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Inhalational burn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227637/urban-organic-aerosol-exposure-spatial-variations-in-composition-and-source-impacts
#1
Hugh Z Li, Timothy R Dallmann, Xiang Li, Peishi Gu, Albert A Presto
We conducted a mobile sampling campaign in a historically industrialized terrain (Pittsburgh, PA) targeting spatial heterogeneity of organic aerosol. Thirty-six sampling sites were chosen based on stratification of traffic, industrial source density, and elevation. We collected organic carbon (OC) on quartz filters, quantified different OC components with thermal-optical analysis, and grouped them based on volatility in decreasing order (OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed carbon (PC)). We compared our ambient OC concentrations (both gas and particle phase) to similar measurements from vehicle dynamometer tests, cooking emissions, biomass burning emissions, and a highway traffic tunnel...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215833/-effect-of-conditioned-medium-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-regeneration-of-endothelium-at-hcl-induced-damage-trachea-in-rats
#2
A A Temnov, A G Volkova, A V Melerzanov, V I Novoselov
The purpose. Respiratory epithelium regeneration is studied in rats with tracheal damage induced by inhaling hydrochloric acid vapor. Method. Regeneration process after the chemical burn was activated by intratracheal administration of preparations obtained from the same-species mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Results. Tracheal epithelium is shown to recover almost completely on day 3-7 after applying MSC compositions (MSCs). Closed structures containing ciliated cells similar to ciliated cells of the respiratory epithelium lining the trachea are formed in the submucosal epithelium during regeneration...
April 2017: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180993/co-carcinogenesis-human-papillomaviruses-coal-tar-derivatives-and-squamous-cell-cervical-cancer
#3
Harry W Haverkos, Gregory P Haverkos, Michael O'Mara
Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most common cancers among women worldwide. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) play a major role in the etiology of CC, with several lines of epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting a role for non-viral (co-carcinogens) and host genetic factors in controlling the risk for progression to neoplasia among HPV-infected individuals. The role of co-carcinogens in the development of CC is significant in the developing world where poor sanitation and other socio-economic conditions increase the infectious cancer burden...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177910/characteristic-and-source-of-atmospheric-pm10-and-pm2-5-bound-pahs-in-a-typical-metallurgic-city-near-yangtze-river-in-china
#4
Hong Zhang, Ruwei Wang, Huaqin Xue, Ruoyu Hu, Guijian Liu
The characteristics of atmospheric PM10- and PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Tongling city, China. Results showed that the total concentrations of PM10- and PM2.5-bound PAHs exhibited distinct seasonal and spatial variability. The metallurgic sites showed the highest PAH concentrations, which is mainly attributed to the metallurgic activities (mainly copper ore smelting) and coal combustion as the smelting fuel. The rural area showed the lowest concentrations, but exhibited significant increase from summer to autumn...
November 25, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169701/aromatherapy-for-the-relief-of-symptoms-in-burn-patients-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
REVIEW
Jiae Choi, Ju Ah Lee, Zainab Alimoradi, Myeong Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Aromatherapy is often used to manage several conditions, including pain, psychological distress, and burn-related symptoms. The objective of this review was to assess the current evidence regarding the efficacy of aromatherapy as a treatment for burn wounds. METHODS: The following fifteen databases and trial registries were searched for studies published between their dates of inception and January 2017: AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), as well as six Korean medical databases and four Iranian databases...
November 20, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166710/-effects-of-hydrogen-on-the-lung-damage-of-mice-at-early-stage-of-severe-burn
#6
C Qin, Y X Bian, T T Feng, J H Zhang, Y H Yu
Objective: To investigate the effects of hydrogen on the lung damage of mice at early stage of severe burn. Methods: One hundred and sixty ICR mice were divided into sham injury, hydrogen, pure burn, and burn+ hydrogen groups according to the random number table, with 40 mice in each group. Mice in pure burn group and burn+ hydrogen group were inflicted with 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald (hereafter referred to as burn) on the back, while mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group were sham injured...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164951/letter-in-response-to-acquired-methemoglobinemia-after-hydroxocobalamin-administration-in-a-patient-with-burns-and-inhalation-injury
#7
Ryland W Pace, Daniel Lugassy, Robert S Hoffman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156998/exposures-to-automatic-dishwashing-rinse-aids-reported-to-the-united-kingdom-national-poisons-information-service-2008-2016
#8
Rachael C Day, Sally M Bradberry, Euan A Sandilands, Simon H L Thomas, John P Thompson, Allister Vale
OBJECTIVE: To determine the toxicity of rinse aids which are used as drying aids to remove water from crockery. METHODS: Enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) were analysed retrospectively for the period January 2008 to December 2016. RESULTS: There were 855 enquiries relating to 828 patients; children aged 5 years or less accounted for 91.1%. Most exposures occurred from ingestion alone (n = 778, 94.0%), but 26 involved ingestion and other routes: 21 with skin contact, 3 with eye contact, and two with both skin and eye contact...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123875/indications-of-early-intubation-for-patients-with-inhalation-injury
#9
Shinya Onishi, Akinori Osuka, Yuichi Kuroki, Masashi Ueyama
Aim: For patients with inhalation injury, the indications for early intubation are diverse. The purpose of this study was to identify the most reliable symptoms, physical findings, and medical examinations with which to determine the indications for early intubation in patients with inhalation injury. Methods: We retrospectively collected patient data from medical records. Collected data included age, sex, burn size, symptoms, physical findings, carboxyhemoglobin levels (COHb), and bronchial wall thickness (BWT) determined from chest computed tomography images...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115647/clinical-infection-in-burn-patients-and-its-consequences
#10
Cem Emir Güldoğan, Murat Kendirci, Deniz Tikici, Emre Gündoğdu, Ahmet Çınar Yastı
BACKGROUND: Burn injuries facilitate invasive infections and sepsis not only by destroying the continuity of the protective skin barrier but also through systemic effects. The burn wound, blood, and urine samples are frequently cultured to determine the pathogen agent. The aim of this study was to analyze pathogen growth in patients' cultures confirmed as "infection positive" by the hospital Infection Control Committee and to assess the clinical implications of these growths. METHODS: Hospitalized patients included in the study were those with a total burned body surface area of >10% and "presence of infection" confirmed by the Infection Control Committee...
November 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100677/accelerant-related-burns-and-drug-abuse-challenging-combination
#11
Leslie T F Leung, Anthony Papp
BACKGROUND: Accelerants are flammable substances that may cause explosion when added to existing fires. The relationships between drug abuse and accelerant-related burns are not well elucidated in the literature. Of these burns, a portion is related to drug manufacturing, which have been shown to be associated with increased burn complications. OBJECTIVES: 1) To evaluate the demographics and clinical outcomes of accelerant-related burns in a Provincial Burn Centre...
October 31, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097070/characterization-of-variables-for-potential-impact-on-vancomycin-pharmacokinetics-in-thermal-or-inhalation-injury
#12
Katie Elder, David M Hill, William L Hickerson
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin dosing in thermal or inhalation injury as they relate to percent total body surface area burn (TBSA) and days since injury (DSI). METHODS: This retrospective 3-year study included patients with thermal or inhalation injury receiving vancomycin. Patient demographics and course data were collected using the institution's electronic medical record. RESULTS: Six hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study; 124 remained after exclusion...
October 30, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089204/the-impact-of-operative-time-and-hypothermia-in-acute-burn-surgery
#13
N Ziolkowski, A D Rogers, W Xiong, B Hong, S Patel, B Trull, M G Jeschke
BACKGROUND: Prolonged operative time and intraoperative hypothermia are known to have deleterious effects on surgical outcomes. Although millions of burn injuries undergo operative treatment globally every year, there remains a paucity of evidence to guide perioperative practice in burn surgery. This study evaluated associations between hypothermia and operative time on post-operative complications in acute burn surgery. METHOD: A historical cohort study from January 1, 2006 to October 31, 2015 was completed at an American Burn Association verified burn centre...
October 28, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081318/risk-factors-for-healthcare-associated-infections-in-adult-burn-patients
#14
Paula D Strassle, Felicia N Williams, David J Weber, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, Anne M Lachiewicz, Sonia Napravnik, Samuel W Jones, Bruce A Cairns, David van Duin
OBJECTIVE Burn patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and an estimated half of all burn deaths are due to infections. This study explored risk factors for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in adult burn patients. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Tertiary-care burn center. PATIENTS Adults (≥18 years old) admitted with burn injury for at least 2 days between 2004 and 2013. METHODS HAIs were determined in real-time by infection preventionists using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria...
October 30, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080833/age-related-immune-responses-after-burn-and-inhalation-injury-are-associated-with-altered-clinical-outcomes
#15
John H Frankel, Devin M Boe, Joslyn M Albright, Eileen B O'Halloran, Stewart R Carter, Christopher S Davis, Luis Ramirez, Ellen L Burnham, Richard L Gamelli, Majid Afshar, Elizabeth J Kovacs
This prospective study aimed to address changes in inflammatory response between different aged populations of patients who sustained burn and inhalation injury. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from 104 patients within 15h of their estimated time of burn injury. Clinical variables, laboratory parameters, and immune mediator profiles were examined in association with clinical outcomes. Older patients were at higher odds for death after burn injury (odds ratio (OR)=7.37 per 10years, p=0...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074026/numerical-investigation-of-airflow-heat-transfer-and-particle-deposition-for-oral-breathing-in-a-realistic-human-upper-airway-model
#16
X Y Xu, S J Ni, M Fu, X Zheng, N Luo, W G Weng
Inhalation injury from exposure to fire smoke is one of the causes of burn-related death. In this study, a realistic three-dimensional human upper airway model was built from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanned images, including the nasal, oral, pharynx, larynx, trachea and part of the first generation of the tracheobronchial tree, as well as a tissue region from the pharynx to the upper bronchi. The Transition Shear Stress Transport (SST-transition) turbulence model, Pennes bioheat transfer equation, convective boundary conditions and a Lagrangian frame were applied and verified with experimental measurements to simulate the airflow fields, temperature distributions and particle deposition in the human airway model...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066003/clinical-outcomes-after-burns-in-elderly-patients-over-70-years-a-17-year-retrospective-analysis
#17
Gregg Dexter, Sachin Patil, Kanwardeep Singh, Michael A Marano, Robin Lee, Sylvia J Petrone, Ronald S Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: In the United Stated population >70years is likely to double by the year 2050. Elderly population (>70years) are most vulnerable to burns and outcomes following such injuries in this special group is poorly studied. This study aimed to look at outcomes following burns in patients >70years over a period of 17 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 6512 patients admitted to a Level I Burn Center between 1995 and 2011 was analyzed. Age, gender, ethnicity, TBSA, burn etiology, hospital and burn intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) and status at discharge were abstracted...
October 20, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054643/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-urban-atmosphere-of-nepal-distribution-sources-seasonal-trends-and-cancer-risk
#18
Balram Pokhrel, Ping Gong, Xiaoping Wang, Chuanfei Wang, Shaoping Gao
Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas have always been a global concern, as these areas are considered to be the source region. Despite studies on the concentrations of PAHs in water, soils and sediments, knowledge of the distribution patterns, seasonality and sources of PAHs in urban areas of Nepal remains limited. In this study, polyurethane foam passive air samplers were used to measure gas-phase PAH concentrations over different land types in three major cities of Nepal-namely, Kathmandu (the capital) and Pokhara (both densely populated cities), and Hetauda (an agricultural city)...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051449/do-16-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-represent-pah-air-toxicity
#19
Vera Samburova, Barbara Zielinska, Andrey Khlystov
Estimation of carcinogenic potency based on analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranked by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most popular approach within scientific and environmental air quality management communities. The majority of PAH monitoring projects have been focused on particle-bound PAHs, ignoring the contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the toxicity of PAH mixtures in air samples. In this study, we analyzed the results of 13 projects in which 88 PAHs in both gas and particle phases were collected from different sources (biomass burning, mining operation, and vehicle emissions), as well as in urban air...
August 15, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029861/burn-injury-outcomes-in-patients-with-pre-existing-diabetic-mellitus-risk-of-hospital-acquired-infections-and-inpatient-mortality
#20
Laquanda Knowlin, Paula D Strassle, Felicia N Williams, Richard Thompson, Samuel Jones, David J Weber, David van Duin, Bruce A Cairns, Anthony Charles
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cause of illness and death in the United States, and diabetic patients are at increased risk for burn injury. We therefore sought to examine the impact of pre-existing DM on the risk of inpatient mortality and hospital acquired infections (HAI) among burn patients. METHODS: Adult patients (≥18 years old) admitted from 2004 to 2013 were analyzed. Weighted Kaplan-Meier survival curves - adjusting for patient demographics, burn mechanism, presence of inhalation injury, total body surface area, additional comorbidities, and differential lengths of stay - were used to estimate the 30-day and 60-day risk of mortality and HAIs...
October 10, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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