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Functional restoration

Anna Cressey, Deborah S Jacobs, Crystal Remington, Karen G Carrasquillo
Purpose: To demonstrate clearing of chronic corneal opacities and improvement of visual acuity with the use of BostonSight prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in ocular surface disease. Observations: We undertook retrospective analysis of the medical records of a series of patients who underwent PROSE treatment from August 2006 to December 2014. Patients were referred for ocular surface disease of various etiologies. Primary inclusion criterion was corneal opacity that improved with PROSE treatment...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Brian R Waterman, William Arroyo, Eric J Cotter, Michael A Zacchilli, E'Stephan J Garcia, Brett D Owens
Background: There remains a debate over whether to retain the index anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft in the setting of septic arthritis. Purpose: To evaluate and compare clinical outcomes for the treatment of septic arthritis after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in those with and without early graft retention. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The Military Health System was queried for all ACLR procedures performed between 2007 and 2013...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Sachin Ramchandra Tapasvi, Anshu Shekhar, Shantanu Sudhakar Patil
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are usually managed by reconstruction with autograft or allograft, but primary repair in carefully selected patients is a reasonable option. Proximal avulsions presenting early with excellent tissue quality are amenable to repair and healing. Restoration of native ACL preserves its proprioceptive and kinematic functions. A repair is less invasive and avoids graft-related problems, and faster rehabilitation is possible. Protection for the repair in the early stages will allow better healing...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Dawei Lei, Zhengbo Shao, Xinrong Zhou, Huiping Yuan
Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury causes neuronal degeneration and initiates various optic nerve diseases. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic neuroprotective effect of rasagiline and idebenone against RIR injury. A combination of rasagiline and idebenone was administered intraperitoneally immediately after establishment of the RIR model. Treatment with the combination of the two drugs resulted in a significant restoration of retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cells. Apoptosis of cells in ganglion cell layers was also ameliorated, suggesting that the effect of the two drugs was synergistic and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increased...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Xi Song, Qiyang Shen, Liting Fan, Qiuxiao Yu, Xiao Jia, Yu Sun, Wenpei Bai, Jihong Kang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age and also an important metabolic disorder associated with insulin resistance (IR). Hyperandrogenism is a key feature of PCOS. However, whether hyperandrogenism can cause IR in PCOS remains largely unknown. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and its regulated autophagy are closely associated with IR. In the present study, we investigated the role of mTORC1-autophagy pathway in skeletal muscle IR in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS mouse model...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Ruifu Yang, Mingwu Zhou, Chaofeng Xing, Shimin Li, Li Song, Jia Chen, Yingjie Xiong, Kai Zhang
Objective: To expound the clinical effect of a new operation by transplanting double segment triangular fibula flap with vascular pedicle to repair the forefoot with lateral bone defect, and to study how to improve the operation method in the following stage. Methods: The inclusion criteria: More than 2 phalangeal and metatarsal bones defects of the lateral forefoot, widespread skin and soft tissue defects on pelma and dorsal foot, and destruction of the anterior aspect of foot arch, which seriously affects the foot function...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ida K Fox, Christine B Novak, Emily M Krauss, Gwendolyn M Hoben, Craig Zaidman, Rimma Ruvinskaya, Neringa Juknis, Anke C Winter, Susan E Mackinnon
BACKGROUND: Nerve transfer surgery to restore upper extremity (UE) function in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is novel and may transform treatment. Determining candidacy even years post-SCI is ill-defined and deserves investigation. OBJECTIVE: To develop a diagnostic algorithm, focusing on electrodiagnostic studies (EDX), to determine eligibility for nerve transfer surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive case series SETTING: Tertiary university-based institution PATIENTS: Individuals with cervical SCI (n = 45) METHODS: The electronic medical records of people referred to the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery UE Surgery in SCI clinic from 2010-2015 were reviewed...
March 15, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Magdalena Martinez-Losa, Tara E Tracy, Keran Ma, Laure Verret, Alexandra Clemente-Perez, Abdullah S Khan, Inma Cobos, Kaitlyn Ho, Li Gan, Lennart Mucke, Manuel Alvarez-Dolado, Jorge J Palop
Inhibitory interneurons regulate the oscillatory rhythms and network synchrony that are required for cognitive functions and disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Network dysrhythmias in AD and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with hypofunction of Nav1.1, a voltage-gated sodium channel subunit predominantly expressed in interneurons. We show that Nav1.1-overexpressing, but not wild-type, interneuron transplants derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) enhance behavior-dependent gamma oscillatory activity, reduce network hypersynchrony, and improve cognitive functions in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD...
March 15, 2018: Neuron
J B Seeger, J P Schikschneit, C Schuld, R Rupp, M Rickert, A Jahnke, G S Maier, M Clarius
BACKGROUND: Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an effective treatment for patients with medial osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Instrumented gait analysis provides an objective measure to quantify and qualify postoperative changes of gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate standardized instrumented gait analysis for functional recovery and gait as an outcome of mobile-bearing UKA in patients with medial osteoarthritis of the knee. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with isolated medial osteoarthritis of the knee joint received mobile-bearing UKA...
March 15, 2018: Knee
Amy L Freeman-Sanderson, Leanne Togher, Mark Elkins, Belinda Kenny
OBJECTIVES: A tracheostomy tube can profoundly impact ability to communicate. The impact of this on patients' self-esteem and quality of life in the care continuum from the intensive care unit to after decannulation has not been reported. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the patient-reported experience regarding change in communication function, communication-related self-esteem and quality of life. RESEARCH DESIGN: A mixed methods approach was utilised. Quantitative data were obtained using validated measures of self-esteem related to communication-related quality of life and general health...
March 15, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Nathan S Bryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reveal the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) production in humans and how lifestyle, drug therapy, and hygienic practices can decrease NO production. Furthermore, to show how functional nitric oxide nutrition can overcome these limitations to restore endogenous NO production and combat cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past decade has revealed that inorganic nitrate and nitrite found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other vegetables such as beets can provide the human body with a source of bioactive nitric oxide...
March 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Ava D Segal, Krista M Cyr, Christina J Stender, Eric C Whittaker, Michael E Hahn, Michael S Orendurff, William R Ledoux, Bruce J Sangeorzan
BACKGROUND: End-stage ankle arthritis is a debilitating condition that often requires surgical intervention after failed conservative treatments. Ankle arthrodesis is a common surgical option, especially for younger and highly active patients; however, ankle arthroplasty has become increasingly popular as advancements in implant design improve device longevity. The longitudinal differences in biomechanical outcomes between these surgical treatments remain indistinct, likely due to the challenges associated with objective study of a heterogeneous population...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Zachary Js Mays, Nikhil U Nair
The trillions of microbes hosted by humans can dictate health or illness depending on a multitude of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that help define the human ecosystem. As the human microbiota is characterized, so can the interconnectivity of microbe-host-disease be realized and manipulated. Designing microbes as therapeutic agents can not only enable targeted drug delivery but also restore homeostasis within a perturbed microbial community. Used for centuries in fermentation and preservation of food, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a long history of safe, and occasionally health promoting, interactions with the human gut, making them ideal candidates for engineered functionality...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Xuemei Ma, Xiaodong Yang, Wenhua Bao, Shumin Li, Shanshan Liang, Yunhui Sun, Yunwei Zhao, Jing Wang, Chenxu Zhao
Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the past years, increasing reports indicate that circular RNAs (circRNAs) exert a great important role in human cancers, including lung cancer. However, the knowledge about circRNA in lung cancer remains very little so far. In the present study, we screened out a highly expressed novel circRNA named circMAN2B2 in lung cancer tissues. We investigated the function of circMAN2B2 and found that circMAN2B2 knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in both H1299 and A549 lung cancer cells...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Emmanuel Weyne, Johanna L Hannan, Thomas Gevaert, Yodi Soebadi, Hotaka Matsui, Fabio Castiglione, Koenraad van Renterghem, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Maarten Albersen
BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that the neuropeptide galanin was strongly upregulated soon after bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) and that galanin and its receptors were expressed in nitrergic erectile innervation. Galanin has been observed to exert neuroregenerative effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons, but evidence for these effects in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) after BCNI is lacking. AIM: To evaluate the neurotropic effects of galanin receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro in nitrergic neurons and MPG and in vivo in rats after BCNI...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Tie-Jun Chen, Zhe Chi, Hong Jiang, Guang-Lei Liu, Zhong Hu, Zhen-Ming Chi
BACKGROUND: Pullulan and glycogen have many applications and physiological functions. However, to date, it has been unknown where and how the pullulan is synthesized in the yeast cells and if cell wall structure of the producer can affect pullulan and glycogen biosynthesis. METHODS: The genes related to cell wall integrity were cloned, characterized, deleted and complemented. The cell wall integrity, pullulan biosynthesis, glycogen accumulation and gene expression were examined...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ranganathan Vatsala, Panneerselvam Elavenil, Chellappazham Saravanan, Balasubramaniam Sasikala, Raja V B Krishnakumar
PURPOSE: Maxillofacial injuries can result in psychological derangement, leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by continual re-experiencing of any traumatic event in addition to numerous systemic complications. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence and severity of "PTSD-related depression" in patients with maxillofacial injuries and to identify the risk factors involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study involved 88 patients with maxillofacial trauma who had only cosmetic deficits (group A), only functional deficits (group B), or cosmetic and functional deficits (group C)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Zacharias Kontarakis, Andrea Rossi, Sophie Ramas, Michael T Dellinger, Didier Y R Stainier
Organ homeostasis relies upon cellular and molecular processes that restore tissue structure and function in a timely fashion. Lymphatic vessels help maintain fluid equilibrium by returning interstitial fluid that evades venous uptake back to the circulation. Despite its important role in tissue homeostasis, cancer metastasis, and close developmental origins with the blood vasculature, the number of molecular players known to control lymphatic system development is relatively low. Here we show, using genetic approaches in zebrafish and mice, that the endothelial specific microRNA mir-126, previously implicated in vascular integrity, regulates lymphatic development...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
Adriana Ferreira Lopes Vilela, Cláudia Seidl, Juliana Maria de Lima, Carmen Lúcia Cardoso
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are key cholinesterase enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid, an essential process for the restoration of the cholinergic neuron. The loss of cholinergic function in the central nervous system contributes to the cognitive decline associated with advanced age and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inhibitions assays represent a significant role in the drug discovery process. Herein, we describe an improved label free method to screen and characterize new BChE ligands...
March 14, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
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