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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471521/variable-response-of-nirk-and-nirs-containing-denitrifier-communities-to-long-term-ph-manipulation-and-cultivation
#1
Miriam B Herold, Madeline E Giles, Colin J Alexander, Elizabeth M Baggs, Tim J Daniell
Denitrification is a key process responsible for the majority of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions but the influences of pH and cultivation on the soil denitrifier community remain poorly understood. We hypothesised that the abundance and community structure of the total bacterial community and bacterial denitrifiers would be pH sensitive and that nirK and nirS containing denitrifiers would differ in their responses to change in pH and cultivation. We investigated the effect of long-term pH adjusted soils (ranging from pH 4...
February 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471226/examining-effects-of-medical-cannabis-narratives-on-beliefs-attitudes-and-intentions-related-to-recreational-cannabis-a-web-based-randomized-experiment
#2
Sharon R Sznitman, Nehama Lewis
BACKGROUND: This experimental study tests effects of exposure to video narratives about successful symptom relief with Medical Cannabis (MC) on attitudes, beliefs, and intentions related to recreational cannabis use. METHODS: Patient video testimonials were modeled after those found in extant media coverage. Israeli participants (N = 396) recruited through an online survey company were randomly assigned to view a narrative or a non-narrative video containing equivalent information about MC...
January 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471198/gaze-patterns-reveal-how-situation-models-and-text-representations-contribute-to-episodic-text-memory
#3
Roger Johansson, Franziska Oren, Kenneth Holmqvist
When recalling something you have previously read, to what degree will such episodic remembering activate a situation model of described events versus a memory representation of the text itself? The present study was designed to address this question by recording eye movements of participants who recalled previously read texts while looking at a blank screen. An accumulating body of research has demonstrated that spontaneous eye movements occur during episodic memory retrieval and that fixation locations from such gaze patterns to a large degree overlap with the visuospatial layout of the recalled information...
February 19, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471137/mucosal-and-systemic-responses-of-immunogenic-vaccines-candidates-against-enteric-escherichia-coli-infections-in-ruminants-a-review
#4
REVIEW
A Lawan, F F A Jesse, U H Idris, M N Odhah, M Arsalan, N A Muhammad, K R Bhutto, Innocent Damudu Peter, G A Abraham, A H Wahid, M L Mohd-Azmi, M Zamri-Saad
Innumerable Escherichia coli of animal origin are identified, which are of economic significance, likewise, cattle, sheep and goats are the carrier of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, which are less pathogenic, and can spread to people by way of direct contact and through the contamination of foodstuff or portable drinking water, causing serious illness. The immunization of ruminants has been carried out for ages and is largely acknowledged as the most economical and maintainable process of monitoring E. coli infection in ruminants...
February 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470983/development-of-a-functional-thyroid-model-based-on-an-organoid-culture-system
#5
Yoshiyuki Saito, Nobuyuki Onishi, Hiroshi Takami, Ryo Seishima, Hiroyoshi Inoue, Yuki Hirata, Kaori Kameyama, Kenji Tsuchihashi, Eiji Sugihara, Shinya Uchino, Koichi Ito, Hirofumi Kawakubo, Hiroya Takeuchi, Yuko Kitagawa, Hideyuki Saya, Osamu Nagano
The low turnover rate of thyroid follicular cells and the lack of a long-term thyroid cell culture system have hampered studies of thyroid carcinogenesis. We have now established a thyroid organoid culture system that supports thyroid cell proliferation in vitro. The established mouse thyroid organoids performed thyroid functions including thyroglobulin synthesis, iodide uptake, and the production and release of thyroid hormone. Furthermore, transplantation of the organoids into recipient mice resulted in the formation of normal thyroid-like tissue capable of iodide uptake and thyroglobulin production in vivo...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470932/precise-identification-of-wheat-i-thinopyrum-intermedium-i-translocation-chromosomes-carrying-resistance-to-wheat-stripe-rust-in-line-z4-and-its-derived-progenies
#6
Tao Lang, Shixiao La, Bin Li, Zhihui Yu, Qiheng Chen, Jianbo Li, Ennian Yang, Guangrong Li, Zujun Yang
2 The wheat- Thinopyrum intermedium derived line Z4 has displayed novel and effective stripe rust resistance for over 40 years. This study aimed to precisely identify the chromosome constitution of Z4 and determine the stripe rust resistance contribution using multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular marker analysis. The results indicated that the Z4 line (2n=44) contained two pairs of non-Robertsonian translocations without the 3A chromosomes of wheat. FISH karyotypes of F3 progenies derived from crosses between Z4 and MY11 indicated that the transmission of the translocated chromosomes appeared normal and the number of wheat chromosomes 3A and 3D frequently varied...
February 22, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470910/fluctuation-in-interface-and-electronic-structure-of-single-molecule-junctions-investigated-by-current-versus-bias-voltage-characteristics
#7
Yuji Isshiki, Shintaro Fujii, Tomoaki Nishino, Manabu Kiguchi
Structural and electronic detail at the metal-molecule interface has a significant impact on the charge transport across the molecular junctions, but its precise understanding and control still remain elusive. On the single-molecule scale, the metal-molecule interface structures and relevant charge transport properties are subject to fluctuation, which contains fundamental science of the single-molecule transport and implication for manipulability of the transport properties in the electronic devices. Here, we present a comprehensive approach to investigate the fluctuation in the metal-molecule interface in single-molecule junctions, based on current-voltage (I-V) measurements in combination with first-principles simulation...
February 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470856/leishmania-donovani-inhibits-ferroportin-translation-by-modulating-fbxl5-irp2-axis-for-its-growth-within-host-macrophages
#8
Nupur Kanti Das, Sandhya Sandhya, G Vishnu Vivek, Rajiv Kumar, Amit Kumar Singh, Saswat Kumar Bal, Sanju Kumari, Chinmay K Mukhopadhyay
Hepcidin mediated ferroportin (Fpn) degradation in macrophages is a well adopted strategy to limit iron availability towards invading pathogens. Leishmania donovani (LD), a protozoan parasite, resides within macrophage and competes with host for availing iron. Using in vitro and in vivo model of infection we reveal that LD decreases Fpn abundance in host macrophages by hepcidin independent mechanism. Unaffected level of Fpn-FLAG in LD infected J774 macrophage confirms that Fpn down-regulation is not due its degradation...
February 22, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470796/peers-influence-adolescent-reward-processing-but-not-response-inhibition
#9
Ashley R Smith, Gail M Rosenbaum, Morgan A Botdorf, Laurence Steinberg, Jason M Chein
Most adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers. Prior research suggests that peers alter adolescents' decision making by increasing reward sensitivity and the engagement of regions involved in the processing of rewards, primarily the striatum. However, the potential influence of peers on the capacity for impulse control, and the associated recruitment of the brain's control circuitry, has not yet been adequately examined. In the current study, adolescents underwent functional neuroimaging while they completed interleaved rounds of risk-taking and response-inhibition tasks...
February 22, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470431/articular-cartilage-aging-potential-regenerative-capacities-of-cell-manipulation-and-stem-cell-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Magdalena Krajewska-Włodarczyk, Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Waldemar Placek, Adam Osowski, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
Changes in articular cartilage during the aging process are a stage of natural changes in the human body. Old age is the major risk factor for osteoarthritis but the disease does not have to be an inevitable consequence of aging. Chondrocytes are particularly prone to developing age-related changes. Changes in articular cartilage that take place in the course of aging include the acquisition of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype by chondrocytes, a decrease in the sensitivity of chondrocytes to growth factors, a destructive effect of chronic production of reactive oxygen species and the accumulation of the glycation end products...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470135/effects-of-task-difficulty-and-display-format-on-automation-usage-strategy-a-workload-capacity-analysis
#11
Yusuke Yamani, Jason S McCarley
Objective An experiment used workload capacity analysis to quantify automation usage strategy across different task difficulty and display format types in a speeded task. Background Workload capacity measures the efficiency of concurrent information processing and can serve as a gauge of automation usage strategy in speeded decision tasks. The present study used workload capacity analysis to investigate automation usage strategy while information display format and task difficulty were manipulated. Method Subjects performed a speeded judgment task assisted by an automated aid that issued decision cues at varying onset times...
February 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470090/engineering-interfacial-processes-at-mini-micro-nano-scales-using-sessile-droplet-architecture
#12
Lalit Bansal, Apratim Sanyal, Prasenjit Kabi, Binita Pathak, Saptarshi Basu
Evaporating sessile functional droplets act as the fundamental building block that control the cumulative outcome of many industrial and biological applications such as surface patterning, 3D printing, photonic crystals, DNA sequencing, to name a few. Additionally, a drying single sessile droplet forms a high throughput processing technique using low material volume which is especially suitable for medical diagnosis. Sessile droplet also provides an elementary platform to study and analyze fundamental interfacial processes at various lengthscale ranging from macroscopically observable wetting and evaporation to microfluidic transport to interparticle forces operating at a nanometric lengthscale...
February 22, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469966/the-effect-of-skin-surface-topography-and-skin-colouration-cues-on-perception-of-male-facial-age-health-and-attractiveness
#13
Bernhard Fink, Paul J Matts, Christina Brauckmann, Sina Gundlach
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies investigating the effects of skin surface topography and colouration cues on perception of female faces reported a differential weighting for perception of skin topography and colour evenness, where topography was a stronger visual cue for perception of age, whereas skin colour evenness was a stronger visual cue for perception of health. We extend these findings in a study of the effect of skin surface topography and colour evenness cues on perceptions of facial age, health, and attractiveness in males...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469813/the-w-alloying-effect-on-thermal-stability-and-hardening-of-nanostructured-cu-w-alloyed-thin-films
#14
Jiantuo Zhao, Jinyu Zhang, Zhaoqi Hou, Kai Wu, Xiaobin Feng, Gang Liu, Jun Sun
In order to achieve desired mechanical properties of alloys by manipulating grain boundaries via solute decoration, it is of great significance to understand the underlying mechanisms of microstructural evolution and plastic deformation. In this work, nanocrystalline Cu-W alloyed films with W concentrations spanning from 0 to 40 at. % were prepared by using magnetron sputtering. Thermal stability (within the temperature range of 200 °C - 600 °C) and hardness of the films were investigated by using the X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoindentation, respectively...
February 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469657/direct-mass-spectrometric-characterization-of-disulfide-linkages
#15
Xiaoyan Guan, Le Zhang, Jette Wypych
Disulfide linkage is critical to protein folding and structural stability. The location of disulfide linkages for antibodies is routinely discovered by comparing the chromatograms of the reduced and non-reduced peptide mapping with location identification confirmed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. However, CID product spectra of disulfide-linked peptides can be difficult to interpret, and provide limited information on the backbone region within the disulfide loop. Here, we applied an electron-transfer dissociation (ETD)/CID combined fragmentation method that identifies the disulfide linkage without intensive LC comparison, and yet maps the disulfide location accurately...
February 22, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469583/cognitive-flexibility-and-dual-processing-in-pigeons-temporal-and-contextual-control-of-midsession-reversal
#16
Hayden MacDonald, William A Roberts
Evidence is reported showing that pigeons flexibly use temporal and contextual cues to maximize reward obtained in a midsession reversal task. Pigeons were trained to choose between red and green sidekeys for 60 trials in a session, with choice of one color correct on Trials 1-30 and choice of the other color correct on Trials 31-60 (midsession reversal). Pigeons showed anticipatory errors before reversal and perseverative errors after reversal, and manipulations of the length of the intertrial interval and the point of reversal suggested that pigeons used an internal timer to track the point of reversal...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469571/a-single-step-in-situ-acetylcholinesterase-mediated-alginate-hydrogelation-for-enzyme-encapsulation-in-ce
#17
Jiqing Yang, Xiaotong Hu, Jia Xu, Xin Liu, Li Yang
A novel capillary electrophoresis-integrated immobilized enzyme reactor (CE-integrated IMER) is developed using single-step in-situ acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated alginate hydrogelation and enzyme encapsulation. Alginate hydrogelation with "egg-box" structure is triggered inside a capillary with releasing of Ca2+ by changing the pH of the sol solution, which is accomplished in-situ by AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine to produce acetic acid. AChE and any other enzyme initially contained in the sol solution [e...
February 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469568/venturing-beyond-donor-controlled-glycosylation-new-perspectives-toward-anomeric-selectivity
#18
Wei-Lin Leng, Hui Yao, Jing-Xi He, Xue-Wei Liu
Glycans are complex compounds consisting of sugars linked glycosidically, existing either as pure polysaccharides or as part of glycoconjugates. They are prevalent in nature and possess important functions in regulating biological pathways. However, their diversity coupled with physiochemical similarities makes it challenging to isolate them in large quantities for biochemical studies, hence hampering progress in glycobiology and glycomedicine. Glycochemistry presents an alternative strategy to obtain pure glycan compounds through artificial synthetic methods...
February 22, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469227/auxin-signalling-of-arachis-hypogaea-activated-by-colonization-of-mutualistic-fungus-phomopsis-liquidambari-enhances-nodulation-and-n-2-fixation
#19
Wei Zhang, Kai Sun, Run-Han Shi, Jie Yuan, Xiao-Jun Wang, Chuan-Chao Dai
Beneficial fungal and rhizobial symbioses share commonalities in phytohormones responses, especially in auxin signalling. Mutualistic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari effectively increases symbiotic efficiency of legume peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with another microsymbiont, bradyrhizobium, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We quantified and manipulated the IAA accumulation in ternary P. liquidambari-peanut-bradyrhizobial interactions to uncover its role between distinct symbioses. We found that auxin signalling is both locally and systemically induced by the colonization of P...
February 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469059/low-friction-nanojoint-prototype
#20
Sergei Vlassov, Sven Oras, Mikk Antsov, Jelena Butikova, Rünno Lõhmus, Boris Polyakov
High surface energy of individual nanostructures leads to high adhesion and static friction that can completely hinder the operation of nanoscale systems with movable parts. For instance, silver or gold nanowires cannot be moved on silicon substrate without plastic deformation. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the operational prototype of low-friction nano-joint. The movable part of the prototype is made either from gold or silver nano-pin produced by laser-induced partial melting of silver and gold nanowires resulting in formation of rounded bulbs on their ends...
February 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
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