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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793154/juvenile-treatment-with-mglur2-3-agonist-prevents-schizophrenia-like-phenotypes-in-adult-by-acting-through-gsk3%C3%AE
#1
Bo Xing, Genie Han, Min-Juan Wang, Melissa A Snyder, Wen-Jun Gao
Prodromal memory deficits represent an important marker for the development of schizophrenia (SZ), in which glutamatergic hypofunction occurs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) attenuates excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced neurotoxicity, a central pathological characteristic of glutamatergic hypofunction. We therefore hypothesized that early treatment with LY37 would rescue cognitive deficits and confer benefits for SZ-like behaviors in adults. To test this, we assessed whether early intervention with LY37 would improve learning outcomes in the Morris Water Maze for rats prenatally exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), a neurodevelopmental SZ model...
May 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792862/the-reason-for-the-low-ca-2-sensitivity-of-thin-filaments-associated-with-the-glu41lys-mutation-in-the-tpm2-gene-is-freezing-of-tropomyosin-near-the-outer-domain-of-actin-and-inhibition-of-actin-monomer-switching-off-during-the-atpase-cycle
#2
Stanislava V Avrova, Olga E Karpicheva, Nikita A Rysev, Armen O Simonyan, Vladimir V Sirenko, Charles S Redwood, Yurii S Borovikov
The E41K mutation in TPM2 gene encoding muscle regulatory protein beta-tropomyosin is associated with nemaline myopathy and cap disease. The mutation results in a reduced Ca2+ -sensitivity of the thin filaments and in muscle weakness. To elucidate the structural basis of the reduced Ca2+ -sensitivity of the thin filaments, we studied multistep changes in spatial arrangement of tropomyosin (Tpm), actin and myosin heads during the ATPase cycle in reconstituted fibers, using the polarized fluorescence microscopy...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792529/mir-155-accelerates-proliferation-of-mouse-hepatocytes-during-liver-regeneration-by-directly-targeting-socs1
#3
Xia Lin, Li Chen, Haiyan Li, Yu Liu, Yanhong Guan, Xiaoyan Li, Zhenchang Jia, Xiaolin Lin, Junshuang Jia, Yan Sun, Dong Xiao
Liver regeneration after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) is a clinically significant repair process to restore proper liver architecture. Although microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been found to serve as a crucial microRNA (miRNA) regulator controlling liver cells functions and proliferation, little is known about its specific role in the regenerating liver. Using a mouse model with miR-155 overexpression or miR-155 knockout, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of miR-155 in liver regeneration. A marked induction of miR-155 was evident in C57BL/6 mice after PH...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792365/protective-effects-of-piceatannol-on-methylglyoxal-induced-cytotoxicity-in-mc3t3-e1-osteoblastic-cells
#4
Kwang Sik Suh, Suk Chon, Eun Mi Choi
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive α-oxoaldehyde that increases under diabetic conditions and subsequently contributes to the complications associated with this disease. Piceatannol is a naturally occurring analogue of resveratrol that possesses multiple biological functions. The present study investigated the effects of piceatannol on MG-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Piceatannol significantly restored MG-induced reductions in cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release in MG-treated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, which suggests that it suppressed MG-induced cytotoxicity...
June 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792284/influence-of-large-hiatus-hernia-on-cardiac-volumes-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#5
Pamela Milito, Massimo Lombardi, Emanuele Asti, Gianluca Bonitta, Dario Fina, Francesco Bandera, Luigi Bonavina
BACKGROUND: Large hiatus hernia (LHH) is often associated with post-prandial dyspnea, palpitations or chest discomfort, but its effect on cardiac volumes and performance is still debated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Before and 3-months after laparoscopic repair, 35 patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the fasting state and after a standardized meal. Preoperatively, LHH size increased significantly after meal (p < 0.010). Compared to the fasting state, a systematic trend of volume reduction of the cardiac chambers was observed...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792216/hiv-1-tat-phosphorylation-on-ser-16-residue-modulates-hiv-1-transcription
#6
Andrey Ivanov, Xionghao Lin, Tatiana Ammosova, Andrey V Ilatovskiy, Namita Kumari, Hatajai Lassiter, Nowah Afangbedji, Xiaomei Niu, Michael G Petukhov, Sergei Nekhai
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 transcription activator protein Tat is phosphorylated in vitro by CDK2 and DNA-PK on Ser-16 residue and by PKR on Tat Ser-46 residue. Here we analyzed Tat phosphorylation in cultured cells and its functionality. RESULTS: Mass spectrometry analysis showed primarily Tat Ser-16 phosphorylation in cultured cells. In vitro, CDK2/cyclin E predominantly phosphorylated Tat Ser-16 and PKR-Tat Ser-46. Alanine mutations of either Ser-16 or Ser-46 decreased overall Tat phosphorylation...
May 23, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791191/effects-of-bone-incorporation-after-arthroscopic-stabilization-surgery-for-bony-bankart-lesion-based-on-preoperative-glenoid-defect-size
#7
In Park, Jae-Hoo Lee, Hwan-Sub Hyun, Min-Joon Oh, Sang-Jin Shin
BACKGROUND: Recurrent shoulder instability occurs more frequently after soft tissue surgery when the glenoid defect is greater than 20%. However, for lesions less than 20%, no scientific guidance is available regarding what size of bone fragments may affect shoulder functional restoration after bone incorporation. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to analyze how preoperative glenoid defect size and bone fragment incorporation alter postoperative clinical outcomes, we compared the functional outcomes of shoulders with and without bony Bankart lesion...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791141/fluorogenic-probing-of-membrane-protein-trafficking
#8
Chenge Li, Aurélien Mourton, Marie-Aude Plamont, Vanessa Rodrigues, Isabelle Aujard, Michel Volovitch, Thomas Le Saux, Franck Perez, Sophie Vriz, Ludovic Jullien, Alain Joliot, Arnaud Gautier
Methods to differentially label cell-surface and intracellular membrane proteins are indispensable for understanding their function and the regulation of their trafficking. We present an efficient strategy for the rapid and selective fluorescent labeling of membrane proteins based on the chemical-genetic fluorescent marker FAST (fluorescence-activating and absorption-shifting tag). Cell-surface FAST-tagged proteins could be selectively and rapidly labeled using fluorogenic membrane-impermeant 4-hydroxybenzylidene rhodanine (HBR) analogs...
May 23, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790257/functionalized-silk-fibers-from-transgenic-silkworms-for-wound-healing-applications-surface-presentation-of-bioactive-epidermal-growth-factor
#9
Michael Wöltje, Melanie Böbel, Michaela Bienert, Sabine Neuss, Dilibaier Aibibu, Chokri Cherif
Growth factors play a crucial role in wound healing in general and are promising tools for the treatment of chronic wounds as they can restore the physiological wound healing process. In growth factor-loaded wound dressings, human epidermal growth factor (EGF) is released in a burst and washed out quickly. The developed matrix consists of recombinant EGF produced in transgenic silkworms as a fusion protein with the fibroin light chain. The covalent linkage prevents EGF from draining into the surrounding tissue while presenting the growth factor on the surface...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789952/carotid-body-ablation-a-new-target-to-address-central-autonomic-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Rodrigo Iturriaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An abnormal heightened carotid body (CB) chemoreflex, which produces autonomic dysfunction and sympathetic overactivation, is the common hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), resistant hypertension, systolic heart failure (HF), and cardiometabolic diseases. Accordingly, it has been proposed that the elimination of the CB chemosensory input to the brainstem may reduce the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations in sympathetic-associated diseases in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of evidence obtained in preclinical animal models support that an enhanced CB discharge produces sympathetic hyperactivity, baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability impairment, breathing instability, hypertension, and insulin resistance...
May 22, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789935/potential-use-of-stem-cells-as-a-therapy-for-cystinosis
#11
REVIEW
Celine J Rocca, Stephanie Cherqui
Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease that belongs to the family of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Initial symptoms of cystinosis correspond to the renal Fanconi syndrome. Patients then develop chronic kidney disease and multi-organ failure due to accumulation of cystine in all tissue compartments. LSDs are commonly characterized by a defective activity of lysosomal enzymes. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) transplantation is a treatment option for several LSDs based on the premise that their progeny will integrate in the affected tissues and secrete the functional enzyme, which will be recaptured by the surrounding deficient cells and restore physiological activity...
May 22, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789683/bmp-2-restoration-aids-in-recovery-from-liver-fibrosis-by-attenuating-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#12
Yueh-Hua Chung, Ying-Hsien Huang, Tien-Huei Chu, Chun-Lin Chen, Pey-Ru Lin, Shih-Chung Huang, Deng-Chyang Wu, Chao-Cheng Huang, Tsung-Hui Hu, Ying-Hsien Kao, Ming-Hong Tai
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role in hepatic fibrogenesis. This study investigated the function and mechanism of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in regulation of hepatic fibrogenesis. BMP-2 expression in fibrotic liver was measured in human tissue microarray and mouse models of liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation surgery or carbon tetrachloride administration. Adenovirus-mediated BMP-2 gene delivery was used to test the prophylactic effect on liver fibrosis. Primary hepatic stellate cells (HSC), HSC-T6 and clone-9 cell lines were used to study the interplay between BMP-2 and TGF-β1...
May 22, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789577/long-non-coding-rna-gm2199-rescues-liver-injury-and-promotes-hepatocyte-proliferation-through-the-upregulation-of-erk1-2
#13
Qiang Gao, Yunyan Gu, Yanan Jiang, Li Fan, Zixiang Wei, Haobin Jin, Xirui Yang, Lijuan Wang, Xuguang Li, Sheng Tai, Baofeng Yang, Yan Liu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of regulators of various human diseases. This study was designed to explore the potential role of lncRNAs in experimental hepatic damage. In vivo hepatic damage in mice and in vitro hepatocyte damage in AML12 and NCTC1469 cells were induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) treatments. Expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs were analyzed by microarray. Bioinformatics analyses were conducted to predict the potential functions of differentially expressed lncRNAs with respect to hepatic damage...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789556/foxm1-dependent-rad51-and-brca2-signaling-protects-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-fibroblasts-from-radiation-induced-cell-death
#14
Jintaek Im, Jessica Lawrence, Davis Seelig, Richard S Nho
Radiation therapy is critical for the control of many tumors and lung is an important dose-limiting organ that impacts radiation dose prescribed to avoid irreversible pulmonary fibrosis in cancer survivors. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, irreversible lung disease caused by aberrantly activated lung (myo)fibroblasts. The presence of pro-fibrotic, apoptosis-resistant fibroblasts in IPF promotes progressive fibrosis and may have a role in other diseases, if these resistant cells are selected for as a consequence of treatment...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789551/epidermal-glucocorticoid-and-mineralocorticoid-receptors-act-cooperatively-to-regulate-epidermal-development-and-counteract-skin-inflammation
#15
Judit Bigas, Lisa M Sevilla, Elena Carceller, Julia Boix, Paloma Pérez
Endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) regulate epidermal development and combat skin inflammatory diseases. GC actions can be mediated through the GC receptor (GR) and/or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), highly homologous ligand-activated transcription factors. While the role of GR as a potent anti-inflammatory mediator is well known, that of MR is not as clear, nor is whether these receptors cooperate or antagonize each other in the epidermis. To address this, we generated mice with epidermal-specific loss of both receptors (double knockout, DKO), and analyzed the phenotypical and functional consequences relative to single KOs or controls (CO)...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789423/atp-binding-cassette-member-b5-abcb5-promotes-tumor-cell-invasiveness-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#16
Qin Guo, Tanja Grimmig, Gabriel Gonzalez, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Gretchen Berg, Nolan Carr, Brian J Wilson, Pallavi Banerjee, Jie Ma, Jason S Gold, Bisweswar Nandi, Qin Huang, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Christine G Lian, George F Murphy, Markus H Frank, Martin Gasser, Natasha Y Frank
ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5) mediates multidrug resistance (MDR) in diverse malignancies and confers clinically relevant 5-fluorouracil resistance to CD133-expressing cancer stem cells (CSCs) in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Because of its recently identified roles in normal stem cell maintenance, we hypothesized that ABCB5 might also serve MDR-independent functions in CRC. Here, in a prospective clinical study of 142 CRC patients, we found that ABCB5 mRNA transcripts previously reported not to be significantly expressed in healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells are significantly enriched in patient peripheral blood specimens compared with non-CRC controls and correlate with CRC disease progression...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789363/role-of-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-viroporins-e-3a-and-8a-in-replication-and-pathogenesis
#17
Carlos Castaño-Rodriguez, Jose M Honrubia, Javier Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Marta L DeDiego, Jose L Nieto-Torres, Jose M Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose A Regla-Nava, Raul Fernandez-Delgado, Carmina Verdia-Báguena, Maria Queralt-Martín, Grazyna Kochan, Stanley Perlman, Vicente M Aguilella, Isabel Sola, Luis Enjuanes
Viroporins are viral proteins with ion channel (IC) activity that play an important role in several processes, including virus replication and pathogenesis. While many coronaviruses (CoVs) encode two viroporins, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) encodes three: proteins 3a, E, and 8a. Additionally, proteins 3a and E have a PDZ-binding motif (PBM), which can potentially bind over 400 cellular proteins which contain a PDZ domain, making them potentially important for the control of cell function...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789248/native-enthesis-preservation-versus-removal-in-rotator-cuff-repair-in-a-rabbit-model
#18
Wei Su, Xiaoxi Li, Song Zhao, Peng Shen, Shikui Dong, Jia Jiang, Jinzhong Zhao
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore whether preservation of native enthesis during rotator cuff repair (RCR) results in a histologically and biomechanically better rotator cuff-greater tuberosity (RC-GT) connection in an animal model. METHODS: Thirty-six New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The supraspinatus tendons were cut from the footprint to create a rotator cuff tear (RCT) on both shoulders, followed by immediate repair, with a 1 mm thick tendon stump remaining on the footprint...
May 19, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789012/novel-tnf-receptor-1-inhibitors-identified-as-potential-therapeutic-candidates-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Rachel K Rowe, Jordan L Harrison, Hongtao Zhang, Adam D Bachstetter, David P Hesson, Bruce F O'Hara, Mark I Greene, Jonathan Lifshitz
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) begins with the application of mechanical force to the head or brain, which initiates systemic and cellular processes that are hallmarks of the disease. The pathological cascade of secondary injury processes, including inflammation, can exacerbate brain injury-induced morbidities and thus represents a plausible target for pharmaceutical therapies. We have pioneered research on post-traumatic sleep, identifying that injury-induced sleep lasting for 6 h in brain-injured mice coincides with increased cortical levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788910/infection-with-high-proportion-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-conflict-related-injuries-is-associated-with-poor-outcomes-and-excess-resource-consumption-a-cohort-study-of-syrian-patients-treated-in-jordan
#20
Andreas Älgå, Sidney Wong, Muhammad Shoaib, Kalle Lundgren, Christian G Giske, Johan von Schreeb, Jonas Malmstedt
BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts are a major contributor to injury and death globally. Conflict-related injuries are associated with a high risk of wound infection, but it is unknown to what extent infection directly relates to sustainment of life and restoration of function. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome and resource consumption among civilians receiving acute surgical treatment due to conflict-related injuries. Patients with and without wound infections were compared...
May 22, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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