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Inhalational burn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431008/gasoline-related-injuries-and-fatalities-in-the-united-states-1995-2014
#1
Dorothy A Drago
This descriptive study examines twenty years of gasoline-related fatalities and emergency department treated injuries in the United States, based on data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Thermal burns consistently accounted for the majority (56%) of gasoline-related injuries and for most (82%) gasoline-related deaths, and were commonly (57-71%) associated with the use of gasoline as an accelerant. Poisoning accounted for 13% of injuries and 17% of deaths. The primary poisoning injury pattern was ingestion; the primary fatality pattern was inhalation, with about half of those associated with deliberate abuse...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406111/observations-of-atmospheric-pollutants-at-lhasa-during-2014-2015-pollution-status-and-the-influence-of-meteorological-factors
#2
Bu Duo, Lulu Cui, Zhenzhen Wang, Rui Li, Liwu Zhang, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Huifang Zhang, A Qiong
Atmospheric pollutants including SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were monitored continuously from March 2014 to February 2015 to investigate characteristics of air pollution at Lhasa, Tibetan Plateau. Species exhibited similar seasonal variations except O3, with the peaks in winter but low valleys in summer. The maximum O3 concentration was observed in spring, followed by summer, autumn, and winter. The positive correlation between O3 and PM10 in spring indicated similar sources of them, and was assumed to be turbulent transport...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398078/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-inhalation-injury-an-evidence-based-approach
#3
REVIEW
C J Deutsch, A Tan, S Smailes, P Dziewulski
INTRODUCTION: Smoke inhalation injury (II) is an independent risk factor for mortality in burns and its management is inherently complex. We aim to make recommendations for best practice in managing II and its sequelae by reviewing all available current evidence in order to provide an evidence-based approach. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane database and Embase using PRISMA guidelines with no patient population exclusion criteria. Published work was reviewed and evidence levels graded...
February 1, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395761/cyanide-poisoning-is-a-possible-cause-of-cardiac-arrest-among-fire-victims-and-empiric-antidote-treatment-may-improve-outcomes
#4
Yasuhiko Kaita, Takehiko Tarui, Takahiro Shoji, Hiroshi Miyauchi, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning are important causes of death due to fire. Carbon monoxide is more regularly assessed than cyanide at the site of burn or smoke inhalation treatment due to its ease in assessment and simplicity to treat. Although several forensic studies have demonstrated the significance of cyanide poisoning in fire victims using blood cyanide levels, the association between the cause of cardiac arrest and the concentration of cyanide among fire victims has not been sufficiently investigated...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395396/measuring-serum-albumin-levels-at-0-and-24h-effect-on-the-accuracy-of-clinical-evaluations-in-the-prediction-of-burn-related-mortality
#5
Hassan Rafiezadeh Shahi, Mehrdad Vahedian, Mitra Movahedi, Kambiz Bahaadinbeigy, Morteza Hashemian, Amirhossein Mirafzal
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether measuring serum albumin levels in clinical assessments affects the accuracy of mortality predictions in large burns and to compare patients' serum albumin levels at hour 0(Alb0h) and hour 24(Alb24h) following their admission. METHODS: This prospective observational study was performed at an academic burn unit. Aged between 16 and 65, patients who presented with burns on more than 20% of total body surface area (%TBSA) were included...
January 27, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389698/goal-directed-fluid-resuscitation-protocol-based-on-arterial-waveform-analysis-of-major-burn-patients-in-a-mass-burn-casualty
#6
Hao-Yu Chiao, Chang-Yi Chou, Yuan-Sheng Tzeng, Chih-Hsin Wang, Shyi-Gen Chen, Niann-Tzyy Dai
BACKGROUND: Adequate fluid titration during the initial resuscitation period of major burn patients is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol that used hourly urine output plus the arterial waveform analysis FloTrac (Edwards LifeSciences, Irvine, Calif) system for major burns to avoid fluid overload. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43 major burn patients at the Tri-Service General Hospital after the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion on June 27, 2015...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388754/emergency-department-management-of-patients-with-thermal-burns-digest
#7
Juliana Tolles, Nachi Gupta, Jeffrey Nusbaum
Thermal burn injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to treatment of the burns, emergency clinicians must assess for inhalation injury, exposure to toxic gases, and related traumatic injuries. Priorities for emergency resuscitation include stabilization of airway and breathing, intravenous fluid administration, pain control, and local wound care. Special populations, including children and pregnant women, require additional treatment considerations. Referral to specialized burn care for select patients is necessary to improve long-term outcomes...
February 1, 2018: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381492/lung-function-in-oil-spill-response-workers-1-3-years-after-the-deepwater-horizon-disaster
#8
Kaitlyn B Gam, Richard K Kwok, Lawrence S Engel, Matthew D Curry, Patricia A Stewart, Mark R Stenzel, John A McGrath, W Braxton Jackson, Robert L Jensen, Alexander P Keil, Maureen Y Lichtveld, Aubrey K Miller, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of inhalation exposures on lung function among workers involved in the mitigation of oil spills. Our objective was to determine the relationship between oil spill response work and lung function 1-3 years after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster. METHODS: We evaluated spirometry for 7,775 adults living in the Gulf states who either participated in DWH response efforts (workers) or received safety training but were not hired (non-workers)...
January 29, 2018: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369586/emergency-department-management-of-patients-with-thermal-burns
#9
Juliana Tolles
Thermal burn injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to treatment of the burns, emergency clinicians must assess for inhalation injury, exposure to toxic gases, and related traumatic injuries. Priorities for emergency resuscitation include stabilization of airway and breathing, intravenous fluid administration, pain control, and local wound care. Special populations, including children and pregnant women, require additional treatment considerations. Referral to specialized burn care for select patients is necessary to improve long-term outcomes...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366494/proposal-for-an-algorithm-for-the-management-of-the-patient-s-airway-after-smoke-inhalation
#10
P Kot Baixauli, J E Morales Sarabia, L Rovira Soriano, J De Andrés Ibáñez
Smoke inhalation represents the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in burns patients. Given the injuries that can occur in the airway after this exposure, it is imperative to evaluate the need for orotracheal intubation in the emergency department and even in the place of first assistance by healthcare workers. Since the clinical signs are poor predictors of the severity of the lesion, in selected cases, it is advisable to perform a diagnostic fibroscopy. We present a case report of a patient with a smoke inhalation lesion in which the fibroscopy was determinant to proceed to intubation, and we propose an algorithm of action for the management of the airway in this type of patients...
January 20, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361258/the-use-of-a-simple-three-level-bronchoscopic-assessment-of-inhalation-injury-to-predict-in-hospital-mortality-and-duration-of-mechanical-ventilation-in-patients-with-burns
#11
M T Aung, D Garner, M Pacquola, S Rosenblum, J McClure, H Cleland, D V Pilcher
Major burn centres in Australia use bronchoscopy to assess severity of inhalation injuries despite limited evidence as to how best to classify severity of inhalational injury or its relationship to patient outcomes. All patients with burns who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at The Alfred Hospital between February 2010 and July 2014 and underwent bronchoscopy to assess inhalational injury, were reviewed. Age, total body surface area burnt, severity of illness indices and mechanisms of injury were extracted from medical histories and local ICU and burns registries...
January 2018: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357133/pathophysiologic-mechanisms-and-current-treatments-for-cutaneous-sequelae-of-burn-wounds
#12
Caroline Hall, Carolyn Hardin, Christopher J Corkins, Alisha Z Jiwani, John Fletcher, Anders Carlsson, Rodney Chan
Burn injuries are a pervasive clinical problem. Extensive thermal trauma can be life-threatening or result in long-lasting complications, generating a significant impact on quality of life for patients as well as a cost burden to the healthcare system. The importance of addressing global or systemic issues such as resuscitation and management of inhalation injuries is not disputed but is beyond the scope of this review, which focuses on cutaneous pathophysiologic mechanisms for current treatments, both in the acute and long-term settings...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315336/hyperphosphatemia-is-associated-with-high-mortality-in-severe-burns
#13
George Kuo, Cheng-Chia Lee, Shih-Yi Yang, Yen-Chang Hsiao, Shiow-Shuh Chuang, Su-Wei Chang, Kun-Hua Tu, Pei-Chun Fan, Ya-Chung Tian, Yung-Chang Chen, Chih-Hsiang Chang
INTRODUCTION: Phosphate level is often deranged during acute illness, regardless of the presence of kidney injury or not. A few studies described that hypophosphatemia may associated with outcome in patients admitted to the burn unit, but the literatures for hyperphosphatemia is limited. Our study aims to evaluate if hyperphosphatemia, one of the sign of severe tissue damage or kidney injury, will associate with mortality of patients with severe burns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data from patients admitted to the burn unit between September 2006 and December 2011...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310404/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-combined-with-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-cutaneous-burn-and-inhalation-injury-caused-by-hydrofluoric-acid-and-nitric-acid
#14
Qinhua Pu, Jinxian Qian, Weiyi Tao, Aixiang Yang, Jian Wu, Yaodong Wang
RATIONALE: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a highly corrosive agent and can cause corrosive burns. HF can penetrate deeply into tissues through intact skin and the lipid barrier, leading to painful liquefactive necrosis, and inducing hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. In this study, we hypothesize that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may be beneficial in addressing hemodynamic instability in cases of HF poisoning. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 25-year-old man fell into an electroplating pool containing 10% HF and 50% nitric acid...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300328/the-human-exposure-potential-from-propylene-releases-to-the-environment
#15
REVIEW
David A Morgott
A detailed literature search was performed to assess the sources, magnitudes and extent of human inhalation exposure to propylene. Exposure evaluations were performed at both the community and occupational levels for those living or working in different environments. The results revealed a multitude of pyrogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic emission sources. Pyrogenic sources, including biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, appear to be the primary contributors to atmospheric propylene. Despite a very short atmospheric lifetime, measurable levels could be detected in highly remote locations as a result of biogenic release...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289289/airborne-pcdd-fs-in-two-e-waste-recycling-regions-after-stricter-environmental-regulations
#16
Manwen Zhang, Guixian Feng, Wenhua Yin, Bing Xie, Mingzhong Ren, Zhencheng Xu, Sukun Zhang, Zongwei Cai
Since the 2010s, the authorities of Guangdong province and local governments have enhanced law enforcement and environmental regulations to abolish open burning, acid washing, and other uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities. In this study, ambient air and indoor dust near different kinds of e-waste recycling processes were collected in Guiyu and Qingyuan to investigate the pollution status of particles and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) after stricter environmental regulations. PM2...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275617/-treatment-of-patients-with-different-degree-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-caused-by-inhalation-of-white-smoke
#17
F W Yang, H M Xin, J H Zhu, X Y Feng, X C Jiang, Z Y Gong, Y L Tong
Objective: To summarize the treatment experience of patients with different degree of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by inhalation of white smoke from burning smoke bomb. Methods: A batch of 13 patients with different degree of ARDS caused by inhalation of white smoke from burning smoke bomb, including 2 patients complicated by pulmonary fibrosis at the late stage, were admitted to our unit in February 2016. Patients were divided into mild (9 cases), moderate (2 cases), and serious (2 cases) degree according to the ARDS Berlin diagnostic criteria...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259642/ethnopharmacological-evaluation-of-breu-essential-oils-from-protium-species-administered-by-inhalation
#18
Eduardo Rodrigues da Silva, Danilo Ribeiro de Oliveira, Patrícia Dias Fernandes, Humberto Ribeiro Bizzo, Suzana Guimarães Leitão
Background: Breu is an aromatic oleoresin which has been used by Amazonian traditional communities as a remedy for headaches and migraines by burning and inhaling the smoke produced during its combustion. This study evaluated the antinociceptive and sedative activities of formulations containing breu essential oils administered by inhalation. Methods: Five different formulations (A-E) containing breu essential oils were evaluated for their sedative and antinociceptive activities in mice...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239735/burns-centre-and-fire-services-what-information-can-be-exchanged-to-manage-the-burn-patient
#19
O Pujji, B Nizar, J Bechar, D North, S Jeffery
AIM: To describe the experience of using a "Burns Extrication Form" at a regional Burns Centre. Communication between the fire services and burns team previously has been regarded as poor. Significant information is collected by the fire services at the scene and this can aid the management of the patient. METHODS: The Burns Extrication Form was devised to provide a clear framework of communication between the two services. Information regarding time frames, exposure to heat & smoke, fire loading (potential severity of a fire in a given space by measuring amount of combustible material in confined space), building construction, chemicals involved is passed to the medical team through this form through a National Health Service mailbox...
November 24, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233052/nebulized-heparin-with-n-acetylcysteine-and-albuterol-reduces-duration-of-mechanical-ventilation-in-patients-with-inhalation-injury
#20
Kaitlin A McGinn, Katie Weigartz, Alicia Lintner, Michael J Scalese, Steven A Kahn
OBJECTIVE: Nebulized heparin has been proposed to improve pulmonary function in patients with inhalation injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nebulized heparin with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and albuterol on the duration of mechanical ventilation in burn patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating mechanically ventilated adult patients admitted to a regional burn center with inhalation injury. Outcomes were compared between patients who were prescribed a combination of nebulized heparin with NAC and albuterol versus similar patients who did not...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
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