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Noelia Lahoz-García, Antonio García-Hermoso, Marta Milla-Tobarra, Ana Díez-Fernández, Alba Soriano-Cano, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between diet and obesity is mediated by CRF. In this cross-sectional study, fat mass (by electronic bioimpedance) was measured in 320 schoolchildren, aged 9-11 years. Diet was measured through two computerised 24-h dietary recalls and CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Juan Carlos Herrera, Mariana Lira, Juliana Kain
INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is related to socioeconomic level, studies are inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To determine obesity risk according to socioeconomic vulnerability among Chilean children (1st grade) in 2009 and 2013 and assess its change during that period, by sex and geographical area. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Cross-sectional study (N = 175,462 in 2009) and (N = 189,055 in 2013) which included: weight, height, rural / urban, gender and vulnerability obtained from JUNAEB's survey...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Sarah A Amin, Paula J Duquesnay, Catherine M Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D Economos, Jennifer M Sacheck
PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may impact children's physical activity (PA) behaviors and confidence to participate in PA. We examined how SES modifies the relationship between children's perceived athletic competence (PAC) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). METHODS: Children (N = 1157; 45% male; grades 3-4) were recruited for the Fueling Learning through Exercise study. Free/reduced price lunch eligibility was used as an indicator of SES. Seven-day accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) was used to measure daily MVPA, out-of-school MVPA (O-MVPA), and school-time MVPA...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Katrine N Aadland, Eivind Aadland, John R Andersen, Arne Lervåg, Vegard F Moe, Geir K Resaland, Yngvar Ommundsen
Inconsistent findings exist for the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on academic performance. The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) study revealed a favorable intervention effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in a subsample of 10-year-old elementary schoolchildren performing poorer at baseline in numeracy. Aiming to explain this finding, we investigated the mediating effects of executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being in the relation between the physical activity intervention and child's performance in numeracy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ana Luiza Curi Hallal, Andreza Madeira Macario, Roberto Hess de Souza, Antônio Fernando Boing, Lúcio Botelho, Joanna Cohen
This was a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the association between exposure to tobacco displays at the point of sale and susceptibility to smoking in schoolchildren in the 14- to 17-year age bracket. Of the participating students, 69.0%, 21.3%, and 9.7% were classified as never smokers, experimenters, and smokers, respectively. Of the participants who were classified as being exposed to smoking, 18.9% were susceptible to smoking. Of the participants who were classified as being unexposed to smoking, 12...
January 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Caroline Dos Santos Costa, Thaynã Ramos Flores, Andrea Wendt, Rosália Garcia Neves, Maria Cecília Formoso Assunção, Iná S Santos
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) among Brazilian adolescents. The study used data from the 2015 edition of the Brazilian National School Health Survey (PeNSE). Daily consumption of at least one group of UPF was the outcome, and the principal exposure was daily time spent in sedentary behavior (hours spent sitting, except for time sitting at school). We calculated prevalence rates, prevalence ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Jéssica Cumpian-Silva, Ana Elisa Madalena Rinaldi, Camila Medeiros da Silva Mazzeti, Wolney Lisboa Conde
The study aims to describe body phenotypes estimated by multivariate technique for the assessment of nutritional status in adolescence during the process of sexual maturation. The sample consisted of 833 schoolchildren 10 to 15 years of age, selected by complex sampling in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Body phenotypes were defined by principal components analysis (PCA) based on anthropometric data (body mass, height, skinfolds, and waist circumference), body composition (phase angle measurement by bioelectric impedance), biochemical parameters (triglycerides, glucose, total/LDL cholesterol ratio, hemoglobin), and sexual maturation (self-classification of stages of pubic hair and breasts or genitals)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Daniela Katharina Ahlberg, Heike Bischoff, Jessica Vanessa Strozyk, Doreen Bryant, Barbara Kaup
While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task...
2018: PloS One
Mitsuo Uchida, Minoru Kaneko, Yoshihiko Hidaka, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Takayuki Honda, Shouhei Takeuchi, Masaya Saito, Shigeyuki Kawa
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus transmission may be prevented by infection control measures, including vaccination, wearing a mask, gargling with water, and hand washing. It is unclear, however, whether these measures affect influenza epidemics in school settings. METHODS: A prospective epidemiological survey in all public elementary schools in Matsumoto City, Japan, during the 2014/2015 season evaluated the number of diagnosed patients in each school and calculated the reproduction number of schoolchildren...
March 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Caradee Y Wright, Vusumuzi Nkosi, Janine Wichmann
Respiratory health outcomes are among the top five causes of child morbidity and mortality around the world. We aimed to investigate possible food-related risk and protective factors for respiratory health outcomes in children. Structured questionnaires completed by primary caregivers of 10-year old children were used to collect information on demographics, socio-economic status, house characteristics and child respiratory health status. Upper (URIs) and Lower (LRIs) respiratory illnesses comprised hay fever, and wheezing, asthma and bronchitis, respectively...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ahmed Alshahethi, Abdulwahed Al Serouri, Yousef S Khader
BACKGROUND: The burden and pattern of unintentional child injuries in Yemen are not yet studied. This study aimed to determine the rate of unintentional injuries and their associated factors and describe the pattern of these injuries among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen. METHODS: A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among students in grades 9-12 in Sana'a Capital City. A total of 10 schools were selected using multistage sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Injury & Violence Research
Silvia Bel-Serrat, Mirjam M Heinen, John Mehegan, Sarah O'Brien, Nazih Eldin, Celine M Murrin, Cecily C Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Existing evidence on the role of sociodemographic variables as risk factors for overweight and obesity in school-aged children is inconsistent. Furthermore, findings seem to be influenced by the obesity definition applied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if school sociodemographic indicators were associated with weight status in Irish primary schoolchildren and whether this association was sensitive to different obesity classification systems. METHODS: A nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 7542 Irish children (53...
March 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Jordana L Burdon Bailey, Luke Gamble, Andrew D Gibson, Barend M deC Bronsvoort, Ian G Handel, Richard J Mellanby, Stella Mazeri
Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
(no author information available yet)
Analysis of recently published research appears to show only short-term improvements in plaque indices.
March 9, 2018: British Dental Journal
Hui-Feng Zhang, Lan Shuai, Jin-Song Zhang, Yu-Feng Wang, Teng-Fei Lu, Xin Tan, Jing-Xue Pan, Li-Xiao Shen
Background: Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children. Methods: The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
David Ferrandiz-Mont, Nur Wahyuniati, Hsin-Jen Chen, Mulyadi Mulyadi, Tjut Mariam Zanaria, Dar-Der Ji
INTRODUCTION: Exact etiology and proper treatment of eczema are still unknown. The hygiene hypothesis and epidermal barrier dysfunction hypothesis attempted to give some plausible explanations for these issues but they still remain unclear. The identification of factors, including hygiene practices, related to eczema symptoms (ES) could shed some light on these matters. Therefore, this study aimed to determine risk factors related to ES and the ES prevalence in two disparate areas in terms of urbanization in Aceh, Indonesia...
March 7, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
N Crespo-Eguilaz, P D Dominguez, M Vaquero, J Narbona
AIM: To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Bing-Fang Huang, Ya-Chi Chang, Ai-Ling Han, Hui-Tsung Hsu
The present study combined air sampling with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) to determine both the extent of air pollution proximal to an electric arc furnace (EAF) and its impact on human health. The mass concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) in exposure areas were not significantly higher than the samples taken at a control area. However, the concentrations of five metal elements, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in PM2.5 were significantly higher in the exposure area than that of the control area...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Kelli Cristina do Prado Côrrea, Maria Aparecida Miranda de Paula Machado, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos Hage
PURPOSE: Examine a set of competencies in children beginning the process of literacy and find whether there is positive correlation with their level of writing. METHODS: Study conducted with 70 six-year-old students enrolled in the first year of Elementary School in municipal schools. The children were submitted to the Initial Reading and Writing Competence Assessment Battery (BACLE) and the Diagnostic Probing Protocol for classification of their level of writing...
March 1, 2018: CoDAS
Ji Hyeon Lee
This study examined the relationship between victimization by bullying and physical symptoms among South Korean schoolchildren. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of 2006 schoolchildren across South Korea aged 9-17 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between victimization by bullying and physical symptoms in the children. Schoolchildren bullied 4 or more times by peers in the previous year were approximately 3 times more likely to report recurrent stomachache or dizziness and twice as likely to report headache and sleep difficulties than students who were never victimized by peers...
April 2018: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
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