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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007279/template-assisted-synthesis-of-adenine-mutagenized-cdna-by-a-retroelement-protein-complex
#1
Sumit Handa, Yong Jiang, Sijia Tao, Robert Foreman, Raymond F Schinazi, Jeff F Miller, Partho Ghosh
Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) create unparalleled levels of protein sequence variation through mutagenic retrohoming. Sequence information is transferred from an invariant template region (TR), through an RNA intermediate, to a protein-coding variable region. Selective infidelity at adenines during transfer is a hallmark of DGRs from disparate bacteria, archaea, and microbial viruses. We recapitulated selective infidelity in vitro for the prototypical Bordetella bacteriophage DGR. A complex of the DGR reverse transcriptase bRT and pentameric accessory variability determinant (Avd) protein along with DGR RNA were necessary and sufficient for synthesis of template-primed, covalently linked RNA-cDNA molecules, as observed in vivo...
July 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007131/influences-of-maternal-nutrient-restriction-and-arginine-supplementation-on-visceral-metabolism-and-hypothalamic-circuitry-of-offspring
#2
Ligia D Prezotto, Jennifer F Thorson, Pawel P Borowicz, Jena L Peine, Michelle Bedenbaugh, Stanley M Hileman, Clay A Lents, Joel S Caton, Kendall C Swanson
Maternal nutrient restriction during gestation can exert long-term negative effects on offspring health and performance. Arginine supplementation may rescue some of the negative effects elicited by maternal nutrient restriction. We tested the hypothesis that maternal arginine supplementation during gestation would rescue deleterious effects of nutrient restriction on in vitro O2 consumption in the liver and jejunum and hypothalamic protein expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the colocalization of nNOS and active phosphor-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) in female offspring...
June 20, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006756/variability-of-some-milk-associated-genes-and-proteins-in-several-breeds-of-saudi-arabian-camels
#3
Elrashdy M Redwan, Salah Korim, Amro Samra, Yasser Saad, Hussein A Amhedar, Vladimir N Uversky
To gain knowledge on the molecular basis of diversity of several clans of Saudi camel (Camelus dromedarius) characterization of these animals was conducted at both genetic and protein levels. To this end, blood and milk samples were collected from several camel breeds at different Saudi Arabia locations (northern Jeddah, Riyadh, and Alwagh governorates). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood of four Saudi camel breeds (Majahem, Safra, Wadha, and Hamara), and DNA fragments of the casein and α-lactalbumin genes were amplified...
July 13, 2018: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006398/genome-centric-metagenomics-revealed-the-spatial-distribution-and-the-diverse-metabolic-functions-of-lignocellulose-degrading-uncultured-bacteria
#4
Panagiotis G Kougias, Stefano Campanaro, Laura Treu, Panagiotis Tsapekos, Andrea Armani, Irini Angelidaki
The mechanisms by which specific anaerobic microorganisms remain firmly attached to lignocellulosic material allowing them to efficiently decompose the organic matter are far to be elucidated. To circumvent this issue, the microbiomes collected from anaerobic digesters treating pig manure and meadow grass were fractionated to separate the planktonic microbes from those adhered to lignocellulosic substrate. Assembly of shotgun reads followed by binning process recovered 151 population genomes, 80 out of which were completely new and were not previously deposited in any database...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006037/%C3%AE-carboline-derivatives-as-novel-antivirals-for-herpes-simplex-viruses
#5
Gonzalez M Micaela, Cabrerizo Franco M, Baiker Armin, Erra-Balsells Rosa, Osterman Andreas, Nitschko Hans, Vizoso-Pinto María G
Several commercial and novel synthetic βCs were evaluated for their antiviral activity against HSV-1 using an adapted MTS assay. Of 21 drugs tested, although 11 exerted antiviral activity at non-cytotoxic concentrations, only three of them (9-methyl-norharmane, 9-methyl-harmane and 6-methoxy-harmane) completely avoided virus-driven cytopathic effects. Effective concentrations (EC50, 4.9 ± 0.4 µM, 5.9 ± 0.8 µM and 19.5 ± 0.3 µM, respectively) and selectivity indexes (SI, 88.8, 40.2 and 7.0, respectively) of the latter three βCs against HSV-1 were determined by MTS, flow cytometry and plaque reduction assays...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005946/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-immunogenicity-of-novel-mhc-class-i-presented-epitopes-to-confer-protective-immunity-against-chronic-htlv-1-infection
#6
Ria Mulherkar, Aykan Karabudak, Rashida Ginwala, Xiaofang Huang, Aileen Rowan, Ramila Philip, Edward L Murphy, Danielle Clements, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Zafar K Khan, Pooja Jain
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has infected as many as 10 million people worldwide. While 90% are asymptomatic, 5% develop severe diseases including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoka (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). No vaccine against HTLV-1 exists, and screening programs are not universal. However, patients with chronic HTLV-1 infection have high frequencies of HTLV-1-activated CD8+ T cells, and the two main HLA alleles (A2, A24) are present in 88% of infected individuals...
July 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005160/bioinspired-ph-and-temperature-responsive-injectable-adhesive-hydrogels-with-polyplexes-promotes-skin-wound-healing
#7
Thai Minh Duy Le, Huu Thuy Trang Duong, Thavasyappan Thambi, V H Giang Phan, Ji Hoon Jeong, Doo Sung Lee
Despite great potential, the delivery of genetic materials into cells or tissues of interest remains challenging owing to their susceptibility to nuclease degradation, lack of permeability to the cell membrane, and short in vivo half-life, which severely restrict their widespread use in therapeutics. To surmount these shortcomings, we developed a bioinspired in situ-forming pH- and temperature-sensitive injectable hydrogel depot that could control the delivery of DNA-bearing polyplexes for versatile biomedical applications...
July 13, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005062/highly-diverged-novel-subunit-composition-of-apicomplexan-f-type-atp-synthase-identified-from-toxoplasma-gondii
#8
Rahul Salunke, Tobias Mourier, Manidipa Banerjee, Arnab Pain, Dhanasekaran Shanmugam
The mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase, a multisubunit nanomotor, is critical for maintaining cellular ATP levels. In T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, many subunit components necessary for proper assembly and functioning of this enzyme appear to be missing. Here, we report the identification of 20 novel subunits of T. gondii F-type ATP synthase from mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified monomeric (approximately 600 kDa) and dimeric (>1 MDa) forms of the enzyme. Despite extreme sequence diversification, key FO subunits a, b, and d can be identified from conserved structural features...
July 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004580/ifn-%C3%AE-stimulates-cpg-induced-il-10-production-in-b-cells-via-p38-and-jnk-signalling-pathways
#9
Maya Imbrechts, Karen De Samblancx, Karlien Fierens, Ellen Brisse, Jessica Vandenhaute, Tania Mitera, Claude Libert, Ide Smets, An Goris, Carine Wouters, Patrick Matthys
The production of IL-10, a potent immunosuppressive cytokine, must be strictly regulated to ensure a balanced immune response. IFN-γ, a key cytokine in multiple immune processes and pathologies, is known as an inhibitor of IL-10 production by monocytes and macrophages, but also has some regulatory functions. In the present study, we explored the role of IFN-γ on Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced IL-10 production in murine peritoneal and spleen cells and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IFN-γ inhibited IL-10 production induced by TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR7/8 agonists, but stimulated IL-10 production when cells were triggered with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, a specific TLR9 agonist...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004558/research-on-the-correlation-between-the-polymorphism-of-the-back-2-gene-and-osteoarthritis
#10
C-K Zhang, M-B Lv, B Han, Z-W Shao
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the correlation between polymorphisms of the back-2 gene and osteoarthritis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 76 patients with osteoarthritis who were admitted to our hospital between February 2014 and February 2015 for treatment as the observation group, and 46 healthy subjects as the control group. The analysis of back-2 gene polymorphisms (rs28502) was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004133/dynamics-of-dof-domain-dna-interaction-in-wheat-insights-from-atomistic-simulations-and-free-energy-landscape
#11
Bharati Pandey, Abhinav Grover, Pradeep Sharma
DNA-binding one zinc finger protein (Dof) is a plant-specific transcription factor involved in numerous biological processes. In the current study, the plausible mechanism underlying Dof domain-DNA interaction in wheat was investigated using extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations analysis. We depicted that one key residue Lys29, possessing the ability to disturb the interaction between Dof domain-DNA upon substitution to Arg29. Frequent conformational changes were observed in Lys29Arg (K29R)-DNA complex during the entire MD simulation period, which significantly altered the interactions, thereby indicating the importance of Lys29 in complex stability...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003958/characterization-and-localization-of-primordial-germ-cells-in-totoaba-macdonaldi
#12
Raquel Escuredo-Vielba, Miguel A Del Río-Portilla, Jose Antonio Mata-Sotres, Benjamín Barón-Sevilla, Yanet Guerrero-Rentería, Carmen G Paniagua-Chávez
The totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), is an endemic and endangered fish of the Gulf of California with high economic and ecological potential. Therefore, our purpose was to characterize the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) of this Sciaenid with two objectives: (1) to provide the basis for PGCs cryopreservation to preserve the genetic resources and (2) to take the first step to know the gonadal genesis and sex differentiation of totoaba. Immunofluorescence analysis performed from 2-cell stage to 8-day after hatch (DAH) shows that Vasa protein is specific for PGCs...
July 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002659/vectorized-delivery-of-alpha-galactosylceramide-and-tumor-antigen-on-filamentous-bacteriophage-fd-induces-protective-immunity-by-enhancing-tumor-specific-t-cell-response
#13
Rossella Sartorius, Luciana D'Apice, Pasquale Barba, Deborah Cipria, Laura Grauso, Adele Cutignano, Piergiuseppe De Berardinis
We have exploited the properties of filamentous bacteriophage fd to deliver immunologically active lipids together with antigenic peptides. Filamentous bacteriophages resemble for size, capability to be permeable to blood vessels, and high density antigen expression, a nature-made nanoparticle. In addition, their major coat protein pVIII, which is arranged to form a tubular shield surrounding the phage genome, has a high content of hydrophobic residues promoting lipid association. We conjugated bacteriophages to alpha-GalactosylCeramide (α-GalCer), a lipid antigen-stimulating invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and capable of inducing their anti-tumoral activities...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002416/targeting-a-reticulocyte-binding-protein-and-duffy-binding-protein-to-inhibit-reticulocyte-invasion-by-plasmodium-vivax
#14
Sonal Gupta, Shailja Singh, Jean Popovici, Camille Roesch, Ahmed Rushdi Shakri, Micheline Guillotte-Blisnick, Christèle Huon, Didier Menard, Chetan E Chitnis
Plasmodium vivax merozoite invasion is restricted to Duffy positive reticulocytes. Merozoite interaction with the Duffy antigen is mediated by the P. vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP). The receptor-binding domain of PvDBP maps to an N-terminal cysteine-rich region referred to as region II (PvDBPII). In addition, a family of P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBPs) mediates interactions with reticulocyte receptors. The receptor binding domain of P. vivax reticulocyte binding protein 1a (PvRBP1a) maps to a 30 kD region (PvRBP1a30 )...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002262/a-novel-fluorescence-microscopic-approach-to-quantitatively-analyse-protein-induced-membrane-remodelling
#15
Thomas J Pucadyil
Membrane remodelling or the bending and rupture of the lipid bilayer occurs during diverse cellular processes such as cell division, synaptic transmission, vesicular transport, organelle biogenesis and sporulation. These activities are brought about by the localized change in membrane curvature, which in turn causes lipid-packing stress, of a planar lipid bilayer by proteins. For instance, vesicular transport processes are typically characterized by the cooperative recruitment of proteins that induce budding of a planar membrane and catalyse fission of the necks of membrane buds to release vesicles...
July 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002203/proteomic-analysis-of-nck1-2-adaptors-uncovers-paralog-specific-interactions-that-reveal-a-new-role-for-nck2-in-cell-abscission-during-cytokinesis
#16
Kévin Jacquet, Sara L Banerjee, François J M Chartier, Sabine Elowe, Nicolas Bisson
Signals from cell surface receptors are often relayed via adaptor proteins. NCK1 and NCK2 are Src-Homology (SH) 2 and 3 domain adaptors that regulate processes requiring a remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton. Evidence from gene inactivation in mouse suggests that NCK1 and NCK2 are functionally redundant, although recent reports support the idea of unique functions for NCK1 and NCK2. We sought to examine this question further by delineating NCK1- and NCK2-specific signalling networks. We used both affinity purification-mass spectrometry and BioID proximity labelling to identify NCK1/2 signalling networks comprised of 98 proteins...
July 12, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001865/visceral-leishmaniasis-a-novel-nuclear-envelope-protein-nucleoporins-93-nup-93-from-leishmania-donovani-prompts-macrophage-signaling-for-t-cell-activation-towards-host-protective-immune-response
#17
Manish K Singh, Fauzia Jamal, Amit K Dubey, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Pushpanjali, Chayanika Bordoloi, S Narayan, V N R Das, K Pandey, P Das, Shubhankar K Singh
The shift of macrophage and T-cell repertoires towards proinflammatory cytokine signalling ensures the generation of host-protective machinery that is otherwise compromised in cases of the intracellular Leishmania parasite. Different groups have attempted to restore host protective immunity. These vaccine candidates showed good responses and protective effects in murine models, but they generally failed during human trials. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 97 kDa recombinant nucleoporin-93 of Leishmania donovani (rLd-NUP93) on mononuclear cells in healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients and on THP-1 cell lines...
July 9, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001532/gli2-mediated-activation-of-hedgehog-signaling-attenuates-acute-pancreatitis-via-balancing-inflammatory-cytokines-in-mice
#18
Zhiqiang Liu, Kun Lai, Ying Xie, Xuemei He, Xiangyu Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inflammatory response is a determinant in the pathological progression of acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous studies have shown that the activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling is a remarkable change in caerulein-induced AP. However, the relationship between Hh signaling and inflammation is largely ambiguous. METHODS: The AP mouse model was induced by injection of cerulein, and histological staining and serum enzymology assays were used to evaluate the establishment of AP...
July 12, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001365/association-of-inflammatory-genes-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-asian-indians-residing-in-north-india
#19
Surya Prakash Bhatt, Randeep Guleria, Naval K Vikram, S V Nandhan, Yogendra Singh, A K Gupta
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that variants of the high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes are associated with the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but not in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Asian Indians. The study was conducted to investigate the association of CRP rs1130864 (1444C/T), IL-6 rs1800795 (-174G/C) and LEPR rs1137101 (Q223R) genes with OSA and NAFLD in Asian Indians residing in North India...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001324/modelling-how-responsiveness-to-interferon-improves-interferon-free-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
Vishnu Venugopal, Pranesh Padmanabhan, Rubesh Raja, Narendra M Dixit
Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C treatment tend to fare better in individuals who are also likely to respond well to interferon-alpha (IFN), a surprising correlation given that DAAs target specific viral proteins whereas IFN triggers a generic antiviral immune response. Here, we posit a causal relationship between IFN-responsiveness and DAA treatment outcome. IFN-responsiveness restricts viral replication, which would prevent the growth of viral variants resistant to DAAs and improve treatment outcome...
July 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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