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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783632/effects-of-dietary-arginine-ornithine-and-zeolite-supplementation-on-uremic-toxins-in-cats
#1
Nadine Paßlack, Jürgen Zentek
To test if arginine and ornithine, both components of the Krebs-Henseleit cycle, or zeolite, a potential ammonium absorber, can modulate the excretion of harmful bacterial metabolites, intestinal microbial protein fermentation was stimulated by feeding a high-protein (60.3%) diet as a single daily meal to 10 adult cats. The diet was supplemented without or with arginine (+50, 75, 100% compared to arginine in the basal diet), ornithine (+100, 150, 200% compared to arginine in the basal diet), or zeolite (0.125, 0...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779216/glutamate-metabolism-in-cerebral-mitochondria-after-ischemia-and-post-ischemic-recovery-during-aging-relationships-with-brain-energy-metabolism
#2
Federica Ferrari, Antonella Gorini, Siegfried Hoyer, Roberto Federico Villa
Glutamate is involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but its role has not been completely clarified and studies are required to understand how minimize its detrimental effects, contemporarily boosting the positive ones. In fact, glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter, but primarily a key metabolite for brain bioenergetics. Thus, we investigated the relationships between glutamate and brain energy metabolism in an in vivo model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15 min and during post-ischemic recovery after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs in 1 year- adult and 2 year-old aged rats...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775073/diffuse-gliomas-for-nonneuropathologists-the-new-integrated-molecular-diagnostics
#3
Sunhee C Lee
Diffuse gliomas comprise the bulk of "brain cancer" in adults. The recent update to the 4th edition of the World Health Organization's classification of tumors of the central nervous system reflects an unprecedented change in the landscape of the diagnosis and management of diffuse gliomas that will affect all those involved in the management and care of patients. Of the recently discovered gene alterations, mutations in the Krebs cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) 1 and 2 have fundamentally changed the way the gliomas are understood and classified...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751692/brain-mitochondria-aging-and-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Mario Rango, Nereo Bresolin
This paper reconsiders the role of mitochondria in aging and in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The most important risk factor for PD is aging. Alterations in mitochondrial activity are typical of aging. Mitochondrial aging is characterized by decreased oxidative phosphorylation, proteasome activity decrease, altered autophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Beyond declined oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction consists of a decline of beta-oxidation as well as of the Krebs cycle. Not inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are acquired over time and parallel the decrease in oxidative phosphorylation...
May 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750149/the-antioxidative-function-of-alpha-ketoglutarate-and-its-applications
#5
REVIEW
Shaojuan Liu, Liuqin He, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a crucial intermediate of the Krebs cycle and plays a critical role in multiple metabolic processes in animals and humans. Of note, AKG contributes to the oxidation of nutrients (i.e., amino acids, glucose, fatty acids) and then provides energy for cell processes. As a precursor of glutamate and glutamine, AKG acts as an antioxidant agent as it directly reacts with hydrogen peroxide with formation of succinate, water, and carbon dioxide; meanwhile, it discharges plenty of ATP by oxidative decarboxylation...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748369/calcium-signaling-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-mitochondria
#6
REVIEW
Edoardo Bertero, Christoph Maack
In heart failure, alterations of Na+ and Ca2+ handling, energetic deficit, and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes are important pathophysiological hallmarks. Mitochondria are central to these processes because they are the main source for ATP, but also reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their function is critically controlled by Ca2+ During physiological variations of workload, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is required to match energy supply to demand but also to keep the antioxidative capacity in a reduced state to prevent excessive emission of ROS...
May 11, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745322/metabolic-routes-in-inflammation-the-citrate-pathway-and-its-potential-as-therapeutic-target
#7
Vittoria Infantino, Ciro Leonardo Pierri, Vito Iacobazzi
Significant metabolic changes occur in inflammation to respond to the new energetic needs of cells. Mitochondria are addressed not only to produce ATP, but also to supply substrates, such citrate, to produce pro-inflammatory molecules. In this context most of citrate is diverted from Krebs cycle and channeled into the "citrate pathway" consisting in the increase of the export of citrate into cytosol by the mitochondrial citrate carrier followed by its cleavage into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate by ATP citrate lyase...
May 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735944/metabolites-identified-during-varied-doses-of-aspergillus-species-in-zea-mays-grains-and-their-correlation-with-aflatoxin-levels
#8
Titilayo D O Falade, Panagiotis K Chrysanthopoulos, Mark P Hodson, Yasmina Sultanbawa, Mary Fletcher, Ross Darnell, Sam Korie, Glen Fox
Aflatoxin contamination is associated with the development of aflatoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on food grains. This study was aimed at investigating metabolites produced during fungal development on maize and their correlation with aflatoxin levels. Maize cobs were harvested at R3 (milk), R4 (dough), and R5 (dent) stages of maturity. Individual kernels were inoculated in petri dishes with four doses of fungal spores. Fungal colonisation, metabolite profile, and aflatoxin levels were examined...
May 7, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728888/omega-3-fatty-acids-attenuate-brain-alterations-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-model
#9
Aline Haas de Mello, Rosiane de Bona Schraiber, Mariana Pereira de Souza Goldim, Michelle Lima Garcez, Maria Luiza Gomes, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Rubya Pereira Zaccaron, Patrícia Fernanda Schuck, Josiane Budni, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira, Fabricia Petronilho, Gislaine Tezza Rezin
This study evaluated the effects of omega-3 on inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism parameters in the brain of mice subjected to high-fat diet-induced obesity model. Body weight and visceral fat weight were evaluated as well. Male Swiss mice were divided into control (purified low-fat diet) and obese (purified high-fat diet). After 6 weeks, the groups were divided into control + saline, control + omega-3, obese + saline, and obese + OMEGA-3. Fish oil (400 mg/kg/day) or saline solution was administrated orally, during 4 weeks...
May 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688630/the-complex-allosteric-and-redox-regulation-of-the-fumarate-hydratase-and-malate-dehydratase-reactions-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-fumarase-1-and-2-gives-clues-for-understanding-the-massive-accumulation-of-fumarate
#10
Juan Pablo Zubimendi, Andrea Martinatto, Maria Pía Valacco, Silvia Moreno, Carlos Santiago Andreo, María Fabiana Drincovich, Marcos Ariel Tronconi
Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two fumarase genes (FUM), AtFUM1 (At2g47510) encoding for the mitochondrial Krebs cycle-associated enzyme and AtFUM2 (At5g50950) for the cytosolic isoform required for fumarate massive accumulation. Here, the comprehensive biochemical studies of AtFUM1 and AtFUM2 shows that they are active enzymes with similar kinetic parameters but differential regulation. For both enzymes, fumarate hydratase (FH) activity is favored over the malate dehydratase (MD) activity; however, MD is the most regulated activity with several allosteric activators...
April 24, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682560/metabolomic-profiling-of-human-spermatozoa-in-idiopathic-asthenozoospermia-patients-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#11
Kai Zhao, Jianzhong Zhang, Zhen Xu, Yue Xu, Aiming Xu, Wei Chen, Chenkui Miao, Shouyong Liu, Zengjun Wang, Ruipeng Jia
The purpose of this study was to describe the first metabolic profile of human sperm cells through the application of an untargeted platform based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sperm cell samples from patients diagnosed with idiopathic asthenozoospermia ( n = 30) and healthy subjects ( n = 30) were analyzed using a nontargeted metabolomics method based on GC-MS spectroscopy. The mass spectrometric data were collected using multivariate and univariate analyses to identify metabolites related to idiopathic asthenozoospermia...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680055/fruit-sugar-and-organic-acid-were-significantly-related-to-fruit-mg-of-six-citrus-cultivars
#12
Yuan Zhou, Weizhu He, Wulin Zheng, Qiling Tan, Zongzhou Xie, Cangsong Zheng, Chengxiao Hu
The fruit quality of 6 citrus cultivars growing in the same orchard was determined at ripening stage in both 2014 and 2015. We further measured the components of sugar (sucrose, fructose and glucose), organic acid (citric, malate and quinic acid), enzymes related to Glycolysis and Krebs cycle and mineral elements at 5 stages of fruit development in the second year. The results showed that at ripening stage of both years, 'Newhall' cultivar had higher TSS concentration and the TSS/TA ratio but lower TA concentration, while 'Flame' cultivar was exactly opposite...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680049/nac-nor-mutations-in-tomato-penjar-accessions-attenuate-multiple-metabolic-processes-and-prolong-the-fruit-shelf-life
#13
Rakesh Kumar, Vajir Tamboli, Rameshwar Sharma, Yellamaraju Sreelakshmi
Several Penjar accessions of tomato grown in the Mediterranean exhibit prolonged shelf life and harbor alcobaca mutation. To uncover the metabolic basis underlying shelf life, we compared four Penjar accessions to Ailsa Craig. Three accessions bore alcobaca mutation, whereas the fourth was a novel NAC-NOR allele. Cuticle composition of Penjars varied widely during fruit ripening. All Penjars exhibited delayed ripening, prolonged on-vine and off-vine shelf life, low ethylene emission, and carotenoid levels. Metabolic profiling revealed shifts in Krebs cycle intermediates, amino acids, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels indicating the attenuation of respiration in Penjars during post-harvest storage...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661250/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-1-snail-axis-dysfunction-significantly-correlates-with-breast-cancer-prognosis-and-regulates-cell-invasion-ability
#14
Wen-Shan Liu, Shih-Hsuan Chan, Hong-Tai Chang, Guan-Cheng Li, Ya-Ting Tu, Hui-Hwa Tseng, Ting-Ying Fu, Hui-Yu Chang, Huei-Han Liou, Luo-Ping Ger, Kuo-Wang Tsai
BACKGROUND: The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene family expresses key functional metabolic enzymes in the Krebs cycle and mediates the epigenetic reprogramming, which serves as an important biomarker of breast cancer. However, the expression levels of the IDH protein and their biological function in human breast cancer remain largely unknown. METHODS: In this study, the clinical impact of IDH1 expression on the progression and prognosis of breast cancer was evaluated using immunohistochemistry assay (IHC) of the corresponding tumor-adjacent normal, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissues from 309 patients with breast ductal carcinoma...
April 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659807/the-genome-sequence-of-candidatus-fokinia-solitaria-insights-on-reductive-evolution-in-rickettsiales
#15
Anna M Floriano, Michele Castelli, Sascha Krenek, Thomas U Berendonk, Chiara Bazzocchi, Giulio Petroni, Davide Sassera
"Candidatus Fokinia solitaria" is an obligate intracellular endosymbiont of a unicellular eukaryote, a ciliate of the genus Paramecium. Here we present the genome sequence of this bacterium and subsequent analysis. Phylogenomic analysis confirmed the previously reported positioning of the symbiont within the "Candidatus Midichloriaceae" family (order Rickettsiales), as well as its high sequence divergence from other members of the family, indicative of fast sequence evolution. Consistently with this high evolutionary rate, a comparative genomic analysis revealed that the genome of this symbiont is the smallest of the Rickettsiales to date...
April 5, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648643/mutations-in-glycyl-trna-synthetase-impair-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-neurons
#16
Veronika Boczonadi, Kathrin Meyer, Humberto Gonczarowska-Jorge, Helen Griffin, Andreas Roos, Marina Bartsakoulia, Boglarka Bansagi, Giulia Ricci, Fanni Palinkas, René P Zahedi, Francesco Bruni, Brian Kaspar, Hanns Lochmüller, Kym M Boycott, Juliane S Müller, Rita Horvath
The nuclear-encoded glycyl-tRNA synthetase gene (GARS) is essential for protein translation in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. In contrast, different genes encode the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of most other tRNA synthetases. Dominant GARS mutations were described in inherited neuropathies, while recessive mutations cause severe childhood-onset disorders affecting skeletal muscle and heart. The downstream events explaining tissue-specific phenotype-genotype relations remained unclear. We investigated the mitochondrial function of GARS in human cell lines and in the GarsC210R mouse model...
April 10, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644016/the-effect-of-oxidative-stress-towards-the-expression-of-thiamine-biosynthesis-genes-thic-and-thi1-thi4-in-oil-palm-elaeis-guineensis
#17
Zainor Hafisah Che Idris, Aisamuddin Ardi Zainal Abidin, Atiqah Subki, Zetty Norhana Balia Yusof
Thiamine is known to be an important compound in human diet and it is a cofactor required for vital metabolic processes such as acetyl-CoA biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, Krebs and Calvin cycle. Besides that, thiamine has been shown to be involved in plant protection against stress. In this study, the level of expression of THIC and THI1/THI4, the genes for the first two enzymes in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway were observed when oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ) was subjected to oxidative stress. Primers were designed based on the consensus sequence of thiamine biosynthesis genes obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana , Zea mays , Oryza sativa , and Alnus glutinosa ...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601729/poly-ethylene-oxide-monomethyl-ether-block-poly-propylene-succinate-nanoparticles-synthesis-and-characterization-enzymatic-and-cellular-degradation-micellar-solubilization-of-paclitaxel-and-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#18
Alessandro Jager, Eliézer Jäger, Zdenka Syrová, Tomaš Mazel, Lubomír Kováčik, Ivan Raška, Anita Höcherl, Jan Kučka, Rafal Konefal, Jana Humajova, Pavla Pouckova, Petr Stepanek, Martin Hruby
Polyester-based nanostructures are widely studied as drug delivery systems due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. They have already reached the clinical use. In this work we describe a new and simple biodegradable and biocompatible system as alternative to the FDA-approved polyesters (PLGA, PCL and PLA) for the delivery of the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) as a model drug. A hydrophobic polyester, poly(propylene succinate) (PPS) was prepared from a non-toxic alcohol (propylene glycol) and monomer from the Krebs's cycle (succinic acid) in two steps via esterification and melt polycondensation...
March 30, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599194/dimethyl-fumarate-targets-gapdh-and-aerobic-glycolysis-to-modulate-immunity
#19
Michael D Kornberg, Pavan Bhargava, Paul M Kim, Vasanta Putluri, Adele M Snowman, Nagireddy Putluri, Peter A Calabresi, Solomon H Snyder
Activated immune cells undergo a metabolic switch to aerobic glycolysis akin to the Warburg effect, thereby presenting a potential therapeutic target in autoimmune disease. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a derivative of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate, is an immunomodulatory drug used to treat multiple sclerosis and psoriasis. Although its therapeutic mechanism remains uncertain, DMF covalently modifies cysteine residues in a process termed succination. We found that DMF succinates and inactivates the catalytic cysteine of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in mice and humans, both in vitro and in vivo...
April 27, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594839/o-glcnac-in-cancer-an-oncometabolism-fueled-vicious-cycle
#20
REVIEW
John A Hanover, Weiping Chen, Michelle R Bond
Cancer cells exhibit unregulated growth, altered metabolism, enhanced metastatic potential and altered cell surface glycans. Fueled by oncometabolism and elevated uptake of glucose and glutamine, the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) sustains glycosylation in the endomembrane system. In addition, the elevated pools of UDP-GlcNAc drives the O-GlcNAc modification of key targets in the cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondrion. These targets include transcription factors, kinases, key cytoplasmic enzymes of intermediary metabolism, and electron transport chain complexes...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
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