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krebs cycle

Diego de Souza Gonçalves, Marina da Silva Ferreira, Susie Coutinho Liedke, Kamilla Xavier Gomes, Gabriel Afonso de Oliveira, Pedro Ernesto Lopes Leão, Gabriele Vargas Cesar, Sergio H Seabra, Juliana Reis Cortines, Arturo Casadevall, Leonardo Nimrichter, Gilberto Barbosa Domont, Magno Rodrigues Junqueira, Jose Mauro Peralta, Allan J Guimaraes
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and by contaminating medical devices such as heart valves and contact lenses, they cause a broad range of clinical presentations to humans. Although several molecules have been described to play a role in Ac pathogenesis, including parasite host-tissue invasion and escaping of host-defense, little information is available on their mechanisms of secretion. Herein, we describe the molecular components secreted by Ac, under different protein availability conditions to simulate host niches...
March 21, 2018: Virulence
Noor Haza Fazlin Hashim, Nor Muhammad Mahadi, Rosli Md Illias, Shevin Rizal Feroz, Farah Diba Abu Bakar, Abdul Munir Abdul Murad
Dienelactone hydrolase, an α/β hydrolase enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of dienelactone to maleylacetate, an intermediate for the Krebs cycle. Genome sequencing of the psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica predicted a putative open reading frame (ORF) for dienelactone hydrolase (GaDlh) with 52% sequence similarity to that from Coniophora puteana. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that GaDlh is closely related to other reported dienelactone hydrolases, and distantly related to other α/β hydrolases...
March 20, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Diana Fang, Eduardo N Maldonado
Cancer metabolism is emerging as a chemotherapeutic target. Enhanced glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism characterize the Warburg phenotype in cancer cells. The flux of respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi into mitochondria and the release of mitochondrial ATP to the cytosol occur through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Catabolism of respiratory substrates in the Krebs cycle generates NADH and FADH2 that enter the electron transport chain (ETC) to generate a proton motive force that maintains mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and is utilized to generate ATP...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, L Eric Huang
OBJECTIVE Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors. Recent studies have supported the importance of key genetic alterations, including isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations and 1p19q codeletion, in glioma prognosis. Mutant IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate, a key metabolite of the Krebs cycle. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is composed of MPC1 and MPC2 subunits and is functionally essential for the Krebs cycle. The authors sought to explore the impact of MPC1 and MPC2 expression on patient prognosis...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Katarzyna A Cieslik, Rajagopal V Sekhar, Alejandro Granillo, Anilkumar Reddy, Guillermo Medrano, Celia Pena Heredia, Mark L Entman, Dale J Hamilton, Shumin Li, Erin Reineke, Anisha A Gupte, Aijun Zhang, George E Taffet
Metabolic, inflammatory and functional changes occur in cardiovascular aging which may stem from oxidative stress and be remediable with antioxidants. Glutathione, an intracellular antioxidant, declines with aging, and supplementation with glutathione precursors, N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and Glycine (Gly), increases tissue glutathione. Thirty month-old mice were fed diets supplemented with NAC or NAC+Gly and, after seven weeks, cardiac function and molecular studies were performed.The NAC+Gly supplementation improved diastolic function, increasing peak early filling velocity, and reducing relaxation time, left atrial volume, and left ventricle end diastolic pressure...
March 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Sultana Mehbuba Hossain, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
Biodegradable inorganic apatite-based particle complex is popular for its pH-sensitivity at the endosomal acidic environment to facilitate drug release following cellular uptake. Despite being a powerful anticancer drug, doxorubicin shows severe off-target effects and therefore would need a carrier for the highest effectiveness. We aimed to chemically modify carbonate apatite (CA) with Krebs cycle intermediates, such as citrate and succinate in order to control the growth of the resultant particles to more efficiently carry and transport the anticancer drug into the cancer cells...
March 11, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Gianpiero Vigani, Youry Pii, Silvia Celletti, Mauro Maver, Tanja Mimmo, Stefano Cesco, Stefania Astolfi
Within the last years, extensive information has been accumulated on the reciprocal influence between S and Fe nutrition at both physiological and molecular level in several plant species, but the mechanisms regulating S and Fe sensing and signaling are not fully understood. Fe and S interact for the building of Fe-S clusters, and mitochondria is one of the cellular compartments where Fe-S cluster assembly takes place. Therefore, it would be expected that mitochondria might play a central role in the regulation of Fe and S interaction...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sue-Jie Koo, Bartosz Szczesny, Xianxiu Wan, Nagireddy Putluri, Nisha Jain Garg
Metabolism provides substrates for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, which are a part of the macrophage (Mφ) anti-microbial response. Mφs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi ( Tc ) produce insufficient levels of oxidative species and lower levels of glycolysis compared to classical Mφs. How Mφs fail to elicit a potent ROS/NO response during infection and its link to glycolysis is unknown. Herein, we evaluated for ROS, NO, and cytokine production in the presence of metabolic modulators of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nidhi Kuksal, Danielle Gardiner, Dake Qi, Ryan J Mailloux
Recent work has found that complex I is the sole source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, it has also been reported that heart mitochondria can also generate ROS from other sources in the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle. This study examined the impact of partial complex I deficiency due to selective loss of the Ndufs4 gene on IR injury to heart tissue. Mice heterozygous for NDUFS4 (NDUFS4+/-) did not display any significant changes in overall body or organ weight when compared to wild-type (WT) littermates...
March 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sudhanshu Kumar Bharti, Supriya Krishnan, Ashwini Kumar, Awanish Kumar
Diabetes Mellitus, characterized by persistent hyperglycaemia, is a heterogeneous group of disorders of multiple aetiologies. It affects the human body at multiple organ levels thus making it difficult to follow a particular line of the treatment protocol and requires a multimodal approach. The increasing medical burden on patients with diabetes-related complications results in an enormous economic burden, which could severely impair global economic growth in the near future. This shows that today's healthcare system has conventionally been poorly equipped towards confronting the mounting impact of diabetes on a global scale and demands an urgent need for newer and better options...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Zvonimir Marelja, Silke Leimkühler, Fanis Missirlis
Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hongcui Zhao, Tianjie Li, Yue Zhao, Tao Tan, Changyu Liu, Yali Liu, Liang Chang, Ning Huang, Chang Li, Yong Fan, Yang Yu, Rong Li, Jie Qiao
AIM: The mechanisms coordinating maturation with an environment-driven metabolic shift, a critical step in determining the developmental potential of human in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes, remains to be elucidated. Here, we explored the key genes regulating human oocyte maturation using single-cell RNA sequencing and illuminated the compensatory mechanism from a metabolic perspective by analyzing gene expression. RESULTS: Three key genes that encode CoA-related enzymes were screened from the RNA sequencing data...
February 27, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Mehdi Ghasemi, Yunis Mayasi, Anas Hannoun, Seyed Majid Eslami, Raphael Carandang
Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play crucial roles in the energy production and regulation of cellular metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial activity can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). As a key neurotransmitter in biologic systems, NO mediates the majority of its function through activation of the cyclic guanylyl cyclase (cGC) signaling pathway and S-nitrosylation of a variety of proteins involved in cellular functioning including those involved in mitochondrial biology...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Erik R Swenson
Maintenance of intracellular pH is critical for clinical homeostasis. The metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids yielding the generation of adenosine triphosphate in the mitochondria is accompanied by the production of acid in the Krebs cycle. Both the nature of this acidosis and the mechanism of its disposal have been argued by two investigators with a long-abiding interest in acid-base physiology. They offer different interpretations and views of the molecular mechanism of this intracellular pH regulation during normal metabolism...
February 15, 2018: Anesthesiology
Niamh C Williams, Luke A J O'Neill
Metabolism in immune cells is no longer thought of as merely a process for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, biosynthesis, and catabolism. The reprogramming of metabolic pathways upon activation is also for the production of metabolites that can act as immune signaling molecules. Activated dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages have an altered Krebs cycle, one consequence of which is the accumulation of both citrate and succinate. Citrate is exported from the mitochondria via the mitochondrial citrate- carrier...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Maria Caracausi, Veronica Ghini, Chiara Locatelli, Martina Mericio, Allison Piovesan, Francesca Antonaros, Maria Chiara Pelleri, Lorenza Vitale, Rosa Anna Vacca, Federica Bedetti, Maria Chiara Mimmi, Claudio Luchinat, Paola Turano, Pierluigi Strippoli, Guido Cocchi
Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the presence of a supernumerary copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Key traits of DS are the distinctive facies and cognitive impairment. We conducted for the first time an analysis of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-detectable part of the metabolome in plasma and urine samples, studying 67 subjects with DS and 29 normal subjects as controls selected among DS siblings. Multivariate analysis of the NMR metabolomic profiles showed a clear discrimination (up to of 80% accuracy) between the DS and the control groups...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Abraham Neelankal John, Fang-Xu Jiang
One significant health issue that plagues contemporary society is that of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This disease is characterised by higher-than-average blood glucose levels as a result of a combination of insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretions from the β-cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Previous developmental research into the pancreas has identified how early precursor genes of pancreatic β-cells, such as Cpal, Ngn3, NeuroD, Ptf1a, and cMyc, play an essential role in the differentiation of these cells...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Rana Eltahan, Fengguang Guo, Haili Zhang, Lixin Xiang, Guan Zhu
Cryptosporidium parvum is a water-borne and food-borne apicomplexan pathogen. It is one of the top four diarrheal-causing pathogens in children under the age of five in developing countries, and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other apicomplexans, C. parvum lacks Kreb's cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, thus relying mainly on glycolysis to produce ATP. In this study, we characterized the primary biochemical features of the C. parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) and determined its Michaelis constant towards fructose-6-phosphate (Km = 0...
January 25, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Sergei G Tevosian, Hans K Ghayee
Context: Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are tumors that are derived from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Extra-adrenal PCCs called paragangliomas (PGLs) are derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic chain ganglia. PCCs secrete catecholamines which cause hypertension and have adverse cardiovascular consequences as a result of catecholamine excess. PGLs may or may not produce catecholamines depending on their genetic type and anatomical location. The most worrisome aspect of these tumors is their ability to become aggressive and metastasize, for which there are no known cures...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Julie Reveillaud, Rika Anderson, Sintra Reves-Sohn, Colleen Cavanaugh, Julie A Huber
BACKGROUND: The microbial endosymbionts of two species of vestimentiferan tubeworms (Escarpia sp. and Lamellibrachia sp.2) collected from an area of low-temperature hydrothermal diffuse vent flow at the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) in the Caribbean Sea were characterized using microscopy, phylogenetic analyses, and a metagenomic approach. RESULTS: Bacteria, with a typical Gram negative cell envelope contained within membrane-bound vacuoles, were observed within the trophosome of both tubeworm species...
January 27, 2018: Microbiome
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