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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054099/examining-factors-associated-with-elevated-lie-scale-responding-on-the-child-abuse-potential-inventory
#1
Amanda H Costello, Natalie J Shook, Nancy M Wallace, Cheryl B McNeil
Child maltreatment remains a serious public health issue in the United States. Therefore, it is important to engage in quality control of the assessment, prevention, and treatment services for families affected by maltreatment. Parenting capacity assessments (PCAs) are typically an integral part of service delivery for families affected by maltreatment and can carry serious consequences for the referred parent. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a measure that is widely used in PCAs; however, socially desirable responding on the CAPI can serve to invalidate the important information derived from this assessment, as well as lead to negative impressions of the parent...
October 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053919/tuning-the-two-dimensional-electron-liquid-at-oxide-interfaces-by-buffer-layer-engineered-redox-reactions
#2
Yunzhong Chen, Robert J Green, Ronny Sutarto, Feizhou He, Søren Linderoth, George Sawatzky, Nini Pryds
Polar discontinuities and redox reactions provide alternative paths to create two-dimensional electron liquids (2DELs) at oxide interfaces. Herein, we report high mobility 2DELs at interfaces involving SrTiO3 (STO) achieved using polar La7/8Sr1/8MnO3 (LSMO) buffer layers to manipulate both polarities and redox reactions from disordered overlayers grown at room temperature. Using resonant x-ray reflectometry experiments, we quantify redox reactions from oxide overlayers on STO as well as polarity induced electronic reconstruction at epitaxial LSMO/STO interfaces...
October 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053852/genome-wide-scan-and-analysis-of-positive-selective-signatures-in-dwarf-brown-egg-layers-and-silky-fowl-chickens
#3
Mengmeng Zhang, Liu Yang, Zhencheng Su, Muzhen Zhu, Wenting Li, Keliang Wu, Xuemei Deng
Chinese domestic chickens have been routinely subjected to artificial selection for the production of meats and eggs. Selection results in distinctive signatures in the genome that can reveal the genes underlying phenotypes of interest to breeders. In this study, we used the Chicken60K SNP chip to analyze DNA from Dwarf Brown-egg Layers (DB, n = 203) and Silky Fowls (SF, n = 181) and then examined the relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) and fixation index (FST) to detect selection signatures. Since population structure analysis showed that SF was stratified into 2 subpopulations (SF1 and SF2), we removed the 20 SF1 chickens, and the remaining individuals (DB and SF2) were scanned for genome-wide selection signatures...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053847/effect-of-low-incubation-temperature-and-low-ambient-temperature-until-21-days-of-age-on-performance-and-body-temperature-in-fast-growing-chickens
#4
D Nyuiadzi, A Travel, B Méda, C Berri, L A Guilloteau, V Coustham, Y Wang, J K Tona, A Collin
Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis was previously reported to decrease the occurrence of ascites and to potentially improve cold tolerance of broilers. The objective of our study was to explore the effects of the interaction of cold incubation temperatures and cool ambient temperatures until 21 d of age on performance and body temperature. Ross 308 eggs were incubated either under control conditions I0 (37.6°C) or with cyclic cold stimulations I1 (6 h/d at 36.6°C from d 10 to 18 of incubation) or with 2 cold stimulations I2 (30 min at 15°C) at d 18 and 19 of incubation...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053780/reaching-and-grasping-actions-and-their-context-shape-the-perception-of-object-size
#5
Annalisa Bosco, Fabio Daniele, Patrizia Fattori
Humans frequently estimate the size of objects to grasp them. In fact, when performing an action, our perception is focused towards the visual properties of the object that enable us to successfully execute the action. However, the motor system is also able to influence perception, but only a few studies have reported evidence for action-induced visual perception modifications. Here, we aimed to look for a feature-specific perceptual modulation before and after a reaching or a grasping action. Human participants were instructed to either reach for or grasp two-dimensional bars of different size and to perform a size perceptual task before and after the action in two contexts: in one where they knew the subsequent type of movement and in the other where they did not know...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053779/cell-based-therapeutic-strategies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Neil J Scolding, Marcelo Pasquini, Stephen C Reingold, Jeffrey A Cohen
The availability of multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis illustrates the substantial progress made in therapy of the disease. However, all are only partially effective in preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis...
July 21, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053697/stereotactically-guided-ablation-of-the-rat-auditory-cortex-and-localization-of-the-lesion-in-the-brain
#7
Verónica Lamas, Sheila Estévez, Marianni Pernía, Ignacio Plaza, Miguel A Merchán
The rat auditory cortex (AC) is becoming popular among auditory neuroscience investigators who are interested in experience-dependence plasticity, auditory perceptual processes, and cortical control of sound processing in the subcortical auditory nuclei. To address new challenges, a procedure to accurately locate and surgically expose the auditory cortex would expedite this research effort. Stereotactic neurosurgery is routinely used in pre-clinical research in animal models to engraft a needle or electrode at a pre-defined location within the auditory cortex...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053694/use-of-a-recombinant-mosquito-densovirus-as-a-gene-delivery-vector-for-the-functional-analysis-of-genes-in-mosquito-larvae
#8
Pei-Wen Liu, Jia-Bao Xu, Yun-Qiao Dong, Xiao-Guang Chen, Jin-Bao Gu
In vivo microinjection is the most commonly used gene transfer technique for analyzing the gene functions in individual mosquitoes. However, this method requires a more technically demanding operation and involves complicated procedures, especially when used in larvae due to their small size, relatively thin and fragile cuticle, and high mortality, which limit its application. In contrast, viral vectors for gene delivery have been developed to surmount extracellular and intracellular barriers. These systems have the advantages of easy manipulation, high gene transduction efficiency, long-term maintenance of gene expression, and the ability to produce persistent effects in vivo...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053390/exploring-the-teaching-and-learning-of-clinical-reasoning-risks-and-benefits-of-cervical-spine-manipulation
#9
Katie Yamamoto, Luca Condotta, Chloe Haldane, Sahar Jaffrani, Victoria Johnstone, Patrick Jachyra, Barbara E Gibson, Euson Yeung
The aim of this study was to examine how risks and benefits of cervical spine manipulation (CSM) were framed and discussed in the context of mentorship and their impact on the perception of safe practice of CSM in clinical physiotherapy settings. A multi-method qualitative approach was employed, including a document analysis of established educational guidelines, observations of mentoring sessions, and individual face-to-face interviews with five mentees in the process of learning CSM, and four mentors with Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapy (OMPT) certification...
October 20, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053364/climate-effects-on-growth-body-condition-and-survival-depend-on-the-genetic-characteristics-of-the-population
#10
Cristina Romero-Diaz, Merel C Breedveld, Patrick S Fitze
Climatic change is expected to affect individual life histories and population dynamics, potentially increasing vulnerability to extinction. The importance of genetic diversity has been highlighted for adaptation and population persistence. However, whether responses of life-history traits to a given environmental condition depend on the genetic characteristics of a population remains elusive. Here we tested this hypothesis in the lizard Zootoca vivipara by simultaneously manipulating habitat humidity, a major climatic predictor of Zootoca's distribution, and adult male color morph frequency, a trait with genome-wide linkage...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053361/artificial-selection-to-increase-the-phenotypic-variance-in-gmax-fails
#11
Jacqueline L Sztepanacz, Mark W Blows
Stabilizing selection is important in evolutionary theories of the maintenance of genetic variance and has been invoked as the key process determining macroevolutionary patterns of trait evolution. However, manipulative evidence for the extent of stabilizing selection, particularly on multivariate traits, is lacking. We used artificial disruptive selection in Drosophila serrata as a tool to determine the relative strength of stabilizing selection experienced by multivariate trait combinations with contrasting levels of genetic and mutational variance...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053334/topological-phase-transitions-in-the-photonic-spin-hall-effect
#12
W J M Kort-Kamp
The recent synthesis of two-dimensional staggered materials opens up burgeoning opportunities to study optical spin-orbit interactions in semiconducting Dirac-like systems. We unveil topological phase transitions in the photonic spin Hall effect in the graphene family materials. It is shown that an external static electric field and a high frequency circularly polarized laser allow for active on-demand manipulation of electromagnetic beam shifts. The spin Hall effect of light presents a rich dependence with radiation degrees of freedom, and material properties, and features nontrivial topological properties...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053322/strong-coupling-of-microwave-photons-to-antiferromagnetic-fluctuations-in-an-organic-magnet
#13
Matthias Mergenthaler, Junjie Liu, Jennifer J Le Roy, Natalia Ares, Amber L Thompson, Lapo Bogani, Fernando Luis, Stephen J Blundell, Tom Lancaster, Arzhang Ardavan, G Andrew D Briggs, Peter J Leek, Edward A Laird
Coupling between a crystal of di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium radicals and a superconducting microwave resonator is investigated in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED) architecture. The crystal exhibits paramagnetic behavior above 4 K, with antiferromagnetic correlations appearing below this temperature, and we demonstrate strong coupling at base temperature. The magnetic resonance acquires a field angle dependence as the crystal is cooled down, indicating anisotropy of the exchange interactions...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053311/inducing-and-manipulating-heteroelectronic-states-in-a-single-mos_-2-thin-flake
#14
Q H Chen, J M Lu, L Liang, O Zheliuk, A Ali, P Sheng, J T Ye
By dual gating a few-layer MoS_{2} flake, we induce spatially separated electronic states showing superconductivity and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations. While the highly confined superconductivity forms at the K/K^{'} valleys of the topmost layer, the SdH oscillations are contributed by the electrons residing in the Q/Q^{'} valleys of the rest of the bottom layers, which is confirmed by the extracted Landau level degeneracy of 3, electron effective mass of 0.6m_{e}, and carrier density of 5×10^{12}  cm^{-2}...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053252/optogenetics-manipulation-enables-to-prevent-biofilm-formation-of-engineered-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-on-surfaces
#15
Lu Pu, Shuai Yang, Aiguo Xia, Fan Jin
Synthetic biologists have attempted to solve real-world problems, such as those of bacterial biofilms, that are involved in the pathogenesis of many clinical infections and difficult to eliminate. To address this, we employed a blue light responding system and integrated it into the chromosomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. With making rational adaption and improvement of the light-activated system, we provided a robust and convenient means to spatiotemporally control gene expression and manipulate biological processes with minimal perturbation in P...
October 20, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053217/behavioral-control-by-striatal-a2a-dopamine-d2-receptor-heteromers
#16
Jaume Taura, Marta Valle-León, Kristoffer Sahlholm, Masahiko Watanabe, Katheleen Van Craenenbroeck, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Sergi Ferré, Francisco Ciruela
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (i.e. GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A2A receptors (A2A R) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2 R) predominantly form A2A R-D2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A2A R and D2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population...
October 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053150/dispersal-alters-bacterial-diversity-and-composition-in-a-natural-community
#17
Michaeline B N Albright, Jennifer B H Martiny
Dispersal is central to the evolution and maintenance of microbial diversity. Quantifying microbial dispersal and its role in shaping communities remains a challenge, however. Here, we manipulated a bacterial community's dispersal rate in a grassland ecosystem and test whether this altered diversity and composition. We constructed bags of two nylon mesh sizes that allowed more or less bacterial movement and filled them with an edible or inedible substrate, irradiated plant litter or nylon sheets. We measured changes in bacterial abundance (using flow cytometry) and composition (using 16S amplicon sequencing) in the bags weekly over 5 months...
October 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053078/contralateral-transmaxillary-corridor-an-augmented-endoscopic-approach-to-the-petrous-apex
#18
Chirag R Patel, Eric W Wang, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Paul A Gardner, Carl H Snyderman
OBJECTIVE The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has been shown to be an effective means of accessing lesions of the petrous apex. Lesions that are lateral to the paraclival segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) require lateralization of the paraclival segment of the ICA or a transpterygoid infrapetrous approach. In this study the authors studied the feasibility of adding a contralateral transmaxillary (CTM) corridor to provide greater access to the petrous apex with decreased need for manipulation of the ICA...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052995/b-c6f5-3-catalyzed-regioselective-deuteration-of-electron-rich-aromatic-and-heteroaromatic-compounds
#19
Wu Li, Ming-Ming Wang, Yuya Hu, Thomas Werner
Deuterium labeled compounds find widespread application in life science. Herein, the deuteration of electron-rich (hetero)aromatic compounds employing B(C6F5)3 as the catalyst and D2O as the deuterium source is reported. This protocol is highly efficient, simply manipulated, and successfully applied in the deuteration of 23 substrates including natural neurotransmitter-like melatonin. It is assumed that the weakening of the O-D bond ultimately results in the formation of electrophilic D(+).
October 20, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052609/neuro-ophthalmic-side-effects-of-molecularly-targeted-cancer-drugs
#20
REVIEW
M T Bhatti, A K S Salama
The past two decades has been an amazing time in the advancement of cancer treatment. Molecularly targeted therapy is a concept in which specific cellular molecules (overexpressed, mutationally activated, or selectively expressed proteins) are manipulated in an advantageous manner to decrease the transformation, proliferation, and/or survival of cancer cells. In addition, increased knowledge of the role of the immune system in carcinogenesis has led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity...
October 20, 2017: Eye
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