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Physiology and anesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226339/current-concepts-of-phenylpiperidine-derivatives-use-in-the-treatment-of-acute-and-chronic-pain
#1
Nidal Elbaridi, Alan D Kaye, Stephanie Choi, Richard D Urman
Phenylpiperidines are a chemical class of drugs with a phenyl moiety directly attached to piperidine. These agents have an important role in many aspects of medicine including anesthesia and pain medicine. After the development of meperidine, fentanyl, which is a second generation synthetic phenylpiperidine series opioid, was synthesized and introduced into clinical anesthesia practice as fentanyl citrate in 1968. Fentanyl-mediated or modulated responses involve action at the mu-opioid receptor as an agonist at the dorsal horn inhibiting ascending pain pathways in the rostral ventral medulla, increasing pain threshold, and producing both analgesic and sedative effects...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217085/resting-state-fmri-in-mice-reveals-anesthesia-specific-signatures-of-brain-functional-networks-and-their-interactions
#2
Qasim Bukhari, Aileen Schroeter, David M Cole, Markus Rudin
fMRI studies in mice typically require the use of anesthetics. Yet, it is known that anesthesia alters responses to stimuli or functional networks at rest. In this work, we have used Dual Regression analysis Network Modeling to investigate the effects of two commonly used anesthetics, isoflurane and medetomidine, on rs-fMRI derived functional networks, and in particular to what extent anesthesia affected the interaction within and between these networks. Experimental data have been used from a previous study (Grandjean et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214930/investigation-of-optical-neuro-monitoring-technique-for-detection-of-maintenance-and-emergence-states-during-general-anesthesia
#3
Gabriela Hernandez-Meza, Meltem Izzetoglu, Mary Osbakken, Michael Green, Hawa Abubakar, Kurtulus Izzetoglu
The American Society of Anesthesiologist recommends peripheral physiological monitoring during general anesthesia, which offers no information regarding the effects of anesthetics on the brain. Since no "gold standard" method exists for this evaluation, such a technique is needed to ensure patient comfort, procedure quality and safety. In this study we investigated functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as possible monitor of anesthetic effects on the prefrontal cortex. Anesthetic drugs, such as sevoflurane, suppress the cerebral metabolism and alter the cerebral blood flow...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193464/igas-a-framework-for-using-electronic-intraoperative-medical-records-for-genomic-discovery
#4
Matthew A Levin, Thomas T Joseph, Janina M Jeff, Rajiv Nadukuru, Stephen B Ellis, Erwin P Bottinger, Eimear E Kenny
OBJECTIVE: Design and implement a HIPAA and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profile compliant automated pipeline, the integrated Genomics Anesthesia System (iGAS), linking genomic data from the Mount Sinai Health System (MSHS) BioMe biobank to electronic anesthesia records, including physiological data collected during the perioperative period. The resulting repository of multi-dimensional data can be used for precision medicine analysis of physiological readouts, acute medical conditions, and adverse events that can occur during surgery...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192243/the-influence-of-mechanical-ventilation-on-physiological-parameters-in-ball-pythons-python-regius
#5
Sashia L Jakobsen, Catherine J A Williams, Tobias Wang, Mads F Bertelsen
Mechanical ventilation is widely recommended for reptiles during anesthesia, and while it is well-known that their low ectothermic metabolism requires much lower ventilation than in mammals, very little is known about the influence of ventilation protocol on the recovery from anesthesia. Here, 15 ball pythons (Python regius) were induced and maintained with isoflurane for 60min at one of three ventilation protocols (30, 125, or 250mlmin(-1)kg(-1) body mass) while an arterial catheter was inserted, and ventilation was then continued on 100% oxygen at the specified rate until voluntary extubation...
February 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166996/the-protective-role-of-tetramethylpyrazine-against-cisplatin-induced-ototoxicity
#6
Ali Bayram, Altan Kaya, Ebru Akay, İbrahim Hıra, İbrahim Özcan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats. METHODS: Forty healthy, female, 24-week-old, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) were randomly assigned to four groups as follows: group one (n = 10) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) physiological saline at daily doses of 3 mg/kg for seven days; group two (n = 10) received a single dose of i.p. 15 mg/kg cisplatin; group three (n = 10) received i...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129353/the-humidity-in-a-low-flow-dr%C3%A3-ger-fabius-anesthesia-workstation-with-or-without-thermal-insulation-or-a-heat-and-moisture-exchanger-a-prospective-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Sergius A R de Oliveira, Lorena M C Lucio, Norma S P Modolo, Yoko Hayashi, Mariana G Braz, Lídia R de Carvalho, Leandro G Braz, José Reinaldo C Braz
BACKGROUND: During anesthesia, as compared with intensive care, the time of the tracheal intubation is much shorter. An inhaled gas minimum humidity of 20 mgH2O.L-1 is recommended to reduce the deleterious effects of dry gas on the airways during anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The Fabius GS Premium® anesthesia workstation (Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany) has a built-in hotplate to heat gases in the breathing circuit. A heat and moisture exchanger (HME) is used to further heat and humidify the inhaled gas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126890/evaluation-of-precision-in-optoacoustic-tomography-for-preclinical-imaging-in-living-subjects
#8
James Joseph, Michal Tomaszewski, Isabel Quiros-Gonzalez, Judith Weber, Joanna Brunker, Sarah Bohndiek
: Optoacoustic Tomography (OT) is now widely used in preclinical imaging, however, precision (repeatability and reproducibility) of OT has yet to be determined. METHODS: We used a commercial small animal OT system. Measurements in stable phantoms were used to independently assess the impact of system variables on precision (using coefficient of variation, COV), including acquisition wavelength, rotational position, frame averaging. Variables due to animal handling and physiology, such as anatomical placement and anesthesia conditions were then assessed in healthy nude mice using the left kidney and spleen as reference organs...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122191/influence-of-ambient-temperature-and-confinement-on-the-chemical-immobilization-of-fallow-deer-dama-dama
#9
Giovanna Lucrezia Costa, Bernadette Nastasi, Marcello Musicò, Filippo Spadola, Manuel Morici, Giuseppe Cucinotta, Claudia Interlandi
We used physiological parameters and the duration and quality of anesthesia to compare the effects of two ambient temperatures and of the duration of pre-immobilization confinement on the chemical immobilization of fallow deer. We divided 45 free-ranging fallow deer ( Dama dama ) into two groups: Group A were deer captured in winter (average 12 C), using 1 mg/kg of xylazine and 1 mg/kg of tiletamine-zolazepam, and Group B were deer captured in spring (average 24 C), using 2 mg/kg of xylazine and 1.5 mg/kg of tiletamine-zolazepam, after being confined in a pen...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122159/hypothermia-and-targeted-temperature-management-in-cats-and-dogs
#10
Andrea Brodeur, Annie Wright, Yonaira Cortes
OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge surrounding the effects, treatment, and prognosis of hypothermia in people, dogs, and cats, as well as the application of therapeutic hypothermia in clinical medicine. ETIOLOGY: Hypothermia may be a primary or secondary condition, and may be due to environmental exposure, illness, medications, anesthesia, or trauma. Hypothermia has been applied therapeutically in human medicine for a variety of conditions, including postcardiac arrest...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122007/impact-of-stroke-therapy-academic-industry-roundtable-stair-guidelines-on-peri-anesthesia-care-for-rat-models-of-stroke-a-meta-analysis-comparing-the-years-2005-and-2015
#11
Aurelie Thomas, Johann Detilleux, Paul Flecknell, Charlotte Sandersen
Numerous studies using rats in stroke models have failed to translate into successful clinical trials in humans. The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) has produced guidelines on the rodent stroke model for preclinical trials in order to promote the successful translation of animal to human studies. These guidelines also underline the importance of anaesthetic and monitoring techniques. The aim of this literature review is to document whether anaesthesia protocols (i.e., choice of agents, mode of ventilation, physiological support and monitoring) have been amended since the publication of the STAIR guidelines in 2009...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118413/a-double-blinded-randomized-comparison-of-medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam-and-dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam-anesthesia-in-free-ranging-brown-bears-ursus-arctos
#12
Núria Fandos Esteruelas, Marc Cattet, Andreas Zedrosser, Gordon B Stenhouse, Susanne Küker, Alina L Evans, Jon M Arnemo
We compared anesthetic features, blood parameters, and physiological responses to either medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam using a double-blinded, randomized experimental design during 40 anesthetic events of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) either captured by helicopter in Sweden or by culvert trap in Canada. Induction was smooth and predictable with both anesthetic protocols. Induction time, the need for supplemental drugs to sustain anesthesia, and capture-related stress were analyzed using generalized linear models, but anesthetic protocol did not differentially affect these variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099786/labor-intervention-and-outcomes-in-women-who-are-nulliparous-and-obese-comparison-of-nurse-midwife-to-obstetrician-intrapartum-care
#13
Nicole S Carlson, Elizabeth J Corwin, Nancy K Lowe
BACKGROUND: Women who are obese have slower labors than women of normal weight, and show reduced response to interventions designed to speed labor progress like oxytocin augmentation and artificial rupture of membranes. The optimal labor management for these women has not been described. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared 2 propensity score-matched groups of women (N = 360) who were healthy, nulliparous, spontaneously laboring, and obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) )...
January 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099321/preoxygenation-physiologic-basis-benefits-and-potential-risks
#14
Usharani Nimmagadda, M Ramez Salem, George J Crystal
Preoxygenation before anesthetic induction and tracheal intubation is a widely accepted maneuver, designed to increase the body oxygen stores and thereby delay the onset of arterial hemoglobin desaturation during apnea. Because difficulties with ventilation and intubation are unpredictable, the need for preoxygenation is desirable in all patients. During emergence from anesthesia, residual effects of anesthetics and inadequate reversal of neuromuscular blockade can lead to hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and loss of airway patency...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097611/assessing-nitrous-oxide-effect-using-electroencephalographically-based-depth-of-anesthesia-measures-cortical-state-and-cortical-input
#15
Levin Kuhlmann, David T J Liley
Existing electroencephalography (EEG) based depth of anesthesia monitors cannot reliably track sedative or anesthetic states during n-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist based anesthesia with ketamine or nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, a physiologically-motivated depth of anesthesia monitoring algorithm based on autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) modeling and derivative measures of interest, Cortical State (CS) and Cortical Input (CI), is retrospectively applied in an exploratory manner to the NMDA receptor antagonist N2O, an adjuvant anesthetic gas used in clinical practice...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096570/tourniquet-application-during-anesthesia-what-we-need-to-know
#16
REVIEW
Kamal Kumar, Craig Railton, Qutaiba Tawfic
Tourniquets are routinely and safely used in limb surgeries throughout the world. Tourniquet application alters normal physiology. Healthy patients tolerate these physiological changes well, but the physiological changes may not be well-tolerated by patients with poor cardiac function. This review discusses the physiological changes associated with tourniquet use, safe practice and provides the latest updates regarding tourniquet use. A systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar was done...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078857/effects-of-sevoflurane-on-cardiopulmonary-function-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass
#17
J Zhang, S Wang
The objective of the current study was to investigate effects of sevoflurane on cardiopulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In this study, 60 cases of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were selected and randomly divided into the sevoflurane group (group S) and the control group C (group C) with 30 cases in each group. The two groups received intravenous anesthesia. The patients of group C were only given oxygen mask and physiological saline to keep vein open; while the patients of group S were administered with 1% sevoflurane immediately after the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) until the end of the treatment...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074820/airway-management-of-the-cardiac-surgical-patients-current-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Arindam Choudhury, Nishkarsh Gupta, Rohan Magoon, Poonam Malhotra Kapoor
The difficult airway (DA) is a common problem encountered in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, the challenge is not only just establishment of airway but also maintaining a definitive airway for the safe conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass from initiation to weaning after surgical correction or palliation, de-airing of cardiac chambers. This review describes the management of the DA in a cardiac theater environment. The primary aims are recognition of DA both anatomical and physiological, necessary preparations for (and management of) difficult intubation and extubation...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070330/the-approximated-cardiovascular-reserve-index-complies-with-haemorrhage-related-hemodynamic-deterioration-pattern-a-swine-exsanguination-model
#19
Roy Nadler, Elon Glassberg, Itay E Gabbay, Linn Wagnert-Avraham, Gal Yaniv, David Kushnir, Arik Eisenkraft, Ben-Zion Bobrovsky, Uri Gabbay
BACKGROUND: To estimate the cardiovascular reserve we formulated the Cardiovascular Reserve Index (CVRI) based on physiological measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of CVRI in haemorrhage-related haemodynamic deterioration in an animal model simulating combat injury. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from a research database of swine exsanguination model in which serial physiological measurements were made under anesthesia in 12 swine of haemorrhagic injury and 5 controls...
February 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068994/spatiotemporal-changes-of-optical-signals-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-of-neuropathic-rats-after-electroacupuncture-stimulation
#20
Myeounghoon Cha, Younbyoung Chae, Sun Joon Bai, Bae Hwan Lee
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury causes physiological changes in primary afferent neurons. Neuropathic pain associated with peripheral nerve injuries may reflect changes in the excitability of the nervous system, including the spinothalamic tract. Current alternative medical research indicates that acupuncture stimulation has analgesic effects in various pain symptoms. However, activation changes in the somatosensory cortex of the brain by acupuncture stimulation remain poorly understood...
January 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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