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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644205/the-unrecognized-epidemic-of-electronic-cigarette-burns
#1
Jesus I Ramirez, Catherine A Ridgway, Jeanne G Lee, Bruce M Potenza, Soman Sen, Tina L Palmieri, David G Greenhalgh, Pirko Maguina
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine as an inhaled aerosol. They originated from China in 2007 and their use has rapidly increased worldwide in the past decade, yet they remain largely unregulated. Reports of injuries associated with their use have appeared as unusual events in the news media and as case reports in the medical literature. This study was undertaken to explore e-cigarettes as a mechanism of burn injury. Referral records to three burn centers from January 2007 to July 2016 were searched to identify patients with injuries caused by e-cigarettes...
July 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642142/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infections-in-177-severe-burn-patients-from-an-industrial-disaster-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#2
Chenqi Tang, Junqiang Li, Beiming Shou, Bohan Pan, Tiansheng Chen, Yongqiang Xiao, Xiaopeng Zheng, Shichu Xiao, Qian Tan, Zhaofan Xia
OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and to evaluate the impact of BSIs on mortality in severe burn patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in 20 tertiary hospitals. A total of 185 Patients who experienced a massive dust explosion in eastern China were included. RESULTS: After exclusion, 177 patients were analyzed. The median total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 95% (interquartile range [IQR], 85%-98%)...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641278/astragaloside-iv-alleviates-heat-induced-inflammation-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-autophagy
#3
Zhiwei Dong, Jian Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yajie Chen, Zichen Yang, Guangtao Huang, Yu Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Yizhi Peng, Tongtong Cao
BACKGROUND: Thermal injury is the main cause of pulmonary disease in stroke after burn and can be life threatening. Heat-induced inflammation is an important factor that triggers a series of induces pathological changes. However, this mechanism underlying heat-induced inflammation in thermal inhalation injury remains unclear. Studies have revealed that astragaloside-IV (AS-IV), a natural compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, has protective effects in inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated whether the protective effects of AS-IV occur because of the suppression of heat-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive autophagy Methods: AS-IV was administered to Wistar rats after thermal inhalation injury and 16HBE140-cells were treated with AS-IV...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615047/sensitivity-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-is-decreased-in-mice-with-a-congenital-deletion-of-guanylyl-cyclase-1-alpha
#4
Yasuko Nagasaka, Martin Wepler, Robrecht Thoonen, Patrick Y Sips, Kaitlin Allen, Jan A Graw, Vincent Yao, Sara M Burns, Stefan Muenster, Peter Brouckaert, Keith Miller, Ken Solt, Emmanuel S Buys, Fumito Ichinose, Warren M Zapol
BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics increase levels of the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) and the secondary messenger molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the brain. NO activates the enzyme guanylyl cyclase (GC) to produce cGMP. We hypothesized that the NO-GC-cGMP pathway contributes to anesthesia-induced unconsciousness. METHODS: Sevoflurane-induced loss and return of righting reflex (LORR and RORR, respectively) were studied in wild-type mice (WT) and in mice congenitally deficient in the GC-1α subunit (GC-1(-/-) mice)...
June 14, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606748/long-term-mortality-in-critically-ill-burn-survivors
#5
Stephanie Nitzschke, Anaeze C Offodile, Ryan P Cauley, Jason E Frankel, Andrew Beam, Kevin M Elias, Fiona K Gibbons, Ali Salim, Kenneth B Christopher
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about long term survival risk factors in critically ill burn patients who survive hospitalization. We hypothesized that patients with major burns who survive hospitalization would have favorable long term outcomes. METHODS: We performed a two center observational cohort study in 365 critically ill adult burn patients who survived to hospital discharge. The exposure of interest was major burn defined a priori as >20% total body surface area burned [TBSA]...
June 9, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592930/the-airway-in-inhalational-injury-diagnosis-and-management
#6
A Sabri, H Dabbous, A Dowli, R Barazi
It is estimated that 13.000 to 22.000 individuals suffer from inhalational burns each year in the United States alone. Despite these high numbers, inhalational burns remain a major challenge to otolaryngologists. In this paper, a review of literature is presented in order to provide otolaryngologists with a systematic approach to patients with inhalational burns to optimize treatment, cost, morbidity and, most importantly, mortality. For this purpose, a broad PubMed search was conducted. The available literature was found to highlight the importance of airway management in terms of the timing of intubation, method of intubation, trachea-esophageal (TE) fistula formation and TE rupture...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592928/comparison-of-six-outcome-prediction-models-in-an-adult-burn-population-in-a-developing-country
#7
S H Salehi, K As'adi, A Abbaszadeh-Kasbi, M S Isfeedvajani, N Khodaei
There are two types of prognostic model - burn-specific and general - to predict mortality risk in burn patients. Most prediction models were devised in developed countries. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of six outcome models in a developing country. In a retrospective cohort study, data of all thermal burned adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) admitted to the Burn Intensive Care Unit (BICU) were collected and then the following six prediction models were used to assess each patient: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI), Belgian Outcome in Burn Injury (BOBI), the Ryan model, revised Baux and FLAMES model...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592162/natural-and-synthetic-products-used-for-the-treatment-of-smoke-inhalation-a-patent-review
#8
Fernanda Oliveira de Carvalho, Érika Ramos Silva, Fernanda Araújo Felipe, Luciana Garcez Barretto Teixeira, Luciana Beatriz Silva Zago, Paula Santos Nunes, Saravanan Shanmugam, Mairim Russo Serafini, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo
Inhalation injury is the leading cause of death in burn patients and is usually caused by the uninhibited absorption of smoke, which has an extremely toxic effect on the respiratory system. The physiopathology of inhalation injury covers multiple factors and the injured respiratory system may present deterioration in a few hours. Areas covered: In this present review, we analyzed patents based on both natural and synthetic products developed for the treatment of smoke inhalation. We found 14 patents in Espacenet, 25 in WIPO and none in the USPTO data search...
June 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589152/increased-mortality-in-women-sex-differences-in-burn-outcomes
#9
Karen Karimi, Iris Faraklas, Giavonni Lewis, Daniel Ha, Bridget Walker, Yan Zhai, Gareth Graves, Sharmila Dissanaike
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that sex differences may influence responses after thermal injury and affect clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between sex, thermal injury, body size, and inpatient mortality in burn patients. METHODS: Medical records of adults with >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injury admitted to two American Burn Association (ABA)-verified burn centers between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576239/inhalation-injury-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Samuel W Jones, Felicia N Williams, Bruce A Cairns, Robert Cartotto
The classic determinants of mortality from severe burn injury are age, size of injury, delays of resuscitation, and the presence of inhalation injury. Of the major determinants of mortality, inhalation injury remains one of the most challenging injuries for burn care providers. Patients with inhalation injury are at increased risk for pneumonia (the leading cause of death) and multisystem organ failure. There is no consensus among leading burn care centers in the management of inhalation injury. This article outlines the current treatment algorithms and the evidence of their efficacy...
July 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573147/the-progress-of-chinese-burn-medicine-from-the-third-military-medical-university-in-memory-of-its-pioneer-professor-li-ao
#11
REVIEW
Haisheng Li, Junyi Zhou, Yizhi Peng, Jiaping Zhang, Xi Peng, Qizhi Luo, Zhiqiang Yuan, Hong Yan, Daizhi Peng, Weifeng He, Fengjun Wang, Guangping Liang, Yuesheng Huang, Jun Wu, Gaoxing Luo
Professor Li Ao was one of the founders of Chinese burn medicine and one of the most renowned doctors and researchers of burns in China. He established one of the Chinese earliest special departments for burns at Third Military Medical University (TMMU) in 1958. To memorialize Professor Li Ao on his 100th birthday in 2017 and introduce our extensive experience, it is our honor to briefly review the development and achievement of the Chinese burn medicine from TMMU. The epidemiology and outcomes of admitted burn patients since 1958 were reviewed...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570317/safety-of-nebulized-epinephrine-in-smoke-inhalation-injury
#12
Guillermo Foncerrada, Francisco Lima, Robert P Clayton, Ronald P Mlcak, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, David N Herndon, Oscar E Suman
This pilot study was conducted to profile safety of nebulized racemic epinephrine when used as a therapy for smoke inhalation injury in severely burned children. We enrolled 16 patients who were 7 to 19 years of age ([mean ± SD], 12 ± 4 years) with burns covering more than 30% of the TBSA (55 ± 17%) and smoke inhalation injury, as diagnosed by bronchoscopy at burn center admission. Patients were randomized to receive either standard of care (n = 8), which consisted of nebulized acetylcysteine, nebulized heparin, and nebulized albuterol, or to receive standard of care plus nebulized epinephrine (n = 8)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570316/severity-of-inhalation-injury-is-predictive-of-alterations-in-gas-exchange-and-worsened-clinical-outcomes
#13
Tia Sutton, Ian Lenk, Peggie Conrad, Marcia Halerz, Michael Mosier
Inhalation injury (INH) is present in one third of large burn injuries and increases oxygenation and fluid resuscitation requirements, incidences of pulmonary complications, risk for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and overall mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated inconsistent correlation between bronchoscopic evaluation and clinical outcomes. The authors reviewed 161 patients admitted with a diagnosis of INH or underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy for suspected INH over a period of 8.5 years...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551742/human-health-risk-exposure-with-respect-to-particulate-bound-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-at-mine-fire-affected-coal-mining-complex
#14
Debananda Roy, Yong-Chil Seo, Sweta Sinha, Abir Bhattacharya, Gurdeep Singh, Pallab Kr Biswas
Particulate-bound poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity effect on human health. In this context, identification, quantification and inhalation cancer risk (ICR) assessment due to PM10- and PM2.5-bound PAHs has been carried out at six monitoring stations in a critically polluted Jharia coalfield/Dhanbad City. Identification of pollution sources at study area has been performed by using PCA statistical methods. Air quality index (AQI) and air quality health index (AQHI) were calculated based on the concentration levels of PM10...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551565/pm2-5-bound-metal-metabolic-distribution-and-coupled-lipid-abnormality-at-different-developmental-windows
#15
Tingting Ku, Yingying Zhang, Xiaotong Ji, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a serious threat to human health. As a toxicant constituent, metal leads to significant health risks in a population, but exposure to PM2.5-bound metals and their biological impacts are not fully understood. In this study, we determined the metal contents of PM2.5 samples collected from a typical coal-burning city and then investigated the metabolic distributions of six metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Cu, and Cd) following PM2.5 inhalation in mice in different developmental windows...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530774/a-rare-type-of-burn-injury-due-to-butane-gas-inhalation
#16
Ergin Seven, Uğur Horoz, Elif Sarı, Hülda Rifat Özakpınar, Mert Muhittin Sandıkcı, Emre İnözü, Ali Teoman Tellioğlu
BACKGROUND: Abusive inhalation of butane gas is becoming a serious public health problem among teenagers and young adult population; however, there has been little reporting on explosion burns associated with abuse of butane cigarette lighter fluid. METHODS: Retrospective study was conducted of 22 patients who were burned in last 2 years in explosion of butane gas, a flammable, odorless, and colorless aliphatic hydrocarbon. RESULTS: Details of sociodemographic profile of the patients, any underlying psychiatric illness, alcohol abuse, depth of burn injury, any associated injury, duration of hospitalization, and percentage of burned area were recorded and analyzed...
May 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527873/comparison-of-xenon-with-led-illuminant-in-difficult-and-inhalation-injury-airway-scenario-a-randomized-crossover-manikin-study
#17
Andreas Moritz, Johannes Prottengeier, Joachim Schmidt
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a Xenon halogen with a light-emitting diode (LED) laryngoscope light handle in a difficult airway scenario, as well as in an inhalation injury airway scenario that combines a difficult airway and a limited view. METHODS: We recruited forty-two anesthetists into a randomized crossover trial. Each performed tracheal intubation (TI) with a Xenon halogen and a LED light handle in the two manikin scenarios...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496039/pyrolysis-of-ur-144-a-synthetic-cannabinoid-augments-an-affinity-to-human-cb1-receptor-and-cannabimimetic-effects-in-mice
#18
Asuka Kaizaki-Mitsumoto, Kyoko Hataoka, Masahiko Funada, Yuki Odanaka, Hiroki Kumamoto, Satoshi Numazawa
Drug abusers most often smoke 'herbal incense' as a cigarette or inhale it using a smoking tool. Smoking may cause pyrolysis of the drug and produce decomposed products of which biological effect has never been investigated. The synthetic cannabinoid UR-144 is known to undergo thermal degradation, giving a ring-opened isomer, so-called UR-144 degradant. The present study demonstrates by using UR-144 as a model drug that the smoke of burned UR-144 contains the UR-144 degradant. The UR-144 degradant showed approximately four fold higher agonist activity to human CB1 receptor and augmented hypothermic and akinetic actions in mice compared to UR-144...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467581/can-we-make-an-early-do-not-resuscitate-decision-in-severe-burn-patients
#19
Yücel Yüce, Hakan Ahmet Acar, Kutlu Hakan Erkal, Erhan Tuncay
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to examine topic of issuing early do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order at first diagnosis of patients with severe burn injuries in light of current law in Turkey and the medical literature. DNR requires withholding cardiopulmonary resuscitation in event of respiratory or cardiac arrest and allowing natural death to occur. It is frequently enacted for terminal cancer patients and elderly patients with irreversible neurological disorders. METHODS: Between January 2009 and December 2014, 29 patients (3...
March 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452888/the-impact-of-patient-weight-on-burn-resuscitation
#20
Nehemiah T Liu, Craig A Fenrich, Maria L Serio-Melvin, Wylan C Peterson, Leopoldo C Cancio, José Salinas
BACKGROUND: Optimal fluid resuscitation of burn patients with burns greater than 20% total body surface area is critical to prevent burn shock during the initial 24 hours to 48 hours postburn. Currently, most resuscitation formulas incorporate the patient's weight when estimating 24-hour fluid requirements. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of weight on fluid resuscitation requirements and outcomes during the initial 24 hours after admission. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to our burn intensive care unit from December 2007 to April 2013, resuscitated with a computerized decision support system...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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