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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793149/educational-and-emotional-health-outcomes-in-adolescence-following-maltreatment-in-early-childhood-a-population-based-study-of-protective-factors
#1
Nisreen Khambati, Liam Mahedy, Jon Heron, Alan Emond
Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791676/suicide-in-brazilian-indigenous-communities-clustering-of-cases-in-children-and-adolescents-by-household
#2
Thomas Adriano Lazzarini, Crhistinne Cavalheiro Maymone Gonçalves, Walter Martins Benites, Liliane Ferreira da Silva, Daniel Henrique Tsuha, Albert Icksang Ko, Robert Rohrbaugh, Jason Randolph Andrews, Julio Croda
OBJECTIVE To estimate age and sex-specific suicide rates, compare suicide rates between indigenous communities, and quantify the frequency of intrafamilial suicide clustering. METHODS We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 14,666 indigenous individuals in reservations in Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from 2003 through 2013 using national and local census. RESULTS The overall suicide rate was 73.4 per 100,000 person-years. Adolescent males aged 15-19 and girls aged 10-14 had the highest rates for each sex at 289...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791279/loneliness-in-senior-housing-communities
#3
Harry Owen Taylor, Yi Wang, Nancy Morrow-Howell
There are many studies on loneliness among community-dwelling older adults; however, there is limited research examining the extent and correlates of loneliness among older adults who reside in senior housing communities. This study examines the extent and correlates of loneliness in three public senior housing communities in the St. Louis area. Data for this project was collected with survey questionnaires with a total sample size of 148 respondents. Loneliness was measured using the Hughes 3-item loneliness scale...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789984/the-role-of-hiv-stigma-in-art-adherence-and-quality-of-life-among-rural-women-living-with-hiv-in-india
#4
Maria L Ekstrand, Elsa Heylen, Amanda Mazur, Wayne T Steward, Catherine Carpenter, Kartik Yadav, Sanjeev Sinha, Adey Nyamathi
HIV stigma continues to be a barrier to physical and mental health among people living with HIV globally, especially in vulnerable populations. We examined how stigma is associated with health outcomes and quality of life among rural women living with HIV in South India (N = 600). Interviewer-administered measures assessed multiple dimensions of stigma, as well as loneliness, social support, ART adherence, time since diagnosis, and quality of life. Internalized stigma and a lack of social support were associated with a lower quality of life, while the association between internalized stigma and adherence was mediated by the use of stigma-avoidant coping strategies, suggesting that keeping one's diagnosis a secret may make it more difficult to take one's medications...
May 22, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788774/the-standardization-of-diagnostic-criteria-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd-implications-for-research-clinical-practice-and-population-health
#5
Jasmine M Brown, Roger Bland, Egon Jonsson, Andrew J Greenshaw
OBJECTIVE: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable disorder caused by maternal alcohol consumption and marked by a range of physical and mental disabilities. Although recognized by the scientific and medical community as a clinical disorder, no internationally standardized diagnostic tool yet exists for FASD. METHODS AND RESULTS: This review seeks to analyse the discrepancies in existing diagnostic tools for FASD, and the repercussions these differences have on research, public health, and government policy...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788761/prevalence-of-gambling-related-harm-provides-evidence-for-the-prevention-paradox
#6
Matthew Browne, Matthew J Rockloff
Background The prevention paradox (PP) describes a situation in which a greater number of cases of a disease-state come from low-risk members of a population, because they are more prevalent than high-risk members. Past research has provided only tangential and disputed evidence to support the application of the PP to gambling-related harm. Aims To assess whether the PP applies to gambling, the prevalence of a large set (72) of diverse harmful consequences from gambling was examined across four risk categories for problem gambling, including no-risk, low-risk, moderate-risk, and problem-gambling...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787954/the-effectiveness-of-a-cognitive-training-program-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-study-in-urban-community
#7
Chalermpong Sukontapol, Sasithorn Kemsen, Sirintorn Chansirikarn, Daochompu Nakawiro, Orawan Kuha, Unchulee Taemeeyapradit
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a cognitive training program on global cognition among people with mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: In this experimental study, using purposive sampling, 60 participants age 50 years and over who complained of subjective memory impairment were screened in their communities by public health volunteers with the Abbreviated Mental Test. Those with dementia were excluded as well as those with depression, which were screened out by the Thai Geriatric Depression Scale (TGDS-15)...
May 19, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787927/refugees-admission-to-mental-health-institutions-in-norway-is-there-an-ethnic-density-effect
#8
Jon Erik Finnvold, Elisabeth Ugreninov
Some recent European research claims that immigrants settle in urban areas with low scores on level-of-living conditions and a high prevalence of health-risk factors, and that these settlement patterns adversely affect their health. Other studies question the association between immigrant segregation and area deprivation on one hand, and negative health outcomes on the other hand, and identify possible beneficial effects of segregation, specifically the ethnic density effect. This paper aims to explore the possible ethnic density effect among refugees, a sub-population that often appears relatively vulnerable compared with immigrants in general...
May 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785895/complexity-in-pediatric-primary-care
#9
Arwa Nasir, Laeth Nasir, Ariel Tarrell, David Finken, Amy Lacroix, Swetha Pinninti, Sheryl Pitner, Molly McCarthy
BACKGROUND: The management of patients in primary care is often complicated by the presence of multiple chronic conditions and psychosocial issues that increase the complexity of the encounter and have important impacts on care. There is a paucity of literature on this subject in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify the burden of chronic conditions in pediatric primary care. METHODS: The problem lists of 3995 randomly selected patients from a community pediatric clinic and an academic hospital-based pediatric clinic in the same metropolitan area were analyzed for the presence and number of any chronic condition...
May 22, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785279/mental-health-recovery-goal-setting-and-working-alliance-in-an-australian-community-managed-organisation
#10
Grenville Rose, Lorraine Smith
This article examines the relationships between goal setting and achievement, working alliance and recovery in an Australian mental health community-managed organisation. The study gathered data over a 14-month period after the introduction of routine outcome measures. Both goal achievement and the strength of the working alliance were shown to have a positive effect on the personal recovery of the clients in the study. Both working alliance and goal achievement are robustly supportive at whatever point a person is on in the recovery journey...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784223/the-effect-of-a-community-mental-health-training-program-for-multidisciplinary-staff
#11
Bing Xiang Yang, Teresa E Stone, Scott A Davis
BACKGROUND: Primary health workers play a critical role in providing health education to people with mental disorders. In China community health workers working with people with mental health problems lack experience and training in this area. Additionally, coordination between hospital and community staff is not well established. The aim of this study was to provide an interdisciplinary community mental health training program and to evaluate the effect of the training on staff knowledge about mental health and confidence in their roles...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783138/is-death-anxiety-more-closely-linked-with-optimism-or-pessimism-among-older-adults
#12
Michael D Barnett, Ellen A Anderson, Arthur D Marsden
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether death anxiety is more closely linked with optimism or pessimism among older adults. Participants consisted of community-dwelling older adults (N = 253; 73.1% female) in the southern U.S. Both optimism and pessimism demonstrated a bivariate association with death anxiety; however, when considering optimism and pessimism together-and after controlling for age, gender, physical health, and mental health-optimism was not associated with death anxiety, while pessimism was associated with higher death anxiety...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781895/psychological-community-integration-of-individuals-with-serious-mental-illness
#13
Rohini Pahwa, Liat Kriegel
As different facets of community integration as well as psychological and social integration are important dimensions of recovery for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). The primary aim of the study was to explore psychological integration for individuals with SMI into the mental health and mainstream (i.e., non-mental health) communities and its association with their social integration into both communities. The study used self-report and egocentric social network data from 60 individuals with SMI receiving community-based mental health services...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781791/the-facilitators-and-challenges-of-dying-at-home-with-dementia-a-narrative-synthesis
#14
Caroline Mogan, Mari Lloyd-Williams, Karen Harrison Dening, Christopher Dowrick
BACKGROUND: It is reported that, given the right support, most people would prefer to die at home, yet a very small minority of people with dementia do so. At present, knowledge gaps remain on how best to support end-of-life care at home for people with dementia. AIM: To identify and understand the challenges and facilitators of providing end-of-life care at home for people with dementia. DESIGN: Narrative synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data...
June 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781699/conceptualisation-of-african-primal-health-care-within-mental-health-care
#15
Neo E Nare, Abel J Pienaar, Ditaba D Mphuthi
BACKGROUND:  It is believed by western education systems that the first contact should be with the nurse in primary health care. However, it is not the case. Therefore, the researcher attempts to correct this misconception by conceptualising the correct beginning of health seeking behaviour in an indigenous African community, namely African Primal Health Care (APHC). 'Primal' was coined during a colloquium by Dr Mbulawa and Seboka team members; however no formal conceptualisation took place, only operational definition...
March 22, 2018: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781692/significance-of-mental-health-legislation-for-successful-primary-care-for-mental-health-and-community-mental-health-services-a-review
#16
Getinet Ayano
BACKGROUND:  Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness. AIMS:  To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted...
March 29, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781639/tobacco-use-and-smoking-behaviors-of-individuals-with-a-serious-mental-illness
#17
Donna Pettey, Tim Aubry
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and overall smoking behaviors within a sample of individuals with a serious mental illness who were homeless or vulnerably housed and receiving community mental health services. METHODS: In 2010, individuals (N = 639) were interviewed, and identified smokers completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and additional questions related to their smoking behaviors...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781372/chinese-perspectives-on-primary-care-for-common-mental-disorders-barriers-and-policy-implications
#18
Kai Sing Sun, Tai Pong Lam, Dan Wu
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for integration of mental health into primary care for a decade. In Western countries, around 15% to 25% of patients with common mental disorders including mood and anxiety disorders seek help from primary care physicians (PCPs). The rate is only about 5% in China. AIMS: This article reviews the Chinese findings on the barriers to primary care for common mental disorders and how they compared with Western findings...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780318/the-aerobic-and-cognitive-exercise-study-aces-for-community-dwelling-older-adults-with-or-at-risk-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-neuropsychological-neurobiological-and-neuroimaging-outcomes-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Cay Anderson-Hanley, Nicole M Barcelos, Earl A Zimmerman, Robert W Gillen, Mina Dunnam, Brian D Cohen, Vadim Yerokhin, Kenneth E Miller, David J Hayes, Paul J Arciero, Molly Maloney, Arthur F Kramer
Prior research has found that cognitive benefits of physical exercise and brain health in older adults may be enhanced when mental exercise is interactive simultaneously, as in exergaming. It is unclear whether the cognitive benefit can be maximized by increasing the degree of mental challenge during exercise. This randomized clinical trial (RCT), the Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise Study (ACES) sought to replicate and extend prior findings of added cognitive benefit from exergaming to those with or at risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780027/relationships-between-functional-fitness-and-cognitive-impairment-in-chinese-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Mei Yang, Yan Guo, Jie Gong, Mengyao Deng, Niannian Yang, Yaqiong Yan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between each functional fitness (FF) domain and cognitive impairment (CI) in Chinese community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted. SETTING: Participants were selected by multistage stratified random sampling in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, Central China, during December 2015-May 2016. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2096 (1031 male and 1065 female) adults older than 65 years were included in our study...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
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