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Physiology and anesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685887/cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-infants-and-children-with-cardiac-disease-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#1
REVIEW
Bradley S Marino, Sarah Tabbutt, Graeme MacLaren, Mary Fran Hazinski, Ian Adatia, Dianne L Atkins, Paul A Checchia, Allan DeCaen, Ericka L Fink, George M Hoffman, John L Jefferies, Monica Kleinman, Catherine D Krawczeski, Daniel J Licht, Duncan Macrae, Chitra Ravishankar, Ricardo A Samson, Ravi R Thiagarajan, Rune Toms, James Tweddell, Peter C Laussen
Cardiac arrest occurs at a higher rate in children with heart disease than in healthy children. Pediatric basic life support and advanced life support guidelines focus on delivering high-quality resuscitation in children with normal hearts. The complexity and variability in pediatric heart disease pose unique challenges during resuscitation. A writing group appointed by the American Heart Association reviewed the literature addressing resuscitation in children with heart disease. MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were searched from 1966 to 2015, cross-referencing pediatric heart disease with pertinent resuscitation search terms...
April 23, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682503/imaging-behavior-and-endocrine-analysis-of-jealousy-in-a-monogamous-primate
#2
Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, Donald R Williams, William A Mason, Simon R Cherry, Douglas J Rowland, Thomas Schaefer, Karen L Bales
Understanding the neurobiology of social bonding in non-human primates is a critical step in understanding the evolution of monogamy, as well as understanding the neural substrates for emotion and behavior. Coppery titi monkeys ( Callicebus cupreus ) form strong pair bonds, characterized by selective preference for their pair mate, mate-guarding, physiological and behavioral agitation upon separation, and social buffering. Mate-guarding, or the "maintenance" phase of pair bonding, is relatively under-studied in primates...
October 2017: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680811/does-the-age-of-acute-care-physicians-impact-their-1-crisis-management-performance-and-2-learning-after-simulation-based-education-a-protocol-for-a-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study-in-toronto-and-ottawa-canada
#3
Fahad Alam, Vicki R LeBlanc, Alan Baxter, Jordan Tarshis, Dominique Piquette, Yuqi Gu, Caroline Filipkowska, Ashley Krywenky, Nicole Kester-Greene, Pierre Cardinal, Shelly Au, Sandy Lam, Sylvain Boet, Perioperative Anesthesia Clinical Trials Group
INTRODUCTION: The proportion of older acute care physicians (ACPs) has been steadily increasing. Ageing is associated with physiological changes and prospective research investigating how such age-related physiological changes affect clinical performance, including crisis resource management (CRM) skills, is lacking. There is a gap in the literature on whether physician's age influences baseline CRM performance and also learning from simulation. We aim to investigate whether ageing is associated with baseline CRM skills of ACPs (emergency, critical care and anaesthesia) using simulated crisis scenarios and to assess whether ageing influences learning from simulation-based education...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680394/the-clinical-effects-of-a-low-dose-dexmedetomidine-constant-rate-infusion-in-isoflurane-anesthetized-cats
#4
B T Simon, E M Scallan, C D Coursey, W M Kiehl, E J Moore
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low dose dexmedetomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on cardiopulmonary function, inhalant anesthetic concentration and recovery in isoflurane anesthetized cats. In a prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled design, 12 cats undergoing anesthesia for ovariohysterectomy were administered hydromorphone (0.1mg/kg) intramuscularly, propofol (4.3-7.8mg/kg) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane. During isoflurane anesthesia, the cats were administered either a dexmedetomidine loading dose (0...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673529/neurochemistry-of-anesthetic-states
#5
Ralph Lydic, Helen A Baghdoyan, Amanda L May
Anesthetic mechanisms that eliminate consciousness and perception of pain are products of the nervous system. Chemical approaches to the study of anesthetic mechanisms have the potential to serve as an ideal interface between basic and clinical neuroscience. There are disproportionately more basic neurochemical studies than clinical studies of anesthetic mechanisms. Even within neuroscience, the study of anesthetic mechanisms is sparse. The Society for Neuroscience hosts one of the world's largest and most vibrant scientific meetings, yet the content themes of that meeting do not include anesthesia...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666271/desynchronization-of-slow-oscillations-in-the-basal-ganglia-during-natural-sleep
#6
Aviv D Mizrahi-Kliger, Alexander Kaplan, Zvi Israel, Hagai Bergman
Slow oscillations of neuronal activity alternating between firing and silence are a hallmark of slow-wave sleep (SWS). These oscillations reflect the default activity present in all mammalian species, and are ubiquitous to anesthesia, brain slice preparations, and neuronal cultures. In all these cases, neuronal firing is highly synchronous within local circuits, suggesting that oscillation-synchronization coupling may be a governing principle of sleep physiology regardless of anatomical connectivity. To investigate whether this principle applies to overall brain organization, we recorded the activity of individual neurons from basal ganglia (BG) structures and the thalamocortical (TC) network over 70 full nights of natural sleep in two vervet monkeys...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661338/anesthesia-in-the-elderly-patient-undergoing-otolaryngology-head-and-neck-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Takumi Codère-Maruyama, Albert Moore
Geriatric patients undergoing surgery have a whole set of specific physiologic changes, perioperative needs, and postoperative complications. This review presents an overview of the basic concepts and the evolving challenges pertaining to the care of geriatric patients undergoing otolaryngologic procedures from the perspective of the anesthesiologist.
May 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661286/comparison-of-zone-3-resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-and-the-abdominal-aortic-and-junctional-tourniquet-in-a-model-of-junctional-hemorrhage-in-swine
#8
Jason M Rall, Theodore T Redman, Elliot M Ross, Jonathan J Morrison, Joseph K Maddry
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injuries to the pelvis and high junctional injuries are difficult to treat in the field; however, Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) and the Abdominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet (AAJT) constitute two promising treatment modalities. The aim of this study is to use a large animal model of pelvic hemorrhage to compare the survival, hemostatic, hemodynamic, and metabolic profile of both techniques. METHODS: Yorkshire swine (n = 10, 70-90 kg) underwent general anesthesia, instrumentation, and surgical isolation of the femoral artery...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628943/provocative-testing-prior-to-anterior-cerebral-artery-fusiform-aneurysm-embolization
#9
Pouria Moshayedi, Dan-Victor Giurgiutiu, Andrew F Ducruet, Brian T Jankowitz, Ashutosh P Jadhav
We report 2 cases of parent artery occlusion (PAO) for anterior cerebral artery (ACA) fusiform aneurysm embolization after superselective provocative testing was performed to confirm distal territory viability. The first case involves a patient in the second decade of life who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent PAO after a balloon test occlusion in the distal ACA revealed no neurophysiology changes. The second case involves another patient in the forth decade of life who presented with an enlarging pseudoaneurysm and underwent PAO after a sodium amobarbital infusion in the distal ACA revealed no clinical change...
February 2018: Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628583/pressure-controlled-volume-guaranteed-mode-improves-respiratory-dynamics-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-a-comparison-with-conventional-modes
#10
Apoorwa Kothari, Deepa Baskaran
Background: Pneumoperitoneum and altered positioning 1in laparoscopic cholecystectomy predispose to alterations in cardiorespiratory physiology. We compared the effects of volume controlled, pressure controlled, and the newly introduced pressure controlled-volume guaranteed ventilation (PCV-VG) modes of ventilation on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five physical status American Society of Anesthesiologists Classes I and II patients with normal lungs undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to receive volume controlled ventilation (VCV), pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV), or PCV-VG modes of ventilation during general anesthesia...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623382/-the-heart-catheter-table-is-not-the-operating-table-intraindividual-comparison-of-pulmonary-artery-pressures
#11
M U Ziegler, H Reinelt
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery need extensive and invasive monitoring, which needs to be individually adapted for each patient and requires a diligent risk-benefit analysis. The use of a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) seems to be justifiable in certain cases; therefore, the preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension represents an indication for perioperative monitoring with PAC in the S3 guidelines of the German Society for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI)...
April 5, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622311/anesthesia-for-the-pediatric-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery-patient
#12
REVIEW
Deepak G Krishnan
Pediatric patients present to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon for surgical services that can be performed safely and efficiently. Children and parents tend to be anxious; achieving cooperation is paramount for successful procedures. Several techniques can be used to alleviate anxiety and provide analgesia and anesthesia. This article outlines the anatomy and physiology of children and the preoperative anesthetic preparation and techniques unique to pediatric anesthesia. It discusses standards in training in pediatric anesthesia and current recommendations for monitoring...
May 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621960/experimental-uterus-transplant-in-various-models-review-of-surgical-techniques
#13
Jalal Arvin, Maryam Ashrafi, Saeedeh Lotfi, Arash Dadvand Meshgin Shahr, Elvira Schomann, Kristina Scheerer, Elke Schulmeyer
Uterus transplantation may become the surgical therapeutic modality of choice for uterine factor infertility. However, this procedure still faces technical, therapeutic, and immunologic challenges that limit its success and clinical application. Experimental studies are therefore still needed to address various challenges in the field of uterus transplantation. Among various laboratory animals, small animals are ideal models for the purpose of experimental uterus transplant. However, clinical success in small animal models is not generalizable to clinical application and treatment for uterine factor infertility in humans...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619108/the-effects-of-experimental-intratympanic-steroid-administration-on-organ-of-corti-type-1-spiral-ganglion
#14
Turgay Topcuoglu, Murat Kocyıgıt, Erdogan Bulut, Safiye G Ortekın, Mehmet Kanter, Recep Yagız
Introduction  It is unclear how effective is the intratympanic (IT) steroid treatment on organ of Corti type 1 spiral ganglion, its optimal dosage and frequency of administration. The effect of dexamethasone on cochlear functions in individuals with a normal hearing ability is also unknown. Objective  The aim of this study was to evaluate, at the electrophysiological and ultrastructural levels, the effect of IT dexamethasone administration in guinea pigs with normal hearing on organ of Corti type 1 spiral ganglion...
April 2018: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616566/report-on-first-certificate-course-on-applied-physiology-of-pain-analgesia-anesthesia-and-euthanasia-for-laboratory-animals-held-in-sri-lanka
#15
Mangala Gunatilake
Similar to human beings, pain is an unpleasant sensation experienced by animals as well. There is no exception when the animals are subjected to experimental procedures. Our duty as researchers/scientists is to prevent or minimize the pain in animals so as to lessen their suffering and distress during experimental procedures. The basics of the physiology of pain and pain perception, analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia of laboratory animals were included to complete the program, before the practical part was attempted and before advanced topics, such as comparison of anesthetic combinations, were discussed...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616230/anesthesia-associated-relative-hypovolemia-mechanisms-monitoring-and-treatment-considerations
#16
Jessica Noel-Morgan, William W Muir
Although the utility and benefits of anesthesia and analgesia are irrefutable, their practice is not void of risks. Almost all drugs that produce anesthesia endanger cardiovascular stability by producing dose-dependent impairment of cardiac function, vascular reactivity, and compensatory autoregulatory responses. Whereas anesthesia-related depression of cardiac performance and arterial vasodilation are well recognized adverse effects contributing to anesthetic risk, far less emphasis has been placed on effects impacting venous physiology and venous return...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615276/-cr-possum-and-surgical-apgar-score-as-predictive-factors-for-patients-allocation-after-colorectal-surgery
#17
Sílvia Pinho, Filipa Lagarto, Blandina Gomes, Liliana Costa, Catarina S Nunes, Carla Oliveira
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Surgical patients frequently require admission in high-dependency units or intensive care units. Resources are scarce and there are no universally accepted admission criteria, so patients' allocation must be optimized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between postoperative destination of patients submitted to colorectal surgery and the scores ColoRectal Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity (CR-POSSUM) and Surgical Apgar Score (SAS) and, secondarily find cut-offs to aid this allocation...
March 31, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614090/intra-abdominal-pressure-vertebral-column-length-and-spread-of-spinal-anesthesia-in-parturients-undergoing-cesarean-section-an-observational-study
#18
Ting-Ting Ni, Ying Zhou, An-Cui Yong, Lu Wang, Qing-He Zhou
BACKGROUND: In parturients with increased physiologically intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and a short stature, a greater cephalad spread of spinal anesthesia is often observed after a fixed amount of plain bupivacaine is administered. Therefore, we designed this prospective study to test whether IAP and vertebral column length (VCL) were predictors of spinal spread in parturients undergoing a cesarean section. METHODS: A total of 113 parturients, all undergoing elective cesarean sections with single-shot spinal anesthesia, were enrolled...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606579/spontaneous-infra-slow-brain-activity-has-unique-spatiotemporal-dynamics-and-laminar-structure
#19
Anish Mitra, Andrew Kraft, Patrick Wright, Benjamin Acland, Abraham Z Snyder, Zachary Rosenthal, Leah Czerniewski, Adam Bauer, Lawrence Snyder, Joseph Culver, Jin-Moo Lee, Marcus E Raichle
Systems-level organization in spontaneous infra-slow (<0.1Hz) brain activity, measured using blood oxygen signals in fMRI and optical imaging, has become a major theme in the study of neural function in both humans and animal models. Yet the neurophysiological basis of infra-slow activity (ISA) remains unresolved. In particular, is ISA a distinct physiological process, or is it a low-frequency analog of faster neural activity? Here, using whole-cortex calcium/hemoglobin imaging in mice, we show that ISA in each of these modalities travels through the cortex along stereotypical spatiotemporal trajectories that are state dependent (wake versus anesthesia) and distinct from trajectories in delta (1-4 Hz) activity...
March 24, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606368/influence-of-class-v-preparation-on-in-vivo-temperature-rise-in-anesthetized-human-pulp-during-exposure-to-a-polywave-%C3%A2-led-light-curing-unit
#20
Driellen Christine Zarpellon, Patrício Runnacles, Cristiane Maucoski, Dayane Jaqueline Gross, Ulisses Coelho, Frederick Allen Rueggeberg, Cesar Augusto Galvão Arrais
OBJECTIVE: This in vivo study evaluated pulp temperature (PT) rise in human premolars having deep Class V preparations during exposure to a light curing unit (LCU) using selected exposure modes (EMs). METHODS: After local Ethics Committee approval, intact first premolars (n=8) requiring extraction for orthodontic reasons, from 8 volunteers, received infiltrative and intraligamental anesthesia and were isolated using rubber dam. A minute pulp exposure was attained and sterile probe from a wireless, NIST-traceable, temperature acquisition system was inserted into the coronal pulp chamber to continuously monitor PT (°C)...
March 29, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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