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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235200/the-ancient-gamete-fusogen-hap2-is-a-eukaryotic-class-ii-fusion-protein
#1
Juliette Fédry, Yanjie Liu, Gérard Péhau-Arnaudet, Jimin Pei, Wenhao Li, M Alejandra Tortorici, François Traincard, Annalisa Meola, Gérard Bricogne, Nick V Grishin, William J Snell, Félix A Rey, Thomas Krey
Sexual reproduction is almost universal in eukaryotic life and involves the fusion of male and female haploid gametes into a diploid cell. The sperm-restricted single-pass transmembrane protein HAP2-GCS1 has been postulated to function in membrane merger. Its presence in the major eukaryotic taxa-animals, plants, and protists (including important human pathogens like Plasmodium)-suggests that many eukaryotic organisms share a common gamete fusion mechanism. Here, we report combined bioinformatic, biochemical, mutational, and X-ray crystallographic studies on the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii HAP2 that reveal homology to class II viral membrane fusion proteins...
February 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234965/analysis-of-spo0m-function-in-bacillus-subtilis
#2
Luz Adriana Vega-Cabrera, Adán Guerrero, José Luis Rodríguez-Mejía, María Luisa Tabche, Christopher D Wood, Rosa-María Gutiérrez-Rios, Enrique Merino, Liliana Pardo-López
Spo0M has been previously reported as a regulator of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis; however, little is known about the mechanisms through which it participates in sporulation, and there is no information to date that relates this protein to other processes in the bacterium. In this work we present evidence from proteomic, protein-protein interaction, morphological, subcellular localization microscopy and bioinformatics studies which indicate that Spo0M function is not necessarily restricted to sporulation, and point towards its involvement in other stages of the vegetative life cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234628/inner-ear-drug-delivery-using-liposomes
#3
F Mohammadian, A Eatemadi, H Daraee
Dysfunction of inner ear can result in from several disease procedures and introduce a possibility for therapeutic intervention. The existence of a blood-cochlear obstacle and round window membrane restricts direct access into the inner ear and following inner ear drug, gene, protein and cell delivery. Several strategies have designed to increase drug delivery to the inner ear. One of main particles for inner ear drug delivery is liposome. Here we reviewed the application of liposomes in inner ear drug delivery...
January 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233787/targeting-thioredoxin-1-by-dimethyl-fumarate-induces-ripoptosome-mediated-cell-death
#4
Anne Schroeder, Uwe Warnken, Daniel Röth, Karel D Klika, Diana Vobis, Andrea Barnert, Fatmire Bujupi, Tina Oberacker, Martina Schnölzer, Jan P Nicolay, Peter H Krammer, Karsten Gülow
Constitutively active NFκB promotes survival of many cancers, especially T-cell lymphomas and leukemias by upregulating antiapoptotic proteins such as inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) and FLICE-like inhibitory proteins (cFLIPs). IAPs and cFLIPs negatively regulate the ripoptosome, which mediates cell death in an apoptotic or necroptotic manner. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, that DMF antagonizes NFκB by suppressing Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), a major regulator of NFκB transcriptional activity. DMF-mediated inhibition of NFκB causes ripoptosome formation via downregulation of IAPs and cFLIPs...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233497/magnetically-tuning-tether-mobility-of-integrin-ligand-regulates-adhesion-spreading-and-differentiation-of-stem-cells
#5
Siu Hong Dexter Wong, Jinming Li, Xiaohui Yan, Ben Wang, Rui Li, Li Zhang, Liming Bian
Cells sense and respond to the surrounding microenvironment through binding of membranous integrin to ligands such as the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. Previous studies show that the RGD tether properties on substrate influence cell adhesion and spreading, but few studies have reported strategies to control the tether mobility of RGD on substrate via a physical and non-contact approach. Herein, we demonstrate a novel strategy to tune the tether mobility of RGD on substrate via magnetic force. We conjugate a monolayer of RGD-bearing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on glass substrate via the flexible and coiled poly(ethylene glycol) linker of large molecular weight (PEG, average MW: 2000), and this increases the RGD tether mobility, which can be significantly reduced by applying magnetic attraction on MNPs...
February 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233319/the-impact-of-bowl-size-program-setup-and-blood-hematocrit-on-the-performance-of-a-discontinuous-autotransfusion-system
#6
Timo F Seyfried, Michael Gruber, Fabian Streithoff, Robert J Mandle, Michael T Pawlik, Hendrik Busse, Ernil Hansen
BACKGROUND: Cell salvage is an essential element in the concept of blood management. Modern devices provide different bowl sizes and sensor-directed programs to optimally adjust to varying clinical situations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In an experimental performance study, the discontinuous autotransfusion device XTRA (LivaNova/Sorin) was evaluated using fresh donor blood anticoagulated with heparin 5 U/mL and adjusted to a hematocrit of 10% or 25%, representing orthopedic or cardiac surgery...
February 24, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233111/amino-acid-starvation-induced-autophagy-is-involved-in-reduced-subcutaneous-fat-deposition-in-weaning-piglets-derived-from-sows-fed-low-protein-diet-during-gestation-and-lactation-autophagy-is-involved-in-reduced-fat-deposition-in-maternal-low-protein-piglets
#7
Shifeng Pan, Yimin Jia, Xiaojing Yang, Demin Cai, Zhiqing Liu, Haogang Song, Ruqian Zhao
PURPOSE: The study aimed to determine the effects of maternal low-protein (LP) diet on subcutaneous fat deposition of weaning piglets and the potential mechanism. METHODS: Sows were fed either a standard protein (SP, 15 and 18% crude protein) or a LP diet (50% protein levels of SP) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Subcutaneous fat and blood were sampled from male piglets at 28 days of age. Serum biochemical metabolites and hormone concentrations were detected with the enzymatic colorimetric methods...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232524/lineage-specific-proteins-essential-for-endocytosis-in-trypanosomes
#8
Paul T Manna, Samson O Obado, Cordula Boehm, Catarina Gadelha, Andrej Sali, Brian T Chait, Michael P Rout, Mark C Field
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the most ancient endocytic mechanism known, and in many lineages the sole mechanism for internalization. Significantly, in mammalian cells CME is responsible for the vast bulk of endocytic flux and has likely undergone multiple adaptations to accommodate specific requirements by individual species. In African trypanosomes we previously demonstrated that CME is AP-2 independent, that orthologues to many of the animal and fungal CME protein cohort are absent, and that a novel, trypanosome-restricted protein cohort interacts with clathrin and drives CME...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232485/linc00672-contributes-p53-mediated-gene-suppression-and-promotes-endometrial-cancer-chemosensitivity
#9
Wei Li, Hua Li, Liyuan Zhang, Min Hu, Fang Li, Jieqiong Deng, Mingxing An, Siqi Wu, Rui Ma, Jiachun Lu, Yifeng Zhou
Thousands of long intergenic non-protein coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in mammals in genome-wide sequencing studies. Some of these RNAs have been consistently conserved during the evolution of species and, could presumably function in important biological processes. We, therefore, measured the levels of 26 highly conserved lincRNAs in a total of 176 pairs of endometrial carcinoma (EC) and surrounding non-tumor tissues of two distinct Chinese populations. Here, we report that a lincRNA, LINC00672, which possesses an ultra-conserved region, is aberrantly downregulated during the development of EC...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230527/phloem-unloading-in-arabidopsis-roots-is-convective-and-regulated-by-the-phloem-pole-pericycle
#10
Timothy J Ross-Elliott, Kaare H Jensen, Katrine S Haaning, Brittney Michaelle Wager, Jan Knoblauch, Alexander H Howell, Daniel L Mullendore, Alexander G Monteith, Danae Paultre, Dawei Yan, Sofia Otero-Perez, Matthieu Bourdon, Ross Sager, Jung-Youn Lee, Ykä Helariutta, Michael Knoblauch, Karl John Oparka
In plants, a complex mixture of solutes and macromolecules is transported by the phloem. Here we examined how solutes and macromolecules are separated when they exit the phloem during the unloading process. We used a combination of approaches (non-invasive imaging, 3D-electron microscopy, and mathematical modelling) to show that phloem unloading of solutes in Arabidopsis roots occurs through plasmodesmata by a combination of mass flow and diffusion (convective phloem unloading). During unloading, solutes and proteins are diverted into the phloem-pole pericycle, a tissue connected to the protophloem by a unique class of 'funnel plasmodesmata'...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230192/an-endoparasitoid-wasp-influences-host-dna-methylation
#11
Sunil Kumar, Yonggyun Kim
Parasitism by endoparasitoid wasps changes the expression of various host genes, and alters host immune and developmental processes. However, it is not clearly understood how parasitism changes host gene expression in a whole genome scale. This study focused on an epigenetic control of Cotesia plutellae, an endoparasitoid wasp, against its host, Plutella xylostella. Two DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-1 and DNMT-2) are encoded in the genome of P. xylostella. In addition, methyl-binding domain proteins (MBDs) and DNA demethylation factor, ten-eleven translation protein (TET) are encoded...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230073/%C3%AE-synuclein-transfer-through-tunneling-nanotubes-occurs-in-sh-sy5y-cells-and-primary-brain-pericytes-from-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#12
Birger Victor Dieriks, Thomas I-H Park, Chantelle Fourie, Richard L M Faull, Mike Dragunow, Maurice A Curtis
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of inclusions known as Lewy bodies, which mainly consist of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates. There is growing evidence that α-syn self-propagates in non-neuronal cells, thereby contributing to the progression and spread of PD pathology in the brain. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long, thin, F-actin-based membranous channels that connect cells and have been proposed to act as conduits for α-syn transfer between cells. SH-SY5Y cells and primary human brain pericytes, derived from postmortem PD brains, frequently form TNTs that allow α-syn transfer and long-distance electrical coupling between cells...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229507/a-samhd1-mutation-associated-with-aicardi-gouti%C3%A3-res-syndrome-uncouples-the-ability-of-samhd1-to-restrict-hiv-1-from-its-ability-to-downmodulate-type-i-interferon-in-humans
#13
Tommy E White, Alberto Brandariz-Nuñez, Alicia Martinez-Lopez, Caitlin Knowlton, Gina Lenzi, Baek Kim, Dmitri Ivanov, Felipe Diaz-Griffero
Mutations in the human SAMHD1 gene are known to correlate with the development of the Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS), which is an inflammatory encephalopathy that exhibits neurological dysfunction characterized by increased production of type I interferon (IFN); this evidence has lead to the concept that the SAMHD1 protein negatively regulates the type I IFN response. Additionally, the SAMHD1 protein has been shown to prevent efficient HIV-1 infection of macrophages, dendritic cells and resting CD4+ T cells...
February 22, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229086/rb-an-essential-player-in-adult-neurogenesis
#14
Bensun C Fong, Ruth S Slack
The fundamental mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis remain to be fully clarified. Members of the cell cycle machinery have demonstrated key roles in regulating adult neural stem cell (NSC) quiescence and the size of the adult-born neuronal population. The retinoblastoma protein, Rb, is known to possess CNS-specific requirements that are independent from its classical role as a tumor suppressor. The recent study by Vandenbosch et al. has clarified distinct requirements for Rb during adult neurogenesis, in the restriction of proliferation, as well as long-term adult-born neuronal survival...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228829/hepatic-iron-storage-is-related-to-body-adiposity-and-hepatic-inflammation
#15
Chan Yoon Park, Jayong Chung, Kyung-Ok Koo, Min Soo Kim, Sung Nim Han
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been reported to be associated with iron deficiency. However, few studies have investigated iron status in low adiposity. To investigate whether body adiposity was associated with altered hepatic iron status, we compared liver iron levels and markers involved in inflammation and iron absorption in obese, control, and mildly calorie restricted mice. METHODS: Seven week old C57BL/6 mice were fed control (10% kcal fat, Control) or high fat (60% kcal fat, HFD) diets, or reduced amount of control diet to achieve 15% calorie restriction (CR) for 16 weeks...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228523/vpx-overcomes-a-samhd1-independent-block-to-hiv-reverse-transcription-that-is-specific-to-resting-cd4-t-cells
#16
Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Lena Stegmann, Sarah-Marie Schwarz, Ina Ambiel, Maud Trotard, Margarethe Martin, Manja Burggraf, Gina M Lenzi, Helena Lejk, Xiaoyu Pan, Oliver I Fregoso, Efrem S Lim, Libin Abraham, Laura A Nguyen, Frank Rutsch, Renate König, Baek Kim, Michael Emerman, Oliver T Fackler, Oliver T Keppler
Early after entry into monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and resting CD4 T cells, HIV encounters a block, limiting reverse transcription (RT) of the incoming viral RNA genome. In this context, dNTP triphosphohydrolase SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) has been identified as a restriction factor, lowering the concentration of dNTP substrates to limit RT. The accessory lentiviral protein X (Vpx) proteins from the major simian immunodeficiency virus of rhesus macaque, sooty mangabey, and HIV-2 (SIVsmm/SIVmac/HIV-2) lineage packaged into virions target SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation, increase intracellular dNTP pools, and facilitate HIV cDNA synthesis...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228439/loss-of-pollen-specific-phospholipase-not-like-dad-triggers-gynogenesis-in-maize
#17
Laurine M Gilles, Abdelsabour Khaled, Jean-Baptiste Laffaire, Sandrine Chaignon, Ghislaine Gendrot, Jérôme Laplaige, Hélène Bergès, Genséric Beydon, Vincent Bayle, Pierre Barret, Jordi Comadran, Jean-Pierre Martinant, Peter M Rogowsky, Thomas Widiez
Gynogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction common to animals and plants, in which stimuli from the sperm cell trigger the development of the unfertilized egg cell into a haploid embryo. Fine mapping restricted a major maize QTL (quantitative trait locus) responsible for the aptitude of inducer lines to trigger gynogenesis to a zone containing a single gene NOT LIKE DAD (NLD) coding for a patatin-like phospholipase A. In all surveyed inducer lines, NLD carries a 4-bp insertion leading to a predicted truncated protein...
February 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228420/body-composition-changes-in-the-comprehensive-assessment-of-long-term-effects-of-reducing-intake-of-energy-calerie-2-study-a-2-y-randomized-controlled-trial-of-calorie-restriction-in-nonobese-humans
#18
Sai Krupa Das, Susan B Roberts, Manjushri V Bhapkar, Dennis T Villareal, Luigi Fontana, Corby K Martin, Susan B Racette, Paul J Fuss, William E Kraus, William W Wong, Edward Saltzman, Carl F Pieper, Roger A Fielding, Ann V Schwartz, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Background: Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging and increases longevity in many animal models. However, it is unclear whether CR can be implemented in humans without adverse effects on body composition.Objective: We evaluated the effect of a 2-y CR regimen on body composition including the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) among participants enrolled in CALERIE-2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.Design: Participants were 218 nonobese (BMI: 21...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228415/reduced-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-following-caloric-restriction-is-associated-with-calpain-mediated-proteolysis-and-attenuation-of-igf-1-signaling
#19
Yue Lu, Jennifer S Bradley, Sarah R McCoski, John M Gonzalez, Alan D Ealy, Sally E Johnson
Caloric restriction decreases skeletal muscle mass in mammals, principally due to a reduction in fiber size. The effect of suboptimal nutrient intake on skeletal muscle metabolic properties in neonatal calves was examined. The longissimus muscle (LM) was collected after 8 wks consuming a control (CON) or caloric restricted (CR) diet and muscle fiber size, gene expression and metabolic signal transduction activity was measured. Results revealed that CR animals had smaller (P < 0.05) LM fiber cross-sectional area than CON, as expected...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228355/altered-lipid-metabolism-in-rat-offspring-of-dams-fed-a-low-protein-diet-containing-soy-protein-isolate
#20
Mi Yoon, Sae Bom Won, Young Hye Kwon
AIMS: Substantial studies have reported that maternal protein restriction may induce later development of cardiovascular disease in offspring by impairing antioxidant system and lipid metabolism. Because a unique amino acid composition of soy protein isolate has shown to provide health benefits, including hypolipidemic effects, we investigated effects of maternal low-protein diet composed of low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (SPI) on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in offspring...
February 20, 2017: Life Sciences
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