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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778242/cardiovascular-responses-to-isometric-handgrip-exercise-in-young-patients-with-recurrent-vasovagal-syncope
#1
Juan Idiaquez, Juan Francisco Idiaquez, Rodrigo Iturriaga
OBJECTIVE: Arterial blood pressure (BP) increased in healthy humans in response to isometric handgrip (IHG), but the pattern of the relative contribution of cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) changes to the pressor response is different among individuals. We investigated weather patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS) have a similar pattern of individual CO, TPR and pressor responses to IHG, as healthy subjects. METHODS: 32 patients (27...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775659/%C3%AE-2-receptors-in-the-lateral-parabrachial-nucleus-generates-the-pressor-response-of-the-cardiovascular-chemoreflex-effects-of-gaba-a-receptor
#2
Nafiseh Mirzaei Damabi, Gholam Reza Namvar, Fahimeh Yeganeh, Masoumeh Hatam
The lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) is a pontine area involved in cardiovascular chemoreflex. This study was performed to find the effects of reversible synaptic blockade of the LPBN on the chemoreflex responses, and to find the roles of GABAA receptor and α2 -adenoreceptor (α2 -AR) in chemoreflex. It also aimed to seek possible interaction between GABA and noradrenergic systems of the LPBN in urethane-anesthetized male rats. Cardiovascular chemoreflex was activated by intravenous injection of potassium cyanide (KCN, 80 μg/kg)...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771864/cold-pressor-pain-response-in-children-with-cancer
#3
Brooke N Jenkins, Ryan J Roemer, Ariana Martinez, Tara K Torres, Michelle A Fortier
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine pain responses in pediatric patients with cancer. METHOD: Children (ages 6 to 18) undergoing treatment for cancer (N=68) completed the cold pressor task. RESULTS: Average pain tolerance was 118.22 seconds (SD=101.18) and 40% of the children kept their hand in the water the entire 4-minute ceiling. On a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale, children reported a pain severity of 5.07 (SD=3.47) at their first report of pain, a pain severity of 5...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765330/glial-cells-are-involved-in-ang-ii-induced-vasopressin-release-and-sodium-intake-in-awake-rats
#4
Atalia F L Flôr, José L de Brito Alves, Maria S França-Silva, Camille M Balarini, Lucila L K Elias, Silvia G Ruginsk, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Valdir A Braga, Josiane C Cruz
It is known that circulating angiotensin II (ANG-II) acts on the circumventricular organs (CVOs), which partially lack a normal blood-brain barrier, to stimulate pressor responses, vasopressin (AVP), and oxytocin (OT) secretion, as well as sodium and water intake. Although ANG-II type 1 receptors (AT1R ) are expressed in neurons and astrocytes, the involvement of CVOs glial cells in the neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by central ANG II remains to be further elucidated. To address this question, we performed a set of experiments combining in vitro studies in primary hypothalamic astrocyte cells (HACc) and in vivo intracerebroventricular (icv) microinjections into the lateral ventricle of awake rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761710/who-s-the-boss-determining-the-control-pathways-of-cardiovascular-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-acute-stress
#5
Kate M Edwards, Nathan B Morris
Acute stress responses are known to include increases in heart rate and blood pressure, as well as increases in the number of circulating immune cells, all of which are governed by the autonomic nervous system. This laboratory practical measures cardiovascular and circulating immune cell responses to a passive (cold pressor) and active (mental arithmetic) acute stress task in student participants. The results allow them to examine the different patterns of autonomic response they elicit (approximated by heart rate and blood pressure responses), and knowledge of these responses can then be used to infer the governing autonomic aspect of the increases in circulating immune cells from the results...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751997/modulation-of-nesfatin-1-induced-cardiovascular-effects-by-the-central-cholinergic-system
#6
Begum Aydin, Gokcen Guvenc, Burcin Altinbas, Nasir Niaz, Murat Yalcin
Nesfatin-1, a peptide whose receptor is yet to be identified, has been shown to be involved in the modulation of feeding, stress, and metabolic responses. Recently, increasing evidence has supported a modulatory role of nesfatin-1 in cardiovascular activity. We have previously reported that nesfatin-1 causes an increase in blood pressure in normotensive and hypotensive rats by increasing plasma catecholamine, vasopressin, and renin levels. Recent reports suggest that nesfatin-1 may activate the central cholinergic system...
May 4, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739451/reflex-erection-in-the-rat-reciprocal-interplay-between-hemodynamic-and-somatic-events
#7
Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Evgeniia Lagereva, Anfisa Popova
BACKGROUND: Penile erection is a complex reflex under spinal control and modulated by the brain. The hemodynamic events under autonomic control and the perineal muscles somatic activity are interconnected during the reflex erection at the spinal level, however if the afferent feedback on the corpus cavernosum pressure during an erection affects the somatic activity (perineal muscles contractions) and vice versa is not known. This study was aimed to test this hypothesis using a rat model...
May 8, 2018: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727354/applying-machine-learning-to-pediatric-critical-care-data
#8
Jon B Williams, Debjit Ghosh, Randall C Wetzel
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether machine learning applied to pediatric critical care data could discover medically pertinent information, we analyzed clinically collected electronic medical record data, after data extraction and preparation, using k-means clustering. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of electronic medical record ICU data. SETTING: Tertiary Children's Hospital PICU. PATIENTS: Anonymized electronic medical record data from PICU admissions over 10 years...
April 30, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726847/opioid-induced-hyperalgesia-in-the-nonsurgical-setting-a-systematic-review
#9
David Z Yang, Billy Sin, Joshua Beckhusen, Dawei Xia, Rebecca Khaimova, Ilia Iliev
BACKGROUND: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is a phenomenon that causes an increased pain sensitization and perception of pain to noxious stimuli secondary to opioid exposure. While this clinical effect has been described in the surgical setting, it is unclear if OIH occurs in the nonsurgical setting. STUDY QUESTION: To review the available literature which evaluated OIH in nonsurgical settings. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed (January 1946-July 2017) using a variety of keywords for OIH...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702200/long-term-neurological-and-neuropsychological-complications-of-sulfur-mustard-and-lewisite-mixture-poisoning-in-chinese-victims-exposed-to-chemical-warfare-agents-abandoned-at-the-end-of-wwii
#10
O Isono, A Kituda, M Fujii, T Yoshinaka, G Nakagawa, Y Suzuki
In August 2003, 44 victims were poisoned by chemical warfare agents (CWAs) leaked from five drums that were excavated at a construction site in Qiqihar, Northeast China. The drums were abandoned by the former Japanese imperial army during World War II and contained a mixture of Sulfur mustard (SM) and Lewisite. We carried out a total of six regular check-ups between 2006 and 2014, and from 2008 we added neurological evaluations including neuropsychological test and autonomic nervous function test in parallel with medical follow-up as much as was possible...
April 24, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698108/capsaicin-based-analgesic-balm-attenuates-the-skeletal-muscle-metaboreflex-in-healthy-humans
#11
Lauro C Vianna, Igor A Fernandes, Thales C Barbosa, André L Teixeira, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega
The exercise pressor reflex (EPR) is comprised from group III and IV skeletal muscle afferents and is one of the principal mediators of the cardiovascular response to exercise. In animals, capsaicin-based analgesic balm (CAP) attenuates the pressor response to muscle contraction, indicating the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPv1) receptor (localized on the group IV afferent neuron) as an important mediator of the EPR. However, whether these findings can be extrapolated to humans remain unknown...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696166/design-rationale-and-feasibility-of-a-multidimensional-experimental-protocol-to-study-early-life-stress
#12
M Dillwyn Bartholomeusz, Philip S Bolton, Robin Callister, Virginia Skinner, Deborah Hodgson
There is a rapidly accumulating body of evidence regarding the influential role of early life stress (ELS) upon medical and psychiatric conditions. While self-report instruments, with their intrinsic limitations of recall, remain the primary means of detecting ELS in humans, biological measures are generally limited to a single biological system. This paper describes the design, rationale and feasibility of a study to simultaneously measure neuroendocrine, immune and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to psychological and physiological stressors in relation to ELS...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694277/inhibition-of-bdnf-signaling-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-lowers-acute-stress-induced-pressor-responses
#13
Chris L Schaich, Theresa L Wellman, Zachary Einwag, Richard A Dutko, Benedek Erdos
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression increases in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during stress, and our recent studies indicate that BDNF induces sympathoexcitatory and hypertensive responses when injected acutely or overexpressed chronically in the PVN. However, it remained to be investigated whether BDNF is involved in the mediation of stress-induced cardiovascular responses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of the high-affinity BDNF receptor TrkB in the PVN diminishes acute stress-induced cardiovascular responses...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683391/grape-seed-extract-supplementation-attenuates-the-blood-pressure-response-to-exercise-in-prehypertensive-men
#14
Jong-Kyung Kim, Kyung-Ae Kim, Hyun-Min Choi, Seung-Kook Park, Charles L Stebbins
We tested the hypothesis that exaggerated pressor responses observed in prehypertensive males (N = 9) during dynamic exercise are attenuated following acute dietary supplementation with grape seed extract (GSE) (i.e., a single dose). Effects of placebo and GSE (300 mg) on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), total vascular conductance (TVC), and rate × pressure product (RPP) in response to two submaximal cycling workloads (40% and 60% VO2peak ) were compared 2 h after ingestion of GSE or placebo on different days, 1 week apart...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674000/angiotensin-ii-promotes-pulmonary-metastasis-of-melanoma-through-the-activation-of-adhesion-molecules-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#15
Shin Ishikane, Hiroshi Hosoda, Takashi Nojiri, Takeshi Tokudome, Tetsuya Mizutani, Koichi Miura, Yoshiharu Akitake, Toru Kimura, Yoshitaka Imamichi, Shinya Kawabe, Yumiko Toyohira, Nobuyuki Yanagihara, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Mikiya Miyazato, Kaoru Miyamoto, Kenji Kangawa
Hypertension is considered as one of the cancer progressive factors, and often found comorbidity in cancer patients. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, and angiotensin II (Ang II) is well known pressor peptide associated with RAS. Ang II has been reported to accelerate progression and metastasis of cancer cells. However, its precise mechanisms have not been fully understood. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which Ang II exacerbates hematogenous metastasis in mouse melanoma cells, focusing the adhesion pathway in vascular endothelial cells...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672448/a-dyadic-analysis-of-siblings-relationship-quality-behavioural-responses-and-pain-experiences-during-experimental-pain
#16
Meghan G Schinkel, Christine T Chambers, Penny Corkum, Sophie Jacques
Research on family factors in paediatric pain has primarily focused on parents; the role of siblings has been largely ignored. This study examined whether sibling relationship quality was related to siblings' behaviours during experimental pain, and whether the behaviours of an observing sibling were related to children's pain outcomes. Ninety-two sibling dyads between 8-12 years old completed both observational and questionnaire measures of sibling relationship quality. Children took turns completing the cold pressor task (CPT) in a counterbalanced order with their sibling present...
April 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670781/-candida-krusei-empyema-thoracis-a-community-acquired-infection-requiring-a-high-index-of-suspicion
#17
Hazim Bukamur, Waseem Ahmed, Yazan Numan, Ibrahim Shahoub, Fuad Zeid
Empyema thoracis is a serious condition characterized by the accumulation of purulent fluid in the pleural cavity, typically following a pneumonia, subdiaphragmatic abscess, or esophageal rupture. Fungal empyema thoracis is a rare form of this condition with especially high mortality, in which the most frequently isolated fungus is Candida spp. This article presents a 74-year-old female with Candida krusei pneumonia and a complicated hospital course, initially presenting with nausea, vomiting, and dysphagia...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668324/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-potentiates-the-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-on-subfornical-organ-neurons
#18
Nick James Simpson, Alastair V Ferguson
Inflammation is thought to play a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and heart failure, though the mechanisms for this remain unclear. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), influence the subfornical organ (SFO) to modulate sympathetic activity and blood pressure. The pressor effects of TNFα in the SFO are partially mediated by angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor type 1 (AT1 R), and TNFα is known to potentiate Ang II-induced hypertension. However, the cellular mechanism of the interaction between TNFα and Ang II/AT1 R signaling remains unknown...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661162/the-cold-pressor-test-in-interictal-migraine-patients-different-parasympathetic-pupillary-response-indicates-dysbalance-of-the-cranial-autonomic-nervous-system
#19
Ozan E Eren, Ruth Ruscheweyh, Christoph Schankin, Florian Schöberl, Andreas Straube
BACKGROUND: Data on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activations in migraine patients are quite controversial, with previous studies reporting over- and underactivation of the sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nervous system. In the present study, we explicitly aimed to assess the cranial ANS in migraine patients compared to healthy controls by applying the cold pressor test to a cohort of migraine patients in the interictal phase and measuring the pupillary response. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a strong sympathetic stimulus was applied to 20 patients with episodic migraine in the interictal phase and 20 matched controls without migraine, whereby each participant dipped the left hand into ice-cold (4 °C) water for a maximum of 5 min (cold pressor test)...
April 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648515/peripheral-revascularization-attenuates-the-exercise-pressor-reflex-and-increases-coronary-exercise-hyperemia-in-peripheral-arterial-disease
#20
Amanda J Miller, J Carter Luck, Danielle Jin-Kwang Kim, Urs A Leuenberger, Faisal Aziz, John F Radtka, Lawrence I Sinoway, Matthew D Muller
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with augmented blood pressure (BP) and impaired coronary blood flow responses to exercise, which may increase cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of leg revascularization on the BP and coronary blood flow responses to exercise in PAD. Seventeen PAD patients (11 men, 66 {plus minus} 2 yr) performed single-leg plantar flexion exercise 24 hr before and one month following leg revascularization. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously and rate pressure product (systolic BP x HR) was calculated as an index of myocardial oxygen demand...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
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