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Mathieu Struyve, Geert Robaeys
Ectopic varices are dilated portosystemic venous collaterals located outside of the gastro-esophageal region. Whereas they are common endoscopic findings in patients with portal hypertension, ectopic variceal bleeding is rather rare and accounts for only 1 to 5 % of all variceal bleedings. The rectum and the duodenum are the most common sites for ectopic varices, but they can be present along the whole intestinal tract and neighborhood. At present, there is no consensus well established on diagnostic workup for ectopic variceal bleeding and their therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Yin-Qiu Fan, Jing-Cheng Cui, Jun Yang, Pin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of "Huayu Tongluo"(Blood-stasis Dispersing and Meridian-collateral Dredging) moxibustion on the delayed memory and expression of Nestin and Doublecortin (DCX) proteins in the hippocampus in vascular dementia (VD) rats in the view of neurogenesis produced by intracerebral transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). METHODS: Healthy male Wistar rats were randomized into control group, VD model group,NSCs+EPCs group and NSCs+EPCs moxibustion group...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Lara Bieler, Lukas Grassner, Pia Zaunmair, Christina Kreutzer, Lukas Lampe, Eugen Trinka, Julia Marschallinger, Ludwig Aigner, Sebastien Couillard-Despres
Following spinal cord injury, severe deficits result from damages to ascending and descending tracts, such as the corticospinal tract (CST) which is highly relevant for the motor execution in humans. Unfortunately, no curative treatment is available and intensive efforts are deployed in animal models, such as the CST transection model, to identify interventions providing functional regeneration after spinal cord injury. The CatWalk XT is a system for multi-parameter gait analysis of voluntary locomotion. In this study, the performance of the CatWalk XT for monitoring of functional deficits associated with dorsal CST lesion in rats was compared to skilled locomotion tests...
February 2018: Heliyon
Woo-Jin Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Young Jin Ryu, Jeong-Min Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Kon Chu, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Chul-Ho Sohn, Jae-Kyu Roh
Objective: We aimed to evaluate the impact of underlying mechanism of basilar artery (BA) occlusion on the outcomes after endovascular therapy (EVT) for reperfusion and the outcome factors associated with each mechanism, and to identify radiologic parameters enabling to distinguish the underlying mechanism. Methods: From a registry database, 194 consecutive patients with acute BA occlusion who underwent EVT were analyzed. Stroke mechanism, classified into in situ atherosclerotic thrombosis (ISAT) and embolism, clot sign location profiles in pre-angiography magnetic resonance image (MRI), parameters of angiography and EVT, and reperfusion were assessed...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Skanda Rajasundaram
Our increasing appreciation of adenosine as an endogenous signaling molecule that terminates inflammation has generated excitement regarding the potential to target adenosine receptors (ARs) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease of chronic neuroinflammation. Of the four G protein-coupled ARs, A2ARs are the principal mediator of adenosine's anti-inflammatory effects and accordingly, there is a growing body of evidence surrounding the role of A2ARs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the dominant animal model of MS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Abdul G Dulloo, Jennifer L Miles-Chan, Yves Schutz
Collateral fattening refers to the process whereby excess fat is deposited as a result of the body's attempt to counter a deficit in lean mass through overeating. Its demonstration and significance to weight regulation and obesity can be traced to work on energy budget strategies in growing mammals and birds, and to men recovering from experimental starvation. The cardinal features of collateral fattening rests upon (i) the existence of a feedback system between lean tissue and appetite control, with lean tissue deficit driving hyperphagia, and (ii) upon the occurrence of a temporal desynchronization in the recovery of body composition, with complete recovery of fat mass preceeding that of lean mass...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Zhibiao Bai, Shichang Gao, Zhenming Hu, Anlin Liang
The present study was performed to compare the clinical efficacy of lateral plate and lateral and medial double-plating fixation of distal femoral fractures and explore the indication of lateral and medial double-plating fixation of the distal femoral fractures. From March 2006 to April 2014, 48 and 12 cases of distal femoral fractures were treated with lateral plate (single plate) and lateral and medial plates (double plates), respectively. During the surgery, after setting the lateral plate for the distal femoral fractures, if the varus stress test of the knee was positive and the lateral collateral ligament rupture was excluded, lateral and medial double-plating fixation was used for the stability of the fragments...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Charles M Denby, Rachel A Li, Van T Vu, Zak Costello, Weiyin Lin, Leanne Jade G Chan, Joseph Williams, Bryan Donaldson, Charles W Bamforth, Christopher J Petzold, Henrik V Scheller, Hector Garcia Martin, Jay D Keasling
Flowers of the hop plant provide both bitterness and "hoppy" flavor to beer. Hops are, however, both a water and energy intensive crop and vary considerably in essential oil content, making it challenging to achieve a consistent hoppy taste in beer. Here, we report that brewer's yeast can be engineered to biosynthesize aromatic monoterpene molecules that impart hoppy flavor to beer by incorporating recombinant DNA derived from yeast, mint, and basil. Whereas metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways is commonly enlisted to maximize product titers, tuning expression of pathway enzymes to affect target production levels of multiple commercially important metabolites without major collateral metabolic changes represents a unique challenge...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
C Nicholas Cuneo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jacqueline M Zaengle-Barone, Abigail C Jackson, David M Besse, Bradford Becken, Mehreen Arshad, Patrick C Seed, Katherine J Franz
The unabated rise in bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics, coupled with collateral damage to normal flora incurred by overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, necessitates the development of new antimicrobials targeted against pathogenic organisms. Here, we explore the antibacterial outcomes and mode of action of a prochelator that exploits the production of β-lactamase enzymes by drug-resistant bacteria to convert a non-toxic compound into a metal-binding antimicrobial agent directly within the microenvironment of pathogenic organisms...
March 20, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
A Wufuer, P Mijiti, R Abudusalamu, H Dengfeng, C Jian, M Jianhua, Z Xiaoning
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different blood pressure (BP) parameters on the collateral circulation in a retrospective cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke and ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. METHODS: The degree of intracranial collaterals was graded according to the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) Collateral Flow Grading System...
March 20, 2018: Herz
Michael L Kueht, Darrel L Wu, Joseph L Mills, Ramyar Gilani
Mesenteric ischemia can be difficult to diagnose without a high degree of suspicion because it presents in a variety of ways. Visceral vascular collaterals between the fore- and midgut often provide protection against ischemia; however, the presence of anatomic variations, such as celiomesenteric trunk, can undermine the expected redundancy. Misdiagnosis can result in prolonged suffering or death, as evidenced in 2 of our patients with celiomesenteric trunk. The first patient with chronic mesenteric ischemia was diagnosed in the clinic and underwent successful surgical correction; the other had overwhelming, acute mesenteric ischemia, which resulted in death...
February 2018: Texas Heart Institute Journal
Michael Stoller, Steffen Gloekler, Rainer Zbinden, David Tueller, Franz Eberli, Stephan Windecker, Peter Wenaweser, Christian Seiler
AIMS: Testing the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) afterload reduction in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) by transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) acutely improves coronary hemodynamics. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective, pathophysiologic study in 40 patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI. Endpoints were determined invasively immediately before and after TAVI without altering coronary stenotic lesions if present. Myocardial hyperemia was induced by intravenous adenosine...
March 20, 2018: EuroIntervention
Zilun Li, Henghui Yin, Mian Wang, Ridong Wu, Chenshu Liu, Chen Yao, Guangqi Chang
PURPOSE: To report the use of the octopus endograft technique to treat a patient with a ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old man was diagnosed with a contained rupture of a 9-cm type V TAAA. The presence of an occluded superior mesenteric artery (SMA), a stenotic celiac trunk, an enlarged inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), and rich collaterals with the SMA and celiac trunk made endovascular repair with the octopus endograft technique appear feasible...
April 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Kadir Buyukdogan, Michael S Laidlaw, Mark D Miller
The management of multiligament knee injury is a complex process starting with the adequate identification of the injury. A detailed physical and radiographic examination with a thorough understanding of knee anatomy is crucial to assess all damaged structures: anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, posteromedial corner including the medial collateral ligament, and posterolateral corner including the lateral collateral ligament. Several surgical techniques have been developed throughout the years to adequately address these ligament insufficiencies...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Eugene T Ek, Kemble K Wang
The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) complex of the elbow plays a crucial role in the stability of the elbow joint, especially to varus loads. Deficiency of particularly the lateral ulnar collateral component of the LCL can lead to chronic posterolateral rotatory instability, which can be functionally debilitating and can lead to a rapid onset of early degenerative arthritis. Commonly, in the setting of acute rupture of the LCL, the ligament is repaired using an open technique with suture anchor fixation to the lateral epicondyle insertion point...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
David P Trofa, Joseph M Lombardi, Manish S Noticewala, Christopher S Ahmad
Reconstruction of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) remains the gold standard for treating overhead throwing athletes with valgus instability secondary to UCL pathology. Although surgical techniques for reconstruction have evolved over time, current methods allow 90% of patients to return to their preinjury level of activity. Despite encouraging results with reconstruction, UCL repair remains a valuable treatment option for patients with UCL pathology fitting specific criteria. There are a number of advantages associated with a direct repair, and further, the development of collagen-coated sutures for ligament repair augmentation makes this procedure an attractive surgical option under the correct circumstances...
January 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Tatiana Marcela Pérez, Sandra Milena García, Martha Lucía Velasco, Angela Paola Sánchez
Interrupted aortic arch is an extremely rare congenital malformation representing about 1% of congenital heart disease. Early symptoms usually occur early in the neonatal period and clinical deterioration is often rapid and long-term prognosis is limited. Nonetheless, this condition has been identified later in adult life in rare cases. We report a case in an adult male with absence of hypertension history and no further cardiac compromise, with a severe posterior chest pain alongside dyspnea and sweating. Computed tomography angiography revealed interrupted aortic arch type A, bivalve aorta, hemopericardium, aortic dissection Stanford A, and important collateral circulation...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Phillip Mackie, Joe Lebowitz, Leila Saadatpour, Emily Nickoloff, Peter Gaskill, Habibeh Khoshbouei
The second-most common neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson Disease (PD) has three hallmarks: dysfunctional dopamine transmission due, at least in part, to dopamine neuron degeneration; intracellular inclusions of α-synuclein aggregates; and neuroinflammation. The origin and interplay of these features remains a puzzle, as does the underlying mechanism of PD pathogenesis and progression. When viewed in the context of neuroimmunology, dopamine also plays a role in regulating peripheral immune cells. Intriguingly, plasma dopamine levels are altered in PD, suggesting collateral dysregulation of peripheral dopamine transmission...
March 15, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Winston X Yan, Shaorong Chong, Huaibin Zhang, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, David R Cheng, David A Scott
Bacterial class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems utilize a single RNA-guided protein effector to mitigate viral infection. We aggregated genomic data from multiple sources and constructed an expanded database of predicted class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems. A search for novel RNA-targeting systems identified subtype VI-D, encoding dual HEPN domain-containing Cas13d effectors and putative WYL-domain-containing accessory proteins (WYL1 and WYL-b1 through WYL-b5). The median size of Cas13d proteins is 190 to 300 aa smaller than that of Cas13a-Cas13c...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cell
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