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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632940/characterization-of-the-i4399m-variant-of-apolipoprotein-a-implications-for-altered-prothrombotic-properties-of-lipoprotein-a
#1
Corey A Scipione, Jackson T McAiney, Daniel J Simard, Zainab A Bazzi, Matthew Gemin, Rocco Romagnuolo, Fraser L Macrae, Robert A Ariëns, Robert A Hegele, Janeen Auld, James W Gauld, Michael B Boffa, Marlys L Koschinsky
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a causal risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), the distinguishing component of Lp(a), is homologous to plasminogen, suggesting that Lp(a) can interfere with the normal fibrinolytic functions of plasminogen. This has implications for the persistence of fibrin clots in the vasculature and hence to atherothrombotic diseases. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs3798220) in the gene encoding apo(a) has been reported that results in an Ile to Met substitution in the protease-like domain (I4399M variant)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625982/the-novel-stress-survival-islet-2-ssi-2-predominantly-present-in-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-of-st121-is-involved-in-alkaline-and-oxidative-stress-response
#2
Eva Harter, Eva Maria Wagner, Andreas Zaiser, Sabrina Halecker, Martin Wagner, Kathrin Rychli
The food-borne pathogen Listeria (L) monocytogenes is able to survive a variety of stress conditions leading to the colonization of different niches like the food processing environment. This study focuses on the hypervariable genetic hotspot lmo0443-lmo0449 haboring three inserts: the stress survival islet 1 (SSI-1), the single-gene insert LMOf2365_0481 and two homologous genes of the non-pathogenic species L. innocua: lin0464, a putative transcriptional regulator and lin0465, an intracellular PfpI protease...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625407/xenopus-fv3-host-pathogen-interactions-and-immune-evasion
#3
Robert Jacques, Eva-Stina Edholm, Sanchez Jazz, Torres-Luquis Odalys, De Jesús Andino Francisco
We first review fundamental insights into anti-ranavirus immunity learned with the Xenopus laevis/ranavirus FV3 model that are generally applicable to ectothermic vertebrates. We then further investigate FV3 genes involved in immune evasion. Focusing on FV3 knockout (KO) mutants defective for a putative viral caspase activation and recruitment domain-containing (CARD)-like protein (Δ64R-FV3), a β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase homolog (Δ52L-FV3), and an immediate-early18kDa protein (FV3-Δ18K), we assessed the involvement of these viral genes in replication, dissemination and interaction with peritoneal macrophages in tadpole and adult frogs...
June 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622970/congener-specific-determination-of-ultratrace-levels-of-chlorinated-and-brominated-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-atmosphere-and-industrial-stack-gas-by-isotopic-dilution-gas-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-method
#4
Rong Jin, Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Heidelore Fiedler, Xiaoxu Jiang, Lili Yang, Xiaolin Wu, Yang Xu
Isotopic dilution gas chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has overwhelming advantages with respect to the accuracy of congener-specific ultratrace analysis of complex persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental matrices. However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using (13)C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. In this study, a method for identification and quantification of 38 congeners of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in atmosphere and stack gas samples from waste incinerators was developed using the isotopic dilution GC/HRMS technique...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619148/antigenic-diversity-of-brazilian-isolates-of-hobi-like-pestiviruses
#5
R K Dias, J F Cargnelutti, M N Weber, C W Canal, F V Bauermann, J F Ridpath, R Weiblen, E F Flores
Hobi-like viruses comprise an unclassified group of bovine pestiviruses related to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2). These viruses were originally identified in fetal bovine serum from Brazilian origin and, subsequently, isolated from diseased animals in several countries. Herein we performed an antigenic characterization of eight Brazilian HoBi-like viruses isolated from persistently infected (PI) animals and from gastroenteric disease (2007-2015). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5' unstranslated region (UTR) clustered these viruses with other HoBi-like viruses from European and Asiatic origin...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618081/loss-of-the-ssra-genome-island-led-to-partial-debromination-in-the-pbde-respiring-dehalococcoides-mccartyi-strain-gy50
#6
Chang Ding, Matthew J Rogers, Kun-Lin Yang, Jianzhong He
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), chemicals commonly used as flame-retardants in consumer products, are emerging persistent organic pollutants that are ubiquitous in the environment. In this study, we report the PBDE-respiring isolate - Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain GY50, which debrominates the most toxic tetra- and penta-BDE congeners (∼1.4 µM) to diphenyl ether within 12 days with hydrogen as the electron donor. The complete genome sequence revealed 26 reductive dehalogenase homologous genes (rdhAs), among which three genes (pbrA1, pbrA2, and pbrA3) were highly expressed during PBDE debromination...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614803/delineating-antibody-recognition-against-zika-virus-during-natural-infection
#7
Lei Yu, Ruoke Wang, Fei Gao, Min Li, Jianying Liu, Jian Wang, Wenxin Hong, Lingzhai Zhao, Yingfen Wen, Chibiao Yin, Hua Wang, Qi Zhang, Yangyang Li, Panpan Zhou, Rudian Zhang, Yang Liu, Xiaoping Tang, Yongjun Guan, Cheng-Feng Qin, Ling Chen, Xuanling Shi, Xia Jin, Gong Cheng, Fuchun Zhang, Linqi Zhang
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that shares a considerable degree of homology with dengue virus (DENV). Here, we examined longitudinal antibody response against ZIKV during natural infection in 2 convalescent individuals. By decomposing the antibody recognition into DI/DII and DIII of the E glycoprotein, we showed their development in humans followed a spatiotemporal hierarchy. Plasma binding to DI/DII appeared to peak and wane during early infection with extensive cross-reactivity with DI/DII of DENV...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611389/nuclear-tradd-prevents-dna-damage-mediated-death-by-facilitating-non-homologous-end-joining-repair
#8
Gi-Bang Koo, Jae-Hoon Ji, Hyeseong Cho, Michael J Morgan, You-Sun Kim
TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD) is an essential mediator of TNF receptor signaling, and serves as an adaptor to recruit other effectors. TRADD has been shown to cycle between the cytoplasm and nucleus due to its nuclear localization (NLS) and export sequences (NES). However, the underlying function of nuclear TRADD is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic TRADD translocates to DNA double-strand break sites (DSBs) during the DNA damage response (DDR). Deficiency of TRADD or its sequestration in cytosol leads to accumulation of γH2AX-positive foci in response to DNA damage, which is reversed by nuclear TRADD expression...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582280/lorazepam-challenge-for-individuals-at-varying-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-disease
#9
Cynthia M Stonnington, Brian Harel, Dona E C Locke, Joseph G Hentz, Nan Zhang, Paul Maruff, Richard J Caselli
INTRODUCTION: This study set out to clarify the differential acute cognitive impact of lorazepam based on varying genetic risk for Alzheimer disease. METHODS: Fifty-seven cognitively unimpaired individuals aged 51 to 88, genotyped according to apolipoprotein E (APOE) and translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane (40 homolog) poly-T lengths, completed cognitive testing before, 2.5 and 5 hours after receiving a 1 mg dose of lorazepam. RESULTS: Post-lorazepam, there were significant (P<0...
June 2, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576103/topological-characterization-and-early-detection-of-bifurcations-and-chaos-in-complex-systems-using-persistent-homology
#10
Khushboo Mittal, Shalabh Gupta
Early detection of bifurcations and chaos and understanding their topological characteristics are essential for safe and reliable operation of various electrical, chemical, physical, and industrial processes. However, the presence of non-linearity and high-dimensionality in system behavior makes this analysis a challenging task. The existing methods for dynamical system analysis provide useful tools for anomaly detection (e.g., Bendixson-Dulac and Poincare-Bendixson criteria can detect the presence of limit cycles); however, they do not provide a detailed topological understanding about system evolution during bifurcations and chaos, such as the changes in the number of subcycles and their positions, lifetimes, and sizes...
May 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575658/rfwd3-mediated-ubiquitination-promotes-timely-removal-of-both-rpa-and-rad51-from-dna-damage-sites-to-facilitate-homologous-recombination
#11
Shojiro Inano, Koichi Sato, Yoko Katsuki, Wataru Kobayashi, Hiroki Tanaka, Kazuhiro Nakajima, Shinichiro Nakada, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Kerstin Knies, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Detlev Schindler, Masamichi Ishiai, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Minoru Takata
RFWD3 is a recently identified Fanconi anemia protein FANCW whose E3 ligase activity toward RPA is essential in homologous recombination (HR) repair. However, how RPA ubiquitination promotes HR remained unknown. Here, we identified RAD51, the central HR protein, as another target of RFWD3. We show that RFWD3 polyubiquitinates both RPA and RAD51 in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation by ATR and ATM kinases is required for this activity in vivo. RFWD3 inhibits persistent mitomycin C (MMC)-induced RAD51 and RPA foci by promoting VCP/p97-mediated protein dynamics and subsequent degradation...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565861/global-methylation-and-promoter-specific-methylation-of-the-p16-socs-1-e-cadherin-p73-and-shp-1-genes-and-their-expression-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-during-active-disease-and-remission
#12
Déborah Martínez-Baños, Beatríz Sánchez-Hernández, Guadalupe Jiménez, Georgina Barrera-Lumbreras, Olga Barrales-Benítez
Tumor suppressor gene promoter CpG island methylation is a well-recognized mechanism in cancer pathogenesis, but its role in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The present study investigated the methylation status and expression of P16, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), P73, E-cadherin and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), as well as global methylation in patients with MM during active disease and remission. Bone marrow samples were obtained from 43 patients at the Multiple Myeloma Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Mexico City, Mexico) during active disease and remission...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538438/differential-regulation-of-the-autophagy-and-proteasome-pathways-in-skeletal-muscles-in-sepsis
#13
Flavia Stana, Marija Vujovic, Dominique Mayaki, Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Philippe Leblanc, Laurent Huck, Sabah N A Hussain
OBJECTIVES: Skeletal muscle fiber atrophy develops in response to severe sepsis, but it is unclear as to how the proteolytic pathways that are involved in its development are differentially regulated. We investigated the link between sepsis-induced fiber atrophy and activation of the proteasome and autophagy pathways and whether the degree of activation is more severe and sustained in limb muscles than it is in the diaphragm. DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment...
May 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535128/low-and-high-let-ionizing-radiation-induces-delayed-homologous-recombination-that-persists-for-two-weeks-before-resolving
#14
Christopher P Allen, Hirokazu Hirakawa, Nakako Izumi Nakajima, Sophia Moore, Jingyi Nie, Neelam Sharma, Mayumi Sugiura, Yuko Hoki, Ryoko Araki, Masumi Abe, Ryuichi Okayasu, Akira Fujimori, Jac A Nickoloff
Genome instability is a hallmark of cancer cells and dysregulation or defects in DNA repair pathways cause genome instability and are linked to inherited cancer predisposition syndromes. Ionizing radiation can cause immediate effects such as mutation or cell death, observed within hours or a few days after irradiation. Ionizing radiation also induces delayed effects many cell generations after irradiation. Delayed effects include hypermutation, hyper-homologous recombination, chromosome instability and reduced clonogenic survival (delayed death)...
May 23, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532790/a-safe-and-molecular-tagged-brucella-canis-ghosts-confers-protection-against-virulent-challenge-in-mice
#15
Jing Qian, Zhaoyang Bu, Xulong Lang, Guangmou Yan, Yanling Yang, Xiuran Wang, Xinglong Wang
Canine brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, is a persistent infectious reproductive disease in dogs. The absence of effective treatment to the intracellular pathogen and the irreversible consequence of infection makes the need of a specific vaccine urgent. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are the empty envelopes of bacteria with no genome content inside, which emerge as a proper vaccine candidate due to its intact outer antigen. It is generally derived from a genetically engineered strain, through the expression of Bacteriophage phiX174 lysis E gene upon induction...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528961/gp5-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-as-a-target-for-homologous-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#16
REVIEW
Luca N Popescu, Benjamin R Trible, Nanhua Chen, Raymond R R Rowland
Virus neutralization (VN) responses range from narrowly focused antibodies with only homologous neutralizing activity against the virus used for infection, to antibodies that can neutralize both Type 1 and Type 2 viruses, referred to as broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb). Even though neutralizing epitopes are likely distributed among several structural glycoproteins, this paper focuses on the ectodomain region of GP5 as a model system for investigating the role for neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies in protection and disease...
April 29, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526296/mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-attenuate-cutaneous-sclerodermatous-graft-versus-host-disease-scl-gvhd-through-inhibition-of-immune-cell-infiltration-in-a-mouse-model
#17
Ji-Young Lim, Da-Bin Ryu, Sung-Eun Lee, Gyeongsin Park, Chang-Ki Min
Human chronic graft-versus-host disease (CGVHD) shares clinical characteristics with a murine sclerodermatous GVHD (Scl-GVHD) model that is characterized by skin thickening and lung fibrosis. A B10.D2 → BALB/c transplant model of Scl-GVHD was used to address the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the development of CGVHD. The clinical and pathological severity of cutaneous Scl-GVHD was significantly attenuated in MSC-treated recipients relative to Scl-GVHD controls. After MSC treatment, skin collagen production was significantly reduced with consistent downregulation of TGF-β expression...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514186/apc-c-cdc20-mediates-deprotection-of-centromeric-cohesin-at-meiosis-ii-in-yeast
#18
Katarzyna Jonak, Ievgeniia Zagoriy, Tugce Oz, Peter Graf, Julie Rojas, Valentina Mengoli, Wolfgang Zachariae
Cells undergoing meiosis produce haploid gametes through one round of DNA replication followed by 2 rounds of chromosome segregation. This requires that cohesin complexes, which establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase, are removed in a stepwise manner. At meiosis I, the separase protease triggers the segregation of homologous chromosomes by cleaving cohesin's Rec8 subunit on chromosome arms. Cohesin persists at centromeres because the PP2A phosphatase, recruited by the shugoshin protein, dephosphorylates Rec8 and thereby protects it from cleavage...
May 17, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498844/windowed-persistent-homology-a-topological-signal-processing-algorithm-applied-to-clinical-obesity-data
#19
Craig Biwer, Amy Rothberg, Heidi IglayReger, Harm Derksen, Charles F Burant, Kayvan Najarian
Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in the population of the United States, affecting roughly 2/3 of Americans. These diseases, along with their associated conditions, are a major burden on the healthcare industry in terms of both dollars spent and effort expended. Volitional weight loss is attempted by many, but weight regain is common. The ability to predict which patients will lose weight and successfully maintain the loss versus those prone to regain weight would help ease this burden by allowing clinicians the ability to skip treatments likely to be ineffective...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497794/pore-configuration-landscape-of-granular-crystallization
#20
M Saadatfar, H Takeuchi, V Robins, N Francois, Y Hiraoka
Uncovering grain-scale mechanisms that underlie the disorder-order transition in assemblies of dissipative, athermal particles is a fundamental problem with technological relevance. To date, the study of granular crystallization has mainly focussed on the symmetry of crystalline patterns while their emergence and growth from irregular clusters of grains remains largely unexplored. Here crystallization of three-dimensional packings of frictional spheres is studied at the grain-scale using X-ray tomography and persistent homology...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
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