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Chenggui Miao, Youyi Xiong, Guoxue Zhang, Jun Chang
Many studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The purpose of this review is to systematically summarize the recent advance of miRNAs in the pathology of IPF, highlighting the new research progress and their pathophysiological implication. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs differentially expressed in blood and lung tissue from IPF patients are closely related to the occurrence of IPF disease, which may be IPF diagnostic markers and prognostic indicators...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
Qiuran Xu, Qiaojuan Zhu, Zhenyu Zhou, Yufeng Wang, Xin Liu, Guozhi Yin, Xiangmin Tong, Kangsheng Tu
Our previous study has reported that BCL6 corepressor like 1 (BCORL1) plays an oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. However, the regulation of BCORL1 mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) remains poorly known. The analysis of our clinical samples indicated that BCORL1 expression was markedly higher in HCC tissues than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets revealed that high BCORL1 expression associated with high tumor grade, advanced tumor stage and poor survival of HCC patients...
April 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chih-Ling Chung, Shih-Wei Wang, Wei-Chih Sun, Chih-Wen Shu, Yu-Chen Kao, Meng-Shin Shiao, Chun-Lin Chen
Sorafenib is the only FDA approved drug for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other malignancies. Studies indicate that TGF-β signalling is associated with tumour progression in HCC. Autocrine and paracrine TGF-β promotes tumour growth and malignancy by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Sorafenib is believed to antagonize tumour progression by inhibiting TGF-β-induced EMT. It improves survival of patients but HCC later develops resistance and relapses. The underlying mechanism of resistance is unknown...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Kang He, Guoqing Duan, Yanyang Li
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most predominant extracranial solid tumor of infancy in the world. However, current chemotherapy has limited efficacy for more advanced stages of NB due to acquired chemoresistance or acute toxicity in NB patients. Therefore, effective novel anti-NB drugs are desperately needed. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dehydroeffusol (DHE), a phenanthrene isolated from J. effuses, on NB cells and its underlying mechanism. The results showed that DHE treatment effectively inhibited NB cell viability in a dose-dependent manner...
April 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Tianxiao Xu, Meng Ma, Zhihong Chi, Lu Si, Xinan Sheng, Chuanliang Cui, Jie Dai, Sifan Yu, Junya Yan, Huan Yu, Xiaowen Wu, Huan Tang, Jiayi Yu, Yan Kong, Jun Guo
G-2 and S-phase expressed 1 (GTSE1) regulates cell cycle progression in human cancers. However, its significance and mechanism of action in acral melanoma (AM) remain unknown. In this study, we found that GTSE1 expression was upregulated in advanced stage/metastatic AM tissues and metastatic cell lines, and correlated with higher stage (P = 0.028) and poor disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with AM (P = 0.003). Cox regression assays validated GTSE1 expression to be an independent prognostic factor of DFS for patients with AM (P = 0...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Science
Zhongbo Chen, Jianqing Zhu, Yiming Zhu, Junjian Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of short (~20 nt) non‑coding RNAs, play critical roles in the development and progression of ovarian cancer (OC). The role of miR‑616, a recently identified cancer-associated miRNA, has never been examined in OC before. The present study demonstrated that the level of miR‑616 was increased in OC tissues. A high miR‑616 level was associated with poor tumor differentiation and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Survival analysis revealed that an elevated level of miR‑616 was associated with poor prognosis of OC patients as demonstrated by decreased overall survival (OS) and disease‑free survival (DFS)...
April 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
Nooshin Nourbakhsh, Modjtaba Emadi-Baygi, Rasoul Salehi, Parvaneh Nikpour
Background: Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Tumor metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with cancer; therefore, unraveling the molecular mechanisms involved in metastasis is critical. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is believed to promote tumor metastasis. Based on the critical roles of long noncoding RNA-ATB ( lncRNA-ATB ) and SETD8 genes in cancer pathogenesis and EMT, in this study, we aimed to assess expression profile and clinicopathological relevance of these two genes in human gastric cancer...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Teresa P Raposo, Mireia Sueca Comes, Adeyemi Idowu, Bora Agit, James Hassall, Wakkas Fadhil, Robert Nica, Rupert Ecker, Takashi Yao, Mohammad Ilyas
INTRODUCTION: CD10 is a cell membrane-bound endopeptidase which is expressed in normal small bowel but not in normal colon. It is aberrantly expressed in a small proportion of colorectal cancers (CRC) and this has been associated with liver metastasis and poor prognosis. We sought to investigate the mechanism of CD10 activity and its association with clinicopathological features. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CD10 was stably knocked down by lentiviral shRNA transduction in the CRC cell lines SW480 and SW620 which are derived from a primary tumour and its corresponding metastasis respectively...
April 10, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Kaiming Wu, Kaiwu Xu, Kuanzhi Liu, Jiehong Huang, Jianhui Chen, Jian Zhang, Ning Zhang
Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed and deadly cancer worldwide. Efforts have been made to characterize its pathological mechanisms and to explore new therapeutic targets of this disease. Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been associated with the pathogenesis of colon cancer. In the current study, we aimed to define the biological mechanism of the lncRNA BC200 in colon cancer. Here, we found that expression of BC200 was up-regulated in colon cancer tissues as compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Zhen-Hua Fu, Shi-Quan Liu, Meng-Bin Qin, Jie-An Huang, Chun-Yan Xu, Wen-Hong Wu, Li-Ye Zhu, Nan Qin, Ming-Yu Lai
Systematic chemotherapy is indispensable for gastric cancer patients with advanced stage disease, but the occurrence of chemoresistance drastically limits treatment effectiveness. There is a tremendous need for identifying the underlying mechanism of chemoresistance. NIK‑ and IKKβ‑binding protein (NIBP) (also known as TRAPPC9, trafficking protein particle complex 9) is a regulator of the cytokine‑induced NF‑κB signaling pathway which has been proven to play pivotal roles in the progression of various malignancies...
March 30, 2018: Oncology Reports
Hai Jiang, Zhenyu Zhou, Shaowen Jin, Kang Xu, Heyun Zhang, Junyang Xu, Qing Sun, Jie Wang, Junyao Xu
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyse protein arginine methylation and play an important role in many biological processes. Aberrant PRMT expression in tumour cells has been documented in several common cancer types; however, its precise contribution to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell invasion and metastasis is not fully understood. In this study, we identified a new oncogene, PRMT9, whose overexpression strongly promotes HCC invasion and metastasis. PRMT9 expression was detected more frequently in HCC tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues...
March 30, 2018: Cancer Science
Toshihide Matsumoto, Ako Yokoi, Miki Hashimura, Yasuko Oguri, Masashi Akiya, Makoto Saegusa
Advanced ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCCa) shows poor prognosis with chemoresistance, which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)/cancer stem cell (CSC) features. The left-right determination factor (LEFTY), a novel member of the TGF-β superfamily, is a marker of stemness. Here we focused on the functional roles of LEFTY in OCCCas. OCCCa cell lines that were cultured in STK2, a serum-free medium for mesenchymal stem cells, or treated with TGF-β1 underwent morphological changes toward an EMT appearance, along with increased expression of LEFTY and Snail...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Julia Thierauf, Stephanie E Weissinger, Johannes A Veit, Annette Affolter, Natalia K Laureano, Dirk Beutner, Gregor Heiduschka, Lorenz Kadletz, Moritz Meyer, Alexander Quaas, Peter Plinkert, Thomas K Hoffmann, Jochen Hess
INTRODUCTION: The transcription factor SOX2 has been identified as a lineage survival oncogene in squamous cell carcinoma and copy number gain is a common event in several human malignancies including head and neck cancer. However, the regulation and function of SOX2 during carcinogenesis as well as its prognostic value appears to be highly context dependent. As an example, high SOX2 expression in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is related to a favorable prognosis, while it is associated with poor outcome in lung adenocarcinoma...
2018: PloS One
Mi-Hyun Nam, Ram H Nagaraj
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are post-translational modifications formed from the reaction of reactive carbonyl compounds with amino groups in proteins. Our laboratory has previously shown that AGEs in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins promote TGFβ2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs), which could play a role in fibrosis associated with posterior capsule opacification (PCO). We have also shown that αB-crystallin plays an important role in TGFβ2-mediated EMT of LECs...
March 27, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Qinglian Wang, Xiaowei Yang, Ying Xu, Zhenwei Shen, Hongxia Cheng, Fajuan Cheng, Xiang Liu, Rong Wang
Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) with associated peritoneal dysfunction is almost invariably observed in long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are pro-oxidant compounds produced in excess during the metabolism of glucose and are present in high levels in standard PD solutions. The GTPase RhoA has been implicated in PF, but its specific role remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the effects of RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling in AGEs-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), and evaluated morphological and molecular changes in a rat model of PD-related PF...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Tomoaki Terakawa, Eriko Katsuta, Li Yan, Nitesh Turaga, Kerry-Ann McDonald, Masato Fujisawa, Khurshid A Guru, Kazuaki Takabe
Solute carrier organic anion (SLCO) gene families encode organic anion transport proteins, which are transporters that up-take a number of substrates including androgens. Among them, high expression of SLCO2B1 is known to associate with the resistance to androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer (PCa). We hypothesized that high expression of SLCO genes enhances PCa progression by promoting the influx of androgen. Here, we demonstrated the impact of the expression levels of SLCO2B1 on prognosis in localized PCa after radical prostatectomy (RP) utilizing 494 PCa cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Thomas Artur Werner, Christina Maria Forster, Levent Dizdar, Pablo Emilio Verde, Katharina Raba, Matthias Schott, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Andreas Krieg
Background: Follicular thyroid carcinoma's (FTC) often benign course is partially due to adjuvant radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment. However, once the tumour has spread and fails to retain RAI, the therapeutic options are limited and the outcome is poor. In this subset of patients, the identification of novel druggable biomarkers appears invaluable. Here, we investigated the stage dependent expression and functional role of the C-X-C chemokine receptors type 4 and 7 (CXCR4/7) in FTC. Methods: CXCR4/7 expression was examined in 44 FTC and corresponding non-neoplastic thyroid specimens as well as 10 FTC distant metastases and 18 follicular adenomas using tissue microarray technology...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Harini Krishnan, Julie Rayes, Tomoyuki Miyashita, Genichiro Ishii, Edward P Retzbach, Stephanie A Sheehan, Ai Takemoto, Yao-Wen Chang, Kazue Yoneda, Jun Asai, Lasse Jensen, Lushun Chalise, Atsushi Natsume, Gary S Goldberg
Podoplanin (PDPN) is a transmembrane receptor glycoprotein that is upregulated on transformed cells, cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and inflammatory macrophages that contribute to cancer progression. In particular, PDPN increases tumor cell clonal capacity, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, invasion, metastasis, and inflammation. Antibodies, CAR-T cells, biologics, and synthetic compounds that target PDPN can inhibit cancer progression and septic inflammation in preclinical models. This review describes recent advances in how PDPN may be used as a biomarker and therapeutic target for many types of cancer including glioma, squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, and melanoma...
March 25, 2018: Cancer Science
Hangbin Jin, Yanyan Zhao, Shirong Zhang, Jianfeng Yang, Xiaofeng Zhang, Shenglin Ma
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor and the leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. The chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine (GEM) is used as a first‑line chemotherapeutic agent for advanced PC. However, the acquisition of drug resistance is a major limitation of the clinical effect of GEM and commonly leads to increased metastasis. The occurrence of epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been demonstrated to be the underlying mechanism of acquired resistance...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Cameron A Wade, Natasha Kyprianou
The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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