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Persistent homology

Doaa Abdelmageed El Faham, Mohamed Amr Hussein Elnoury, Mona Ibraheim Morsy, Marwa Abdelmoneim El Shaer, Ghada Mohammed Nour Eldin, Osama Mahmoud Azmy
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in photobiomodulation to promote healing, regenerate, and restore tissue function. Women with persistent thin endometrium were assumed to encounter diminished activity in the regenerative and functional capacity of their endometrium. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of LLLT in 635 nm wavelength to enhance the proliferation and gene expression of in vitro cultured endometrial cells. Single (SE) versus multiple exposures (ME) to LLLT were examined in the study groups and compared to controls...
March 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Brintha Parasumanna Girinathan, Junjun Ou, Bruno Dupuy, Revathi Govind
Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Zohre Kurt, Marco Minoia, Jim C Spain
Resveratrol is among the best-known secondary plant metabolites because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. It also is an important allelopathic chemical widely credited with protection of plants from pathogens. The ecological role of resveratrol in natural habitats is difficult to establish rigorously because it does not seem to accumulate outside of plant tissue. It is likely that bacterial degradation plays a key role in determining the persistence, and thus the ecological role, of resveratrol in soil...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Laura Cortesi, Angela Toss, Iole Cucinotto
The standard of treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is represented by optimal surgical debulking preceded or followed by chemotherapeutic regimens including taxanes and platinum agents, possibly associated with bevacizumab and/or intraperitoneal therapy. Despite this comprehensive treatment strategy, almost 75% of patients relapse or progress and are therefore candidates for a second-line treatment, showing, at this point, less chemo-sensitivity and worse prognosis. An interesting approach to improve outcomes of these patients has been developed in the last decade, in BRCA-related ovarian cancer...
March 7, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
M Sasikala, V V Ravikanth, K Murali Manohar, Neha Deshpande, Sandhya Singh, P Pavan Kumar, R Talukdar, Sudip Ghosh, Mohsin Aslam, G V Rao, R Pradeep, D Nageshwar Reddy
Objectives: Altered immune homeostasis and involvement of T cells has been reported in chronic pancreatitis (CP). We evaluated the role of Bach2 (BTB and CNC homology basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2), a key regulator of immune homeostasis in the chronicity of CP. Methods: Expression of Bach2 and T-cell transcription factors, enumeration of BACH2+/CD4+ T-lymphocytes were performed by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry respectively. Bach2 silenced human CD4+ T-lymphocytes were exposed to CP tissue extract to assess T-cell lineage commitment...
March 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Erica Hasten, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Terrence B Crowley, Elaine Zackai, Beverly S Emanuel, Bernice E Morrow, Silvia E Racedo
Non-allelic homologous recombination events on chromosome 22q11.2 during meiosis can result in either the deletion (22q11.2DS) or duplication (22q11.2DupS) syndrome. Although the spectrum and frequency of congenital heart disease (CHD) are known for 22q11.2DS, there is less known for 22q11.2DupS. We now evaluated cardiac phenotypes in 235 subjects with 22q11.2DupS including 102 subjects we collected and 133 subjects that were previously reported as a confirmation and found 25% have CHD, mostly affecting the cardiac outflow tract (OFT)...
March 2, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Hannah A Bullock, Huifeng Shen, Tye O Boynton, Lawrence J Shimkets
Myxococcus xanthus cells produce lipid bodies containing triacylglycerides during fruiting body development. Fatty acid β-oxidation is the most energy efficient pathway for lipid body catabolism. In this study, we used mutants in fadJ (MXAN_5371 and MXAN_6987) and fadI (MXAN_5372) homologs to examine whether β-oxidation serves an essential developmental function. These mutants contained more lipid bodies than wild type strain DK1622 and 2-fold more FAD consistent with reduced consumption of fatty acids by β-oxidation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Juliana Cackovic, Susana Gutierrez-Luke, Gerald B Call, Amber Juba, Stephanie O'Brien, Charles H Jun, Lori M Buhlman
Selective degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic (DA) neurons is a hallmark pathology of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). While the mechanism of degeneration is elusive, abnormalities in mitochondrial function and turnover are strongly implicated. An Autosomal Recessive-Juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) Drosophila melanogaster model exhibits DA neurodegeneration as well as aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and function. Disruptions in mitophagy have been observed in parkin loss-of-function models, and changes in mitochondrial respiration have been reported in patient fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Elizabeth Q Littauer, Lisa K Mills, Nicole Brock, E Stein Esser, Andrey Romanyuk, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Elena V Vassilieva, Jacob T Beaver, Olivia Antao, Florian Krammer, Richard W Compans, Mark R Prausnitz, Ioanna Skountzou
The widely used influenza subunit vaccine would benefit from increased protection rates in vulnerable populations. Skin immunization by microneedle (MN) patch can increase vaccine immunogenicity, as well as increase vaccination coverage due to simplified administration. To further increase immunogenicity, we used granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an immunomodulatory cytokine already approved for skin cancer therapy and cancer support treatment. GM-CSF has been shown to be upregulated in skin following MN insertion...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
John Cleator, Christopher Wells, Jane Dingus, David T Kurtz, John D Hildebrandt
Ser54 of Gs α binds guanine nucleotide and Mg2+ as part of a conserved sequence motif in GTP binding proteins. Mutating the homologous residue in small and heterotrimeric G proteins generates dominant negative proteins, but by protein-specific mechanisms. For αi/o this results from persistent binding of α to β γ, whereas for small GTP binding proteins and αs , this results from persistent binding to Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor or receptor. This work examined the role of βγ interactions in mediating the properties of the Ser54-like mutants of Gα subunits...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Zuleeza Ahmad, Renato Morona, Alistair J Standish
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Within the annotated genome of the pneumococcus lies a previously uncharacterized protein tyrosine phosphatase which shows homology to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMWPTPs). LMWPTPs modulate many processes critical for the pathogenicity of a number of bacteria including capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis, stress response and persistence in host macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that Spd1837 is indeed a LMWPTP, by purifying the protein, and characterizing its phosphatase activity...
February 26, 2018: Microbiology
Ting-Hsiang Huang, Faith Fowler, Chin-Chuan Chen, Zih-Jie Shen, Barry Sleckman, Jessica K Tyler
The access-repair-restore model for the role of chromatin in DNA repair infers that chromatin is a mere obstacle to DNA repair. However, here we show that blocking chromatin assembly, via knockdown of the histone chaperones ASF1 or CAF-1 or a mutation that prevents ASF1A binding to histones, hinders Rad51 loading onto ssDNA during homologous recombination. This is a consequence of reduced recruitment of the Rad51 loader MMS22L-TONSL to ssDNA, resulting in persistent RPA foci, extensive DNA end resection, persistent activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway, and cell cycle arrest...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Cell
Masao Kimura, Ippei Obayashi, Yasuo Takeichi, Reiko Murao, Yasuaki Hiraoka
Macroscopic phenomena, such as fracture, corrosion, and degradation of materials, are associated with various reactions which progress heterogeneously. Thus, material properties are generally determined not by their averaged characteristics but by specific features in heterogeneity (or 'trigger sites') of phases, chemical states, etc., where the key reactions that dictate macroscopic properties initiate and propagate. Therefore, the identification of trigger sites is crucial for controlling macroscopic properties...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pramod Kumar Maurya, Swati Singh, Ashutosh Mani
Antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly in pathogenic organisms, creating more complications for treatment of diseases. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a neglected tropical disease in humans caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which no effective therapeutic is available. Subtractive genomics methods facilitate the characterization of non-homologous essential proteins that could be targeted for the discovery of potential therapeutic compounds against R. rickettsii to combat RMSF. Present study followed an in-silico based methodology, involving scanning and filtering the complete proteome of Rickettsia rickettsii by using several prioritization parameters in the search of potential candidates for drug development...
February 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
Hervé Seligmann, Didier Raoult
We examine the hypothesis that de novo template-free RNAs still form spontaneously, as they did at the origins of life, invade modern genomes, contribute new genetic material. Previously, analyses of RNA secondary structures suggested that some RNAs resembling ancestral (t)RNAs formed recently de novo , other parasitic sequences cluster with rRNAs. Here positive control analyses of additional RNA secondary structures confirm ancestral and de novo statuses of RNA grouped according to secondary structure. Viroids with branched stems resemble de novo RNAs, rod-shaped viroids resemble rRNA secondary structures, independently of GC contents...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
T Takahashi, Abram H Clark, T Majmudar, L Kondic
The impact of an intruder on granular matter leads to the formation of mesoscopic force networks, which were seen particularly clearly in the recent experiments carried out with photoelastic particles [Clark et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 144502 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.114.144502]. These force networks are characterized by complex structure and evolve on fast time scales. While it is known that total photoelastic activity in the granular system is correlated with the acceleration of the intruder, it is not known how the structure of the force network evolves during impact, and if there are dominant features in the networks that can be used to describe the intruder's dynamics...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Susan E Scanlon, Denise C Hegan, Parker L Sulkowski, Peter M Glazer
The von Hippel-Lindau ( VHL ) tumor suppressor gene is inactivated in the vast majority of human clear cell renal carcinomas. The pathogenesis of VHL loss is currently best understood to occur through stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factors, activation of hypoxia-induced signaling pathways, and transcriptional reprogramming towards a pro-angiogenic and pro-growth state. However, hypoxia also drives other pro-tumorigenic processes, including the development of genomic instability via down-regulation of DNA repair gene expression...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
Sebastian Eilebrecht, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Victor Sarachaga, Amelie Burk, Konstantina Falida, Deblina Chakraborty, Ekaterina Nikitina, Claudia Tessmer, Corinna Whitley, Charlotte Sauerland, Karin Gunst, Imke Grewe, Timo Bund
The consumption of bovine milk and meat is considered a risk factor for colon- and breast cancer formation, and milk consumption has also been implicated in an increased risk for developing Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A number of highly related virus-like DNAs have been recently isolated from bovine milk and sera and from a brain sample of a MS patient. As a genetic activity of these Acinetobacter-related bovine milk and meat factors (BMMFs) is unknown in eukaryotes, we analyzed their expression and replication potential in human HEK293TT cells...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elisabeth A Schuldt, Wolfgang Lieb, Marcus Dörr, Markus M Lerch, Henry Völzke, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich
BACKGROUND: The Angiopoietin/Tie (Tyrosine kinase with Ig and EGF homology domains) signaling axis has crucial influences on angiogenesis and the vasculature's reorganization. Moreover, angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) is discussed as a biomarker for diseases' severity and development. Previous studies reported increased Ang2 levels in patients with inflammatory diseases and associations of Ang2 with inflammation markers in relatively small samples. We aimed to assess the relation of Ang2 and Tie2 with inflammation markers in the general population...
February 7, 2018: Cytokine
Karen J Thompson
Grasshoppers produce an extraordinary oviposition behavior that is associated with multiple specializations of the skeletal and neuromuscular systems in the posterior abdomen, including a central pattern generator (CPG) in the female's terminal abdominal ganglion. Two pairs of shovel-shaped appendages, the ovipositor valves on the abdomen tip, excavate the soil for deposition of eggs. By contrast, the sexually monomorphic pregenital region of the abdomen is without appendages. Morphological homologues of ovipositor muscles and efferent neurons in the eighth abdominal segment are nevertheless present in pregenital segments of males and females...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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