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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031141/analysis-of-spastic-gait-in-cervical-myelopathy-linking-compression-ratio-to-spatiotemporal-and-pedobarographic-parameters
#1
Taro Nagai, Yasuhito Takahashi, Kenji Endo, Ryo Ikegami, Ryuichi Ueno, Kengo Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Gait dysfunction associated with spasticity and hyperreflexia is a primary symptom in patients with compression of cervical spinal cord. The objective of this study was to link maximum compression ratio (CR) to spatiotemporal/pedobarographic parameters. METHODS: Quantitative gait analysis was performed by using a pedobarograph in 75 elderly males with a wide range of cervical compression severity. CR values were characterized on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990565/-calpain-as-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-treating-spasticity-after-a-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Vanessa Plantier, Frédéric Brocard
After a spinal cord injury (SCI), patients develop spasticity, a motor disorder characterized by hyperreflexia and stiffness of muscles. Spasticity results from alterations in motoneurons with an upregulation of their persistent sodium current (I NaP), simultaneously with a disinhibition caused by a reduction of expression of chloride (Cl(-)) co-transporters KCC2. Until recently the origin of alterations was unknown. After reviewing pathophysiology of spasticity, the manuscript relates our recent work showing a tight relationship between the calpain-dependent proteolysis of voltage-gated sodium channels, the upregulation of I NaP and spasticity following SCI...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985544/spasticity-and-spastic-dystonia-the-two-faces-of-velocity-dependent-hypertonia
#3
Lucio Marinelli, Antonio Currà, Carlo Trompetto, Elisabetta Capello, Carlo Serrati, Francesco Fattapposta, Elisa Pelosin, Chetan Phadke, Claire Aymard, Luca Puce, Franco Molteni, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Fabio Bandini
BACKGROUND: Spasticity and spastic dystonia are two separate phenomena of the upper motor neuron syndrome. Spasticity is clinically defined by velocity-dependent hypertonia and tendon jerk hyperreflexia due to the hyper-excitability of the stretch reflex. Spastic dystonia is the inability to relax a muscle leading to a spontaneous tonic contraction. Both spasticity and spastic dystonia are present in patients who are at rest; however, only patients with spasticity are actually able to kept their muscles relaxed prior to muscle stretch...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974243/reduction-of-vertebral-height-with-fragility-vertebral-fractures-can-induce-variety-of-neurological-deterioration
#4
Kazuhiro Fujimoto, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Yasuaki Imajo, Hidenori Suzuki, Norihiro Nishida, Masahiro Funaba, Toshihiko Taguchi
BACKGROUND: The presence of vertebral fractures affect variations in the termination level of conus medullaris (TLCM) and alter neurological findings. However, few studies have examined association between vertebral fractures, TLCM, and neurological findings. Thus, we herein studied the number and severity of vertebral fractures, TLCM, and neurological findings to clarify the mechanism of neurological deterioration in patients with vertebral fractures. METHODS: A total of 411 patients who underwent computed tomographic myelography were classified into those with (group F, n = 73) and those without vertebral fractures (group C, n = 338)...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955431/challenges-of-stroke-management-in-resource-limited-settings-a-case-based-reflection
#5
Yohane G Gadama, Gloria Mwangalika, Louis B Kinley, Beth Jackson, Henry C Mwandumba, Jane Mallewa, Tom Solomon, Rob Simister, Laura A Benjamin, Maria I Vargas, Joseph Kamtchum-Tatuene, Tamara Phiri
A 19-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of headache, generalised body weakness, progressive memory loss, and disorientation. One month prior to admission, there was aggravation of the weakness of the right upper limb, with new-onset difficulty with mastication, speech impairment, apathy, and urinary incontinence. On clinical examination, the patient had a motor aphasia and a right-sided hemiparesis with increased muscle tone and hyperreflexia. A noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain revealed large ischaemic strokes extending beyond the classical vascular territories...
June 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922314/temporal-indices-of-ankle-clonus-and-relationship-to-electrophysiologic-and-clinical-measures-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Kathleen J Manella, Kathryn E Roach, Edelle C Field-Fote
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clonus arising from plantar flexor hyperreflexia is a phenomenon that is commonly observed in persons with spastic hypertonia. We assessed the temporal components of a biomechanical measure to quantify ankle clonus, and validated these in persons with spasticity due to spinal cord injury. METHODS: In 40 individuals with chronic (>1 year) spinal cord injury, we elicited ankle clonus using a standardized mechanical perturbation (drop test)...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861038/alleviation-of-motor-impairments-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-acute-effects-of-whole-body-vibration-on-stretch-reflex-response-voluntary-muscle-activation-and-mobility
#7
Anne Krause, Eckhard Schönau, Albert Gollhofer, Ibrahim Duran, Anja Ferrari-Malik, Kathrin Freyler, Ramona Ritzmann
INTRODUCTION: Individuals suffering from cerebral palsy (CP) often have involuntary, reflex-evoked muscle activity resulting in spastic hyperreflexia. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects of WBV in subjects with spastic CP. METHODS: 44 children with spastic CP were tested on neuromuscular activation and kinematics before and immediately after a 1-min bout of WBV (16-25 Hz, 1...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856174/a-rare-syndrome-of-grid2-deletion-in-2-siblings
#8
Aravindhan Veerapandiyan, Stephanie Enner, Venkatraman Thulasi, Xue Ming
The Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2 gene codes for an ionotropic glutamate delta-2 receptor, which is selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells, and facilitates cerebellar synapse organization and transmission. The phenotype associated with the deletion of Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2 gene in humans was initially defined in 2013. In this case report, the authors describe 2 brothers who presented with developmental delay, tonic upward gaze, nystagmus, oculomotor apraxia, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, and ataxia...
January 2017: Child neurology open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852709/ataxia-pancytopenia-syndrome-with-samd9l-mutations
#9
Sorina Gorcenco, Jonna Komulainen-Ebrahim, Karin Nordborg, Maria Suo-Palosaari, Sten Andréasson, Johanna Krüger, Christer Nilsson, Ulrika Kjellström, Elisa Rahikkala, Dominik Turkiewicz, Mikael Karlberg, Lars Nilsson, Jörg Cammenga, Ulf Tedgård, Josef Davidsson, Johanna Uusimaa, Andreas Puschmann
OBJECTIVE: We describe the neurologic, neuroradiologic, and ophthalmologic phenotype of 1 Swedish and 1 Finnish family with autosomal dominant ataxia-pancytopenia (ATXPC) syndrome and SAMD9L mutations. METHODS: Members of these families with germline SAMD9L c.2956C>T, p.Arg986Cys, or c.2672T>C, p.Ile891Thr mutations underwent structured interviews and neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations. Neuroimaging was performed, and medical records were reviewed...
October 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840068/a-case-of-symptomatic-spinal-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-after-high-volume-lumbar-puncture
#10
Thomas Noh, Rahul Chandra, Jimmy Kim, Ian Lee
BACKGROUND: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare lesions that lead to venous congestion and ischemic injury resulting in neurologic deterioration. Here we present a patient diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who became symptomatic from a spinal DAVF after a diagnostic high-volume lumbar puncture (LP). CASE DESCRIPTION: When a 72-year-old female developed partial seizures in her left upper extremity without other focal neurological deficits, she underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828227/a-novel-p-t139m-mutation-in-hspb1-highlighting-the-phenotypic-spectrum-in-a-family
#11
Jakkrit Amornvit, Mehmet E Yalvac, Lei Chen, Zarife Sahenk
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the HSPB1 gene encoding the small heat shock protein B1 are associated with an autosomal dominant, axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2F (CMT2F) and distal hereditary motor neuropathy. Recently, distal myopathy had been described in a patient carrying HSPB1 mutation adding to the complexity of phenotypes resulting from HSPB1 mutations. METHODS: Five patients in a family with concerns of hereditary neuropathy were included. Detailed clinical examinations, including assessments of motor and sensory function, and electrophysiological data were obtained...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804760/autopsy-case-of-the-c12orf65-mutation-in-a-patient-with-signs-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#12
Hideaki Nishihara, Masatoshi Omoto, Masaki Takao, Yujiro Higuchi, Michiaki Koga, Motoharu Kawai, Hiroo Kawano, Eiji Ikeda, Hiroshi Takashima, Takashi Kanda
OBJECTIVE: To describe the autopsy case of a patient with a homozygous 2-base deletion, c171_172delGA (p.N58fs), in the C12orf65 gene. METHODS: We described the clinical history, neuroimaging data, neuropathology, and genetic analysis of the patients with C12orf65 mutations. RESULTS: The patient was a Japanese woman with a history of delayed psychomotor development, primary amenorrhea, and gait disturbance in her 20s. She was hospitalized because of respiratory failure at the age of 60...
August 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783942/codeine-precipitating-serotonin-syndrome-in-a-patient-in-therapy-with-antidepressant-and-triptan
#13
Giulia Milano, Werner Maria Natta, Alfredo Bello, Antonietta Martelli, Francesca Mattioli
The serotonin syndrome is a serioius medical condition due due to an intensive stimulation of setonin receptors. It is a rare, but severe, consequence of interaction between serotomimetic agents. This is a report of a 70-year-old woman steadily in therapy with venlafaxine and rizatriptan for migraine and major depressive syndrome. She was admitted to neurology unit for decreased light reflex with miotic pupils, global hyperreflexia, tremor, anxiety, ataxia and incoordination. The patient was diagnosed as a probable case of serotonin syndrome due to a pharmacological interaction between venlafaxine and rizatriptan trigged by opioid intake...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781913/nursing-review-section-of-surgical-neurology-international-evaluation-of-cervical-disc-disease-and-when-surgery-is-warranted
#14
REVIEW
Nancy E Epstein, Renee D Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Patients with cervical disc disease may present with radiculopathy (root compression), myelopathy (cord compression), or myeloradiculopathy. These complaints must be correlated with x-ray, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and computed tomographic (CT) scans. Although most patients can be managed nonsurgically, those with significant neurological deficits and larger disc herniations may require surgery. METHODS: The symptoms of cervical radiculopathy include pain radiating down one or both arms, while myelopathy may result in more diffuse numbness tingling or weakness in the upper and/or lower extremities...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756934/postoperative-anticholinergic-poisoning-concealed-complications-of-a-commonly-used-medication
#15
Xiao Chi Zhang, Natalija Farrell, Thomas Haronian, Jason Hack
BACKGROUND: Scopolamine is a potent anticholinergic compound used commonly for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Scopolamine can cause atypical anticholinergic syndromes due to its prominent central antimuscarinic effects. CASE REPORT: A 47-year-old female presented to the emergency department (ED) 20 h after hospital discharge for a right-knee meniscectomy, with altered mental status (AMS) and dystonic extremity movements that began 12 h after her procedure...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755567/microcephaly-and-zika-virus-neuroradiological-aspects-clinical-findings-and-a-proposed-framework-for-early-evaluation-of-child-development
#16
Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Ana Carolina de Campos, Fellipe Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Fernanda Pereira Dos Santos Silva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As the recent outbreak of microcephaly cases caused by Zika virus has been declared a global health emergency, providing assessment guidelines for multidisciplinary teams providing early developmental screening and stimulation to infants with microcephaly is much needed. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview on what is known about neuroradiological aspects and clinical findings in infants with microcephaly caused by Zika virus and to propose a framework for early evaluation of child development...
July 26, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624897/corrosion-of-harrington-rod-in-idiopathic-scoliosis-long-term-effects
#17
Beth Sherman, Tanya Crowell
PURPOSE: Metal implants have been used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis since the 1960s. Only recently, however, it has the issue of metal-bone breakdown secondary to metal corrosion in situ come to light, raising concerns of possible long-term complications from the resulting metallosis and inflammation of spinal tissues. We present a case of a patient with neurological deficit, pain, and disability with Harrington rod in place for over 30 years, to bring attention to the issue of bio-corrosion of metal implants and its effect on human tissue...
June 17, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597570/pharmaco-toxicological-effects-of-the-novel-third-generation-fluorinate-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adbinaca-ab-fubinaca-and-sts-135-in-mice-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#18
Isabella Canazza, Andrea Ossato, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Adolfo Gregori, Fabiana Di Rosa, Federica Nigro, Alessandro Rimessi, Paolo Pinton, Katia Varani, Pier Andrea Borea, Matteo Marti
INTRODUCTION: 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 are 3 novel third-generation fluorinate synthetic cannabinoids that are illegally marketed as incense, herbal preparations, or research chemicals for their psychoactive cannabis-like effects. METHODS: The present study aims at investigating the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 in male CD-1 mice, comparing their in vivo effects with those caused by the administration of Δ(9) -THC and JWH-018...
June 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589049/chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-with-cranial-and-caudal-extension
#19
Mahmood Mubasher, Aseel Sukik, Ahmed Hassan El Beltagi, Ali Rahil
A 23-year-old lady presented with vertigo and imbalance in walking, blurring of vision, diplopia, and headache, in addition to numbness in the lower limbs over a period of six days. On examination patient had nystagmus, ataxia, positive Romberg test, and hyperreflexia. MRI examination of the brain and spinal cord showed evidence of faint bright signal intensity foci in T2/FLAIR involving bilateral cerebral hemispheres, subcortical deep white matter, bilateral thalami, posterior pons and left brachium pontis, and basal ganglia, with small nodular enhancement that aligned along curvilinear structures; those lesions also were apparent along the spinal cord at multiple levels...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557247/european-consensus-on-the-concepts-and-measurement-of-the-pathophysiological-neuromuscular-responses-to-passive-muscle-stretch
#20
J C van den Noort, L Bar-On, E Aertbeliën, M Bonikowski, S M Braendvik, E W Broström, A I Buizer, J H Burridge, A van Campenhout, B Dan, J F Fleuren, S Grunt, F Heinen, H L Horemans, C Jansen, A Kranzl, B K Krautwurst, M van der Krogt, S Lerma Lara, C M Lidbeck, J-P Lin, I Martinez, C Meskers, D Metaxiotis, G Molenaers, D A Patikas, O Rémy-Néris, K Roeleveld, A P Shortland, J Sikkens, L Sloot, R J Vermeulen, C Wimmer, A S Schröder, S Schless, J G Becher, K Desloovere, J Harlaar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To support clinical decision-making in central neurological disorders, a physical examination is used to assess responses to passive muscle stretch. However, what exactly is being assessed is expressed and interpreted in different ways. A clear diagnostic framework is lacking. Therefore, the aim was to arrive at unambiguous terminology about the concepts and measurement around pathophysiological neuromuscular response to passive muscle stretch. METHODS: During two consensus meetings, 37 experts from 12 European countries filled online questionnaires based on a Delphi approach, followed by plenary discussion after rounds...
July 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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