Read by QxMD icon Read

Persistent homology

Brendan W Corey, Mitchell G Thompson, Lauren E Hittle, Anna C Jacobs, Edward A Asafo-Adjei, William Huggins, Roberta J Melander, Christian Melander, Robert K Ernst, Daniel V Zurawski
Acinetobacter baumannii are gram-negative bacilli that pose a constant threat to susceptible patients because of increased resistance to multiple antibiotics and persistence in the hospital environment. After genome analysis, we discovered that A. baumannii harbor genes that share homology to an enzymatic pathway that elongates long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in fungi. Previously, 1,2,4-Triazolidine-3-thiones (T-3-Ts) were shown to inhibit hyphae production in fungi, and this same LCFA elongation pathway was implicated as the possible target...
October 20, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Friederike Finsterbusch, Ramya Ravindranathan, Ihsan Dereli, Marcello Stanzione, Daniel Tränkner, Attila Tóth
Orderly chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division requires meiotic recombination to form crossovers between homologous chromosomes (homologues). Members of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase family have been implicated in meiotic recombination. In addition, they have roles in initiation of DNA replication, DNA mismatch repair and mitotic DNA double-strand break repair. Here, we addressed the function of MCMDC2, an atypical yet conserved MCM protein, whose function in vertebrates has not been reported...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Zhineng Li, Shaohua Zeng, Yanbang Li, Mingyang Li, Erik Souer
Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales), a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68, 54, and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in Arabidopsis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ji Chen, Feng Deng, Mengsheng Deng, Jincheng Han, Jianbin Chen, Li Wang, Shen Yan, Kai Tong, Fan Liu, Mengliang Tian
Bacterial homologous chloroplast-targeted Obg GTPases (ObgCs) belong to the plant-typical Obg group, which is involved in diverse physiological processes during chloroplast development. However, the evolutionarily conserved function of ObgC in plants remains elusive and requires further investigation. In this study, we identified DoObgC from an epiphytic plant Dendrobium officinale and demonstrated the characteristics of DoObgC. Sequence analysis indicated that DoObgC is highly conserved with other plant ObgCs, which contain the chloroplast transit peptide (cTP), Obg fold, G domain, and OCT regions...
October 6, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Adthakorn Madapong, Gun Temeeyasen, Kepalee Saeng-Chuto, Thitima Tripipat, Wichian Navasakuljinda, Alongkot Boonsoongnern, Angkana Tantituvanont, Dachrit Nilubol
The antibody response and pattern of shedding of vaccine virus following vaccination with modified live genotype I or II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines (MLVs) were investigated. Ninety PRRSV-free pigs were divided randomly seven, groups including the NEG, EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups. The NEG group was unvaccinated. The EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups were vaccinated with the following MLVs: AMERVAC(®) PRRS, Porcillis(®) PRRS, Fostera™ PRRS, Ingelvac(®) PRRS MLV, Ingelvac(®) PRRS ATP, and PrimePac™ PRRS+ , respectively...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Virology
Cheri L Lamb, Giovan N Cholico, Xinzhu Pu, Gerald D Hagler, Kenneth A Cornell, Kristen A Mitchell
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant and high-affinity ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Increasing evidence indicates that AhR signaling contributes to wound healing, which involves the coordinated deposition and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In the liver, wound healing is attributed to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which mediate fibrogenesis through the production of soluble mediators and collagen type I. We recently reported that TCDD treatment increases the activation of human HSCs in vitro...
September 28, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Nicole Arnold, Thomas Girke, Suhas Sureshchandra, Ilhem Messaoudi
: Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV), a neurotropic alpha herpesvirus, results in varicella. VZV establishes latency in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster. The relationship between VZV and its host during acute infection in the sensory ganglia is not well understood due to limited access to clinical specimens. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with simian varicella virus (SVV), recapitulates the hallmarks of VZV infection in humans...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Lauren R Walling, J Scott Butler
: Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are ubiquitous in bacteria and archaea, where they play a pivotal role in the establishment and maintenance of dormancy. Under normal growth conditions, the antitoxin neutralizes the toxin. However, under conditions of stress, such as nutrient starvation or antibiotic treatment, cellular proteases degrade the antitoxin, and the toxin functions to arrest bacterial growth. We characterized the specificity determinants of the interactions between VapB antitoxins and VapC toxins from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in an effort to gain a better understanding of how antitoxins control toxin activity and bacterial persistence...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Leena Ackermann, Michael Schell, Wojciech Pokrzywa, Éva Kevei, Anton Gartner, Björn Schumacher, Thorsten Hoppe
Multiple protein ubiquitination events at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) regulate damage recognition, signaling and repair. It has remained poorly understood how the repair process of DSBs is coordinated with the apoptotic response. Here, we identified the E4 ubiquitin ligase UFD-2 as a mediator of DNA-damage-induced apoptosis in a genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, after initiation of homologous recombination by RAD-51, UFD-2 forms foci that contain substrate-processivity factors including the ubiquitin-selective segregase CDC-48 (p97), the deubiquitination enzyme ATX-3 (Ataxin-3) and the proteasome...
September 26, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Younghyun Lee, Huizi Keiko Li, Aya Masaoka, Shigeaki Sunada, Hirokazu Hirakawa, Akira Fujimori, Jac A Nickoloff, Ryuichi Okayasu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: PU-H71 is a purine-scaffold Hsp90 inhibitor developed to overcome limitations of conventional Hsp90 inhibitors. This study was designed to investigate the combined effect of PU-H71 and heavy ion irradiation on human tumor and normal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of PU-H71 were determined by monitoring cell survival by colony formation, and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by γ-H2AX foci and immuno-blotting DSB repair proteins...
September 22, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Hyung-Jun Im, Jarang Hahm, Hyejin Kang, Hongyoon Choi, Hyekyoung Lee, Do Won Hwang, E Edmund Kim, June-Key Chung, Dong Soo Lee
Movement impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the consequent disruption of connectivity in the cortico-striatal-thalamic loop. This study evaluated brain metabolic connectivity in a 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced mouse model of PD using (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Fourteen PD-model mice and ten control mice were used for the analysis. Voxel-wise t-tests on FDG PET results yielded no significant regional metabolic differences between the PD and control groups...
2016: Scientific Reports
Amisha Mittal, Simran Tandon, Surender Kumar Singla, Chanderdeep Tandon
Kidney stone formation during hyperoxaluric condition is inherently dependent on the interaction between renal epithelial cells and calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. Although modern medicine has progressed in terms of removal of these stones, recurrence and persistent side effects restricts their use. Strategies involving plant based agents which could be used as adjunct therapy is an area which needs to be explored. Plant proteins having antilithiatic activity is a hitherto unexplored area and therefore, we conducted a detailed identification and characterization of antilithiatic proteins from Terminalia arjuna (T...
2016: PloS One
Caroline Laplante, Fang Huang, Irene R Tebbs, Joerg Bewersdorf, Thomas D Pollard
Cytokinesis in animals, fungi, and amoebas depends on the constriction of a contractile ring built from a common set of conserved proteins. Many fundamental questions remain about how these proteins organize to generate the necessary tension for cytokinesis. Using quantitative high-speed fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM), we probed this question in live fission yeast cells at unprecedented resolution. We show that nodes, protein assembly precursors to the contractile ring, are discrete structural units with stoichiometric ratios and distinct distributions of constituent proteins...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Paul Bendich, J S Marron, Ezra Miller, Alex Pieloch, Sean Skwerer
New representations of tree-structured data objects, using ideas from topological data analysis, enable improved statistical analyses of a population of brain artery trees. A number of representations of each data tree arise from persistence diagrams that quantify branching and looping of vessels at multiple scales. Novel approaches to the statistical analysis, through various summaries of the persistence diagrams, lead to heightened correlations with covariates such as age and sex, relative to earlier analyses of this data set...
2016: Annals of Applied Statistics
Pauline Chanut, Sébastien Britton, Julia Coates, Stephen P Jackson, Patrick Calsou
Repair of single-ended DNA double-strand breaks (seDSBs) by homologous recombination (HR) requires the generation of a 3' single-strand DNA overhang by exonuclease activities in a process called DNA resection. However, it is anticipated that the highly abundant DNA end-binding protein Ku sequesters seDSBs and shields them from exonuclease activities. Despite pioneering works in yeast, it is unclear how mammalian cells counteract Ku at seDSBs to allow HR to proceed. Here we show that in human cells, ATM-dependent phosphorylation of CtIP and the epistatic and coordinated actions of MRE11 and CtIP nuclease activities are required to limit the stable loading of Ku on seDSBs...
September 19, 2016: Nature Communications
Michael Eschbaumer, Carolina Stenfeldt, Steven I Rekant, Juan M Pacheco, Ethan J Hartwig, George R Smoliga, Mary A Kenney, William T Golde, Luis L Rodriguez, Jonathan Arzt
BACKGROUND: In order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. Eighteen steers that had received a recombinant FMDV A vaccine 2 weeks earlier and 29 non-vaccinated steers were challenged by intra-nasopharyngeal deposition of FMDV A24. For up to 35 days after challenge, host factors including complete blood counts with T lymphocyte subsets, type I/III interferon (IFN) activity, neutralizing and total FMDV-specific antibody titers in serum, as well as antibody-secreting cells (in 6 non-vaccinated animals) were characterized in the context of viral infection dynamics...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Antonia A Nemec, Korie B Bush, Jamie B Towle-Weicksel, B Frazier Taylor, Vincent Schulz, Joanne Weidhaas, David P Tuck, Joann B Sweasy
: Repair of DNA damage is critical for maintaining the genomic integrity of cells. DNA polymerase lambda (POLL/Pol lambda) is suggested to function in base excision repair (BER) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), and is likely to play a role in damage tolerance at the replication fork. Here, using next-generation sequencing, it was discovered that the POLL rs3730477 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding R438W Pol lambda was significantly enriched in the germlines of breast cancer patients...
September 12, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
F V Bauermann, S M Falkenberg, J F Ridpath
The ability of ruminant pestivirus including bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and the related emerging pestivirus, HoBi-like virus, to establish persistent infection (PI) following foetal infection is central to keeping these viruses in circulation. Non-PI dams carrying BVDV PI calves develop high levels of immunity due constantly viral exposure. A study to determine whether the immunity developed following the generation of a BVDV PI is enough to prevent HoBi-like virus infection of a subsequent foetus was performed...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Douglas G Wright, Reneau Castore, Runhua Shi, Amrita Mallick, Don G Ennis, Lynn Harrison
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis express a Ku protein and a DNA ligase D and are able to repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). This pathway protects against DNA damage when bacteria are in stationary phase. Mycobacterium marinum is a member of this mycobacterium family and like M. tuberculosis is pathogenic. M. marinum lives in water, forms biofilms and infects fish and frogs. M. marinum is a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) organism as it can infect humans, although infections are limited to the skin...
September 9, 2016: Mutagenesis
Vicky Makker, Fernando O Recio, Ling Ma, Ursula A Matulonis, Jennifer O Lauchle, Hema Parmar, Houston N Gilbert, Joseph A Ware, Rui Zhu, Shan Lu, Ling-Yuh Huw, Yulei Wang, Hartmut Koeppen, Jill M Spoerke, Mark R Lackner, Carol A Aghajanian
BACKGROUND: The current single-arm, open-label trial was designed to evaluate the activity of apitolisib (GDC-0980), a dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) inhibitor, in patients with advanced endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS: Patients with recurrent or persistent EC who were treated with 1 to 2 prior lines of chemotherapy but no prior PI3K/mTOR inhibitor received oral apitolisib at a dose of 40 mg daily during 28-day cycles until disease progression or intolerable toxicity occurred...
September 7, 2016: Cancer
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"