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James Griffith

Peri E Bolton, Lee Ann Rollins, James Brazill-Boast, Kang-Wook Kim, Terry Burke, Simon C Griffith
In socially monogamous species, individuals can use extra-pair paternity and offspring sex allocation as adaptive strategies to ameliorate costs of genetic incompatibility with their partner. Previous studies on domesticated Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) demonstrated a genetic incompatibility between head colour morphs, the effects of which are more severe in female offspring. Domesticated females use differential sex allocation, and extra-pair paternity with males of compatible head colour, to reduce fitness costs associated with incompatibility in mixed-morph pairings...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Vibeke Strand, Elaine Husni, Jenny Griffith, Zheng-Yi Zhou, James Signorovitch, Arijit Ganguli
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes and costs associated with timely versus delayed use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis) among patients with moderately to severely active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with and without moderate/severe psoriasis (Ps) from a US payer's perspective. METHODS: An economic model evaluated PsA patients initially treated with a TNFi (timely TNFi use) or apremilast (delayed TNFi use). Patients without joint (American College of Rheumatology 20%, [ACR20]) improvement either switched TNFis or initiated one...
September 15, 2016: Rheumatol Ther
Pablo G Sanchez, Chetan Pasrija, Matthew J Mulligan, Mandheer Wadhwa, Diana L Pratt, Tieluo Li, James S Gammie, Zachary N Kon, Si M Pham, Bartley P Griffith
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to create a reproducible lung injury model utilizing injection of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular products. Our goal was to characterize the pathophysiologic response to damage-associated molecular pattern mediated organ injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: There remain significant gaps in our understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome, in part due to the lack of clinically applicable animal models of this disease. Animal models of noninfectious, tissue damage-induced lung injury are needed to understand the signals and responses associated with this injury...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Georgia M Walton, James A Stockley, Diane Griffiths, Charandeep S Sadhra, Thomas Purvis, Elizabeth Sapey
Drug classes used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have not changed for many years, and none to date have shown disease-modifying activity. Statins are used to help reduce cardiovascular risk, which is high in many patients with COPD. Their use has been associated with improvements in some respiratory manifestations of disease and reduction in all-cause mortality, with greatest reductions seen in patients with the highest inflammatory burden. The mechanism for these effects is poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
James P B O'Connor, Eric O Aboagye, Judith E Adams, Hugo J W L Aerts, Sally F Barrington, Ambros J Beer, Ronald Boellaard, Sarah E Bohndiek, Michael Brady, Gina Brown, David L Buckley, Thomas L Chenevert, Laurence P Clarke, Sandra Collette, Gary J Cook, Nandita M deSouza, John C Dickson, Caroline Dive, Jeffrey L Evelhoch, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Ferdia A Gallagher, Fiona J Gilbert, Robert J Gillies, Vicky Goh, John R Griffiths, Ashley M Groves, Steve Halligan, Adrian L Harris, David J Hawkes, Otto S Hoekstra, Erich P Huang, Brian F Hutton, Edward F Jackson, Gordon C Jayson, Andrew Jones, Dow-Mu Koh, Denis Lacombe, Philippe Lambin, Nathalie Lassau, Martin O Leach, Ting-Yim Lee, Edward L Leen, Jason S Lewis, Yan Liu, Mark F Lythgoe, Prakash Manoharan, Ross J Maxwell, Kenneth A Miles, Bruno Morgan, Steve Morris, Tony Ng, Anwar R Padhani, Geoff J M Parker, Mike Partridge, Arvind P Pathak, Andrew C Peet, Shonit Punwani, Andrew R Reynolds, Simon P Robinson, Lalitha K Shankar, Ricky A Sharma, Dmitry Soloviev, Sigrid Stroobants, Daniel C Sullivan, Stuart A Taylor, Paul S Tofts, Gillian M Tozer, Marcel van Herk, Simon Walker-Samuel, James Wason, Kaye J Williams, Paul Workman, Thomas E Yankeelov, Kevin M Brindle, Lisa M McShane, Alan Jackson, John C Waterton
Imaging biomarkers (IBs) are integral to the routine management of patients with cancer. IBs used daily in oncology include clinical TNM stage, objective response and left ventricular ejection fraction. Other CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography biomarkers are used extensively in cancer research and drug development. New IBs need to be established either as useful tools for testing research hypotheses in clinical trials and research studies, or as clinical decision-making tools for use in healthcare, by crossing 'translational gaps' through validation and qualification...
October 11, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Josalyn L Cho, Morris F Ling, David C Adams, Lucas Faustino, Sabina A Islam, Roshi Afshar, Jason W Griffith, Robert S Harris, Aylwin Ng, Giorgia Radicioni, Amina A Ford, Andre K Han, Ramnik Xavier, William W Kwok, Richard Boucher, James J Moon, Daniel L Hamilos, Mehmet Kesimer, Melissa J Suter, Benjamin D Medoff, Andrew D Luster
Despite systemic sensitization, not all allergic individuals develop asthma symptoms upon airborne allergen exposure. Determination of the factors that lead to the asthma phenotype in allergic individuals could guide treatment and identify novel therapeutic targets. We used segmental allergen challenge of allergic asthmatics (AA) and allergic nonasthmatic controls (AC) to determine whether there are differences in the airway immune response or airway structural cells that could drive the development of asthma...
October 5, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Dominic I James, Kate M Smith, Allan M Jordan, Emma E Fairweather, Louise A Griffiths, Nicola S Hamilton, James R Hitchin, Colin P Hutton, Stuart Jones, Paul Kelly, Alison E McGonagle, Helen Small, Alexandra I J Stowell, Julie Tucker, Ian D Waddell, Bohdan Waszkowycz, Donald J Ogilvie
The enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) performs a critical role in the repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSBs). However, a detailed understanding of its mechanism of action has been hampered by a lack of credible, cell-active chemical probes. Herein, we demonstrate inhibition of PARG with a small molecule, leading to poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chain persistence in intact cells. Moreover, we describe two advanced, and chemically distinct, cell-active tool compounds with convincing on-target pharmacology and selectivity...
October 12, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Paul D Griffiths, Emily Rothwell, Mohammed Raza, Stephanie Wilmore, Tomas Doyle, Mark Harber, James O'Beirne, Stephen Mackinnon, Gareth Jones, Douglas Thorburn, Frank Mattes, Gaia Nebbia, Sowsan Atabani, Colette Smith, Anna Stanton, Vincent C Emery
BACKGROUND: To help decide when to start and when to stop pre-emptive therapy for cytomegalovirus infection, we conducted two open-label randomized controlled trials in renal, liver and bone marrow transplant recipients in a single centre where pre-emptive therapy is indicated if viraemia exceeds 3000 genomes/ml (2520 IU/ml) of whole blood. METHODS: Patients with two consecutive viraemia episodes each below 3000 genomes/ml were randomized to continue monitoring or to immediate treatment (Part A)...
2016: PloS One
Samantha J Kleindienst, Sumitrajit Dhar, Donald W Nielsen, James W Griffith, Larry B Lundy, Colin Driscoll, Brian Neff, Charles Beatty, David Barrs, David A Zapala
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research note is to identify and prioritize diseases important for detection in adult hearing health care delivery systems. METHOD: Through literature review and expert consultation, the authors identified 195 diseases likely to occur in adults complaining of hearing loss. Five neurotologists rated the importance of disease on 3 dimensions related to the necessity of detection prior to adult hearing aid fitting. RESULTS: Ratings of adverse health consequences, diagnostic difficulty, and presence of nonotologic symptoms associated with these diseases resulted in the identification of 104 diseases potentially important for detection prior to adult hearing aid fitting...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
James F Sallis, Fiona Bull, Ricky Burdett, Lawrence D Frank, Peter Griffiths, Billie Giles-Corti, Mark Stevenson
Land-use and transport policies contribute to worldwide epidemics of injuries and non-communicable diseases through traffic exposure, noise, air pollution, social isolation, low physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. Motorised transport is a major cause of the greenhouse gas emissions that are threatening human health. Urban and transport planning and urban design policies in many cities do not reflect the accumulating evidence that, if policies would take health effects into account, they could benefit a wide range of common health problems...
September 19, 2016: Lancet
Alf Seljenes Dalum, David James Griffiths, Elin Christine Valen, Karoline Skaar Amthor, Lars Austbø, Erling Olaf Koppang, Charles McLean Press, Agnar Kvellestad
The interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) of Atlantic salmon originates from an embryological location that in higher vertebrates gives rise to both primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. Still much is unknown about the morphological and functional development of the ILT. In the present work a standardized method of organ volume determination was established to study its development in relation to its containing gill and the thymus. Based on morphological findings and gene transcription data, the ILT shows no signs of primary lymphoid function...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hani J Marcus, Christopher J Payne, Ahilan Kailaya-Vasa, Sara Griffiths, James Clark, Guang-Zhong Yang, Ara Darzi, Dipankar Nandi
Residents are required to learn a multitude of skills during their microsurgical training. One such skill is the judicious application of force when handling delicate tissue. An instrument has been developed that indicates to the surgeon when a force threshold has been exceeded by providing vibrotactile feedback. The objective of this study was to validate the use of this "smart" force-limiting instrument for microsurgery. A laboratory and an in vivo experiment were performed to evaluate the force-limiting instrument...
2016: PloS One
Dominic I James, Stephen Durant, Kay Eckersley, Emma Fairweather, Louise A Griffiths, Nicola Hamilton, Paul Kelly, Mark O'Connor, Kerry Shea, Ian D Waddell, Donald J Ogilvie
After a DNA damage signal multiple polymers of ADP ribose attached to poly(ADP) ribose (PAR) polymerases (PARPs) are broken down by the enzyme poly(ADP) ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Inhibition of PARG leads to a failure of DNA repair and small molecule inhibition of PARG has been a goal for many years. To determine whether biochemical inhibitors of PARG are active in cells we have designed an immunofluorescence assay to detect nuclear PAR after DNA damage. This 384-well assay is suitable for medium throughput high-content screening and can detect cell-permeable inhibitors of PARG from nM to µM potency...
2016: F1000Research
Stephanus T Malherbe, Shubhada Shenai, Katharina Ronacher, Andre G Loxton, Gregory Dolganov, Magdalena Kriel, Tran Van, Ray Y Chen, James Warwick, Laura E Via, Taeksun Song, Myungsun Lee, Gary Schoolnik, Gerard Tromp, David Alland, Clifton E Barry, Jill Winter, Gerhard Walzl, Lance Lucas, Gian van der Spuy, Kim Stanley, Lani Theart, Bronwyn Smith, Nelita Burger, Caroline G G Beltran, Elizna Maasdorp, Annare Ellmann, Hongjo Choi, Joonsung Joh, Lori E Dodd, Brian Allwood, Coenie Kogelenberg, Morné Vorster, Stephanie Griffith-Richards
The absence of a gold standard to determine when antibiotics induce a sterilizing cure has confounded the development of new approaches to treat pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We detected positron emission tomography and computerized tomography (PET-CT) imaging response patterns consistent with active disease, along with the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) mRNA in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples, in a substantial proportion of adult, HIV-negative patients with PTB after a standard 6-month treatment plus 1 year follow-up, including patients with a durable cure and others who later developed recurrent disease...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Robert P Sutcliffe, Marianne Hollyman, James Hodson, Glenn Bonney, Ravi S Vohra, Ewen A Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is commonly performed, and several factors increase the risk of open conversion, prolonging operating time and hospital stay. Preoperative stratification would improve consent, scheduling and identify appropriate training cases. The aim of this study was to develop a validated risk score for conversion for use in clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Preoperative patient and disease-related variables were identified from a prospective cholecystectomy database (CholeS) of 8820 patients, divided into main and validation sets...
August 30, 2016: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Meghna Mehta, Kanthesh Basalingappa, James N Griffith, Daniel Andrade, Anish Babu, Narsireddy Amreddy, Ranganayaki Muralidharan, Myriam Gorospe, Terence Herman, Wei-Qun Ding, Rajagopal Ramesh, Anupama Munshi
HuR is an mRNA-binding protein whose overexpression in cancer cells has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. While reports on HuR overexpression contributing to chemoresistance exist, limited information is available on HuR and radioresistance especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).In this study we investigated the role of HuR in radiation resistance in three TNBC (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t) cell lines. Endogenous HuR expression was higher in TNBC cells compared to normal cells...
August 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Yin-Hing Ma, Golam S Islam, Ying Wu, Parviz M Sabour, James R Chambers, Qi Wang, Shirley X Y Wu, Mansel W Griffiths
Encapsulation of bacteriophages ("phage") protects phage against environmental deactivation and provides a product that is easy to handle for storage and application with animal feed as an antibiotic alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate an orally administered, encapsulated phage for efficient phage release in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of young chicks receiving feed. An optimized formulation that consisted of 0.8% low molecular weight (MW) alginate, 2% ultra-low molecular weight alginate and 3% whey protein completely released the encapsulated phage within 60 min under simulated intestinal conditions...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Emma M Jenkinson, Mathieu P Rodero, Paul R Kasher, Carolina Uggenti, Anthony Oojageer, Laurence C Goosey, Yoann Rose, Christopher J Kershaw, Jill E Urquhart, Simon G Williams, Sanjeev S Bhaskar, James O'Sullivan, Gabriela M Baerlocher, Monika Haubitz, Geraldine Aubert, Kristin W Barañano, Angela J Barnicoat, Roberta Battini, Andrea Berger, Edward M Blair, Janice E Brunstrom-Hernandez, Johannes A Buckard, David M Cassiman, Rosaline Caumes, Duccio M Cordelli, Liesbeth M De Waele, Alexander J Fay, Patrick Ferreira, Nicholas A Fletcher, Alan E Fryer, Himanshu Goel, Cheryl A Hemingway, Marco Henneke, Imelda Hughes, Rosalind J Jefferson, Ram Kumar, Lieven Lagae, Pierre G Landrieu, Charles M Lourenço, Timothy J Malpas, Sarju G Mehta, Imke Metz, Sakkubai Naidu, Katrin Õunap, Axel Panzer, Prab Prabhakar, Gerardine Quaghebeur, Raphael Schiffmann, Elliott H Sherr, Kanaga R Sinnathuray, Calvin Soh, Helen S Stewart, John Stone, Hilde Van Esch, Christine E G Van Mol, Adeline Vanderver, Emma L Wakeling, Andrea Whitney, Graham D Pavitt, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Gillian I Rice, Patrick Revy, Marjo S van der Knaap, John H Livingston, Raymond T O'Keefe, Yanick J Crow
Although ribosomes are ubiquitous and essential for life, recent data indicate that monogenic causes of ribosomal dysfunction can confer a remarkable degree of specificity in terms of human disease phenotype. Box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved non-protein-coding RNAs involved in ribosome biogenesis. Here we show that biallelic mutations in the gene SNORD118, encoding the box C/D snoRNA U8, cause the cerebral microangiopathy leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC), presenting at any age from early childhood to late adulthood...
October 2016: Nature Genetics
Jacqueline C M Sitt, James F Griffith, Fernand M Lai, Mamie Hui, K H Chiu, Ryan K L Lee, Alex W H Ng, Jason Leung
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. METHODS: Clinical notes, pathology and microbiology reports, ultrasound and other imaging studies of 100 patients who underwent 111 ultrasound-guided synovial biopsies were reviewed. Biopsies were compared with the final clinical diagnosis established after synovectomy (n = 43) or clinical/imaging follow-up (n = 57) (mean 30 months). RESULTS: Other than a single vasovagal episode, no complication of synovial biopsy was encountered...
August 23, 2016: European Radiology
Justin Chak Yiu Lam, Ka Lok Ryan Lee, James F Griffith
Brachialis periosteal avulsion injury is an uncommon injury occurring in young children. The injury may be misinterpreted or overlooked because of misleading or subtle radiological findings. A case of 7-year-old child with post-traumatic elbow pain and subtle findings on elbow radiography is presented. The injury was initially misinterpreted as an avulsion fracture of the medial epicondyle. Following radiological review, a diagnosis of brachialis periosteal avulsion injury was made. The radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of this injury are presented to stress the value of comparing the radiographic findings with previous imaging and to increase awareness of this uncommon injury...
November 2016: Skeletal Radiology
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