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Leg stiffness

Frank Niemeyer, Lutz Claes, Anita Ignatius, Nicholaus Meyers, Ulrich Simon
Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for generating large amounts of bone in situ for treating pathologies such as large bone defects or skeletal malformations, for instance leg-length discrepancies. While an optimized distraction procedure might have the potential to reduce the rate of complications significantly, our knowledge of the underlying mechanobiological processes is still insufficient for systematic optimization of treatment parameters such as distraction rate or fixation stiffness. We present a novel numerical model of lateral distraction osteogenesis, based on a mechanically well-controlled in vivo experiment...
2018: PloS One
Christopher McCrum, Pamela Leow, Gaspar Epro, Matthias König, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Stefan O Schrade, Katrin Dätwyler, Marius Stücheli, Kathrin Studer, Daniel-Alexander Türk, Mirko Meboldt, Roger Gassert, Olivier Lambercy
BACKGROUND: Powered exoskeletons are a promising approach to restore the ability to walk after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, current exoskeletons remain limited in their walking speed and ability to support tasks of daily living, such as stair climbing or overcoming ramps. Moreover, training progress for such advanced mobility tasks is rarely reported in literature. The work presented here aims to demonstrate the basic functionality of the VariLeg exoskeleton and its ability to enable people with motor complete SCI to perform mobility tasks of daily life...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Jean-Patrick Benigni, Jean-François Uhl, Florence Balet, Pascal Filori, Maxime Chahim
BACKGROUND: Prolonged immobility in the sitting position in the elderly is known to produce venous stasis with leg edema and possible skin changes. Compression stockings are often applied for this clinical problem. There are few experienced nursing staff available to supervise the difficult task of stocking application. METHODS: The authors have researched other effective and simple devices that may be suitable alternatives. This article reports the results of three different devices to reduce leg edema, as measured by reduction in leg volume : an electro- stimulation device, an adjustable compression Velcro® wrap and a short stretch bandage, each tested over a two-hour period...
March 8, 2018: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
Chee-Chee H Stucky, Kate D Cromwell, Rachel K Voss, Yi-Ju Chiang, Karin Woodman, Jeffrey E Lee, Janice N Cormier
Background: Many surgeons experience work-related pain and musculoskeletal symptoms; however, comprehensive reporting of surgeon ailments is lacking in the literature. We sought to evaluate surgeons' work-related symptoms, possible causes of these symptoms, and to report outcomes associated with those symptoms. Materials and methods: Five major medical indices were queried for articles published between 1980 and 2014. Included articles evaluated musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic outcomes in surgeons...
March 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Kevin J Ruff, Dennis Morrison, Sarah A Duncan, Matthew Back, Cem Aydogan, Jason Theodosakis
Purpose: Despite its many health benefits, moderate exercise can induce joint discomfort when done infrequently or too intensely even in individuals with healthy joints. This study was designed to evaluate whether NEM® (natural eggshell membrane) would reduce exercise-induced cartilage turnover or alleviate joint pain or stiffness, either directly following exercise or 12 hours post exercise, versus placebo. Patients and methods: Sixty healthy, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive either oral NEM 500 mg (n=30) or placebo (n=30) once daily for two consecutive weeks while performing an exercise regimen (50-100 steps per leg) on alternating days...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Austin T Robinson, Adriana Mazzuco, Ahmad S Sabbahi, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Shane A Phillips
Dietary pre-workout supplements are popular among recreational exercisers and athletes. However, the effects of these supplements on the vasculature, both at rest and during exercise, are not well studied. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of one week of supplementation with a multi-ingredient dietary pre-workout supplement on measures of vascular function at rest and immediately following acute resistance exercise in young, recreationally active adults. Twelve participants (9 males, 3 females; age: 24...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
T Álvarez-Yates, O García-García
The aim of this study was to determine de acute effect of an 8-weeks specific hamstring flexibility training on junior canoeist during the competition season. Sixteen canoeists participated, divided into 3 groups: 5 in Experimental Group 1 (EG1), 5 in Experimental Group 2 (EG2) and 6 in a Control Group (CG). The EG1 underwent a supervised program consisted by Simple Static Stretching, Dynamic Static Stretching and P.N.F. while the EG2 performed a program without P.N.F. and no supervision. Two measurements were performed to analyze the effect on the knee joint ROM and trunk flexion; neuromuscular and contractile properties in Biceps Femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles; maximum power and average speed in lower limbs...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Zuhal Kunduracilar, Hulya Guvenir Sahin, Emel Sonmezer, Seyhan Sozay
METHODS: Eighty-nine female patients who had been diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were divided into three groups as two experimental and a control group. All groups have received the standard therapy (hotpack, ultrasound, TENS). Both experimental groups underwent water exercise program. While Group 1 performed lower extremity exercise training, Group 2 performed upper extremity exercises as well as trunk exercises in addition to the lower extremity exercises used in the Group 1. The third group was control group who did not receive water exercise treatment...
February 1, 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Falk Mersmann, Olivier R Seynnes, Kirsten Legerlotz, Adamantios Arampatzis
The different methods used to assess patellar tendon elongation in vivo may partly explain the large variation of mechanical properties reported in the literature. The present study investigated the effects of tracking landmark position and tibial point of resistive force application during leg extensions in a dynamometer. Nineteen adults performed isometric contractions with a proximal and distal dynamometer shank pad position. Knee joint moments were calculated employing an inverse dynamics approach. Tendon elongation was measured using the patellar apex and either the tibial tuberosity (T) or plateau (P) as tracking landmark...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Maud Creze, Soubeyrand Marc, Jin Long Yue, Olivier Gagey, Xavier Maître, Bellin Marie-France
INTRODUCTION: Back pain is associated with increased lumbar paraspinal muscle (LPM) stiffness identified by manual palpation and strain elastography. Recently, magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has allowed the stiffness of muscle to be characterized noninvasively in vivo, providing quantitative 3D stiffness maps (elastograms). The aim of this study was to characterize the stiffness (shear modulus, SM) of the LPM (multifidus and erector spinae) using MRE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRE of the lumbar region was performed on seven adults in supine position...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Erica Schvirtz, Laurent Bensoussan, Bertrand Tourret Couderc, Jean-Michel Viton, Alain Delarque, Marjorie Kerzoncuf
BACKGROUND: Surfing with transfemoral knee prosthesis requires flexion of the hip, knee, and ankle and balance between flexibility and stiffness of the prosthetic limb. We report on Mr D, a transfemoral amputee, who wanted to surf again. Case Description and Methods: Technical specifications were based on Mr D's complaint. The prosthesis is salt water resistant and combines a shock absorber associated with elastic tendons to permit the knee to bend easily and to facilitate eccentric braking...
February 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa, Won-Mok Son, Oksana Chernykh, Song-Young Park
OBJECTIVE: Menopause is accompanied by a progressive arterial stiffening associated with increases in blood pressure (BP) and decline in muscular function. It is crucial to prevent or reduce the negative effects of menopause on vascular and muscular function by implementing appropriate lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. We examined the effects of a stair climbing (SC) regimen on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), BP, and leg strength in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension...
February 12, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Roy Müller, Emanuel Andrada
It is known that humans intentionally choose skipping in special situations, e.g. when descending stairs or when moving in environments with lower gravity than on Earth. Although those situations involve uneven locomotion, the dynamics of human skipping on uneven ground have not yet been addressed. To find the reasons that may motivate this gait, we combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations on a bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model (BSLIP). To drive the model, the following parameters were estimated from nine subjects skipping across a single drop in ground level: leg lengths at touchdown, leg stiffness of both legs, aperture angle between legs, trailing leg angle at touchdown (leg landing first after flight phase), and trailing leg retraction speed...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
N Gutteck, H Martin, T Hanke, J B Matthies, A Heilmann, H Kielstein, G Gradl, K S Delank, D Wohlrab
BACKGROUND: A number of studies report on limitations of the screw arthrodesis in severe malalignment of the hindfoot, neuropathic deformity, poor bone quality and osteoporosis. METHODS: Fourteen anatomically correct polyurethane foam models of the right leg (Sawbones Europe, Malmö, Sweden) and eighteen fresh-frozen human lower leg specimens (9 pairs) were used for the comparative biomechanical testing. RESULTS: The statistical analysis of the stiffness of the fixation developed a significant difference in favor of the plate in all test directions...
February 20, 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Brett M Normandin, David J Tennent, Todd H Baldini, Alesia M Blanchard, Jason T Rhodes
Epiphysiodesis is performed to treat leg-length discrepancies and angular deformities in children. However, when placed across a physis to modulate growth, screws can bend or break postoperatively. This study evaluated the mechanical properties of 3 different screw designs commonly used when performing an epiphysiodesis. Six 4.0-mm cannulated, fully threaded; six 4.0-mm cannulated, partially threaded; and six 4.0-mm noncannulated, partially threaded cancellous screws underwent cantilever bending and tension testing in a simulated physis...
January 25, 2018: Orthopedics
Sean J Maloney, Joanna Richards, Iain M Fletcher
The current study sought to compare vertical stiffness during bilateral and unilateral drop jumping. Specifically, the inter-session reliabilities and force-deformation profiles associated with each task were to be examined. On three occasions, following familiarisation, fourteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 2 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 73.5 ± 8.0 kg) performed three bilateral, left leg and right leg drop jumps. All jumps were performed from a drop height of 0.18 m on to a dual force plate system...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
William Barry McKay, William Mark Sweatman, Edelle C Field-Fote
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of motor control characteristics attributed to spasticity, such as spasms, stiffness, and clonus on the daily life of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Nationwide, United States. METHODS: Internet-administered questionnaire, the Patient Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM) and items describing characteristics of spasticity including stiffness, spasms, clonus, and pain...
January 16, 2018: Spinal Cord
Filiz Ateş, Ricardo J Andrade, Sandro R Freitas, François Hug, Lilian Lacourpaille, Raphael Gross, Can A Yucesoy, Antoine Nordez
PURPOSE: While several studies demonstrated the occurrence of intermuscular mechanical interactions, the physiological significance of these interactions remains a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to quantify the localized changes in the shear modulus of the gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), monoarticular dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles induced by a change in knee angle. METHOD: Participants underwent slow passive ankle rotations at the following two knee positions: knee flexed at 90° and knee fully extended...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ty B Palmer, Chinonye C Agu-Udemba, Bailey M Palmer
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the acute effects of straight-leg raise (SLR) static stretching on passive stiffness and postural balance in healthy, elderly men. An additional aim of this study was to examine the relationships between stiffness and balance at baseline (prior to stretching) and the relationships between the stretch-induced changes in these variables. METHODS: Eleven elderly men (age = 69 ± 6 years; height = 177 ± 7 cm; mass = 83 ± 13 kg) underwent postural balance and passive stiffness assessments before and after: 1) a stretching treatment consisting of four, 15-s SLR static stretches performed by the primary investigator and 2) a control treatment consisting of no static stretching...
December 30, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
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