gross total resection is not possible, options for adjuvant therapy are limited. MRI-guided laser ablation (magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT)) offers a new option for treatment in selected cases. We present a description of the current MRgLITT technology and an exemplary case-series review of our experience in its use in LGGs...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Alvaro Lassaletta, Michal Zapotocky, Eric Bouffet, Cynthia Hawkins, Uri Tabori
Hemispheric low-grade gliomas account for the second most common location in pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) after the cerebellum. The pathological spectrum includes gangliogliomas, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs), diffuse astrocytomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs), among others. Clinically, hemispheric PLGGs represent a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy in children and adolescents. With an excellent long-term outcome, surgery remains the cornerstone and patients with gross total resection typically do not need any further therapies...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
H Barry Waldman, Rick Rader, Stephen Sulkes, Steven P Perlman
The transition of teenagers with special needs to young adulthood is a complex period for the children and their families. This transition is especially difficult when it comes to securing needed oral health care. The teenager is forced to transfer from the services of an age defined pediatric dental specialist with training to provide care for individuals with special needs, to 1) general practitioners with limited formal training and often unwillingness to provide care and 2) at a period when most states provide limited or lack of adult dental Medicaid programs...
2016: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Martha Patricia Solís-Arias, Maria Teresa García-Romero
Onychomycosis is considered an age-related infection with increasing prevalence in the older age groups. It is rare in the pediatric population, except in children with Down syndrome and with immunodeficiencies, who are more likely to have fungal nail infections. The number of reports about onychomycosis in children is relatively small, and the epidemiologic data vary, but a rise in prevalence has been demonstrated. In this article, we review the most up-to-date literature and summarize the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of onychomycosis in children, as well as the differences with the disease presenting in adults...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Renea M Sturm, Earl Y Cheng
Neurogenic bladder is a heterogeneous entity that may result from a variety of conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous systems. Regardless of etiology, the overall goals of management are primarily twofold. As a neurogenic bladder may affect the ability to store urine safely and to empty the bladder efficiently, early management is focused on optimization of bladder storage function to prevent irreversible injury to either the upper or lower urinary tracts. In older children, this goal is added to the challenge of maximizing quality of life through achievement of urinary continence and independence in bladder management that continues into the transition to adulthood...
2016: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports
Marina Aberastury, Betina Comas, María García, Ana Besocke, Carlos Ciraolo, Guillermo Agosta, Walter Silva
Epilepsy surgery in children with refractory epilepsy is one of the most effective methods to control seizures. The proper selection and assessment of surgery candidates is critical for surgical treatment to be adequately effective and safe. The purpose of this article is to describe our experience with 43 consecutive pediatric patients that underwent epilepsy surgery for refractory epilepsy between September 2005 and May 2014. Effectiveness, safety, and prognostic factors were analyzed. The median age was 12 years old at the time of surgery and 4...
October 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Brice Ilharreborde, Vincent Cunin, Saad Abu-Amara
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can develop after severe slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) fixed in situ. Realignment procedures have therefore gained popularity, but complication rates remain controversial. Among them, the subcapital shortening osteotomy without hip dislocation has been progressively adopted in France, but results have never been assessed to date. METHODS: All cases performed in 23 French university hospitals between January 2010 and March 2014 were reviewed to (1) describe the surgical procedure, (2) assess the radiologic and functional outcomes, and (3) report complications and more specifically the avascular necrosis rate (AVN) according to initial stability...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Ismail Yağmur, Burak Turna, Ali Tekin, Emir Akıncıoğlu, Bnu Sarsık, İbrahim Ulman
INTRODUCTION: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is generally common in men older than 50 years of age but is extremely rare in childhood. In the literature to date, fewer than five cases have been reported under 18 years of age. Owing to the limited number of cases, the etiology and management of BPH in the first two decades is not clear. OBJECTIVE: We herein report a 17-year-old boy who presented with acute urinary retention due to BPH and was treated with endoscopic transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P)...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Samanta Moroni, Guillermo Moscatelli, Facundo García Bournissen, Nicolás González, Griselda Ballering, Héctor Freilij, Fabián Salgueiro, Jaime Altcheh
INTRODUCTION: Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Argentina. The standard pharmacological treatment for the disease is albendazole, but surgery is a common alternative. Even though primary infection occurs mainly in the pediatric population, the optimal therapeutic option in pediatrics is not clearly defined and few pediatric cohorts with cystic echinococcosis treated with albendazole have been described to date. OBJECTIVE: To describe therapeutic response to albendazole in a cohort of pediatric patients with abdominal cystic echinococcosis...
2016: PloS One
S Frees, P Rubenwolf, C Ziesel, J Faber, P Gutjahr, A Grossmann, J W Thüroff, R Stein
INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) accounts for 5% of all pediatric tumors; 15-20% of these tumors are located in the urogenital tract, mostly originating from the prostate or bladder. In the light of the steadily improving prognosis for patients with RMS through interdisciplinary-multimodal study protocols with 60-70% long-term survivors, non oncological aspects such as erectile function (EF) have become increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate EF in patients having undergone treatment for RMS of the bladder and prostate...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Omolade Oladejo, Kristen Allen, Avnika Amin, Paula M Frew, Robert A Bednarczyk, Saad B Omer
BACKGROUND: There is a need to develop a standardized tool to aid in identifying, measuring and classifying the unique needs of vaccine-hesitant parents (VHPs). This will also assist in designing tailored interventions to address these needs. The Parental Attitude about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) short scale developed by Opel et al., and the Gust et al. vaccine acceptance categories have been acknowledged as potentially useful tools to measure parental vaccine hesitancy. The PACV short scale requires further validation...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
Clemens Brunner, Bettina Brunner-Herglotz, Andrea Ziegler, Christian Frech, Gabriele Amann, Ruth Ladenstein, Inge M Ambros, Peter F Ambros
INTRODUCTION: Tumor touch imprints (TTIs) are routinely used for the molecular diagnosis of neuroblastomas by interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (I-FISH). However, in order to facilitate a comprehensive, up-to-date molecular diagnosis of neuroblastomas and to identify new markers to refine risk and therapy stratification methods, whole genome approaches are needed. We examined the applicability of an ultra-high density SNP array platform that identifies copy number changes of varying sizes down to a few exons for the detection of genomic changes in tumor DNA extracted from TTIs...
2016: PloS One
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