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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329979/how-acute-stress-may-enhance-subsequent-memory-for-threat-stimuli-outside-the-focus-of-attention-dlpfc-amygdala-decoupling
#1
Yu Luo, Guillén Fernández, Erno Hermans, Susanne Vogel, Yu Zhang, Hong Li, Floris Klumpers
Stress-related disorders, e.g., anxiety and depression, are characterized by decreased top-down control for distracting information, as well as a memory bias for threatening information. However, it is unclear how acute stress biases mnemonic encoding and leads to prioritized storage of threat-related information even if outside the focus of attention. In the current study, healthy adults (N = 53, all male) were randomly assigned to stress induction using the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) or a control condition...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321984/effects-of-bhramari-pranayama-on-health-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Maheshkumar Kuppusamy, Dilara Kamaldeen, Ravishankar Pitani, Julius Amaldas, Poonguzhali Shanmugam
Pranayama, a branch of yoga practice is extremely beneficial to mankind in maintaining sound physical and mental health and this article aims to attain an insight on the studies conducted on the effectiveness of Bhramari Pranayama (Bhr.P) on health. The studies done until May 2016 were found using Medline, Embase, Google scholar and manual search. Studies conducted on the health effectiveness of Bhr.P specifically were included on the basis of prisma guidelines. The data were defined by their objectives, methodology, study setting, findings, interventions done and implications suggested in the study...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313987/variable-role-of-carotid-bodies-in-cardiovascular-responses-to-exercise-hypoxia-and-hypercapnia-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#3
Wioletta Pijacka, Pedro L Katayama, Helio C Salgado, Gisele S Lincevicius, Ruy R Campos, Fiona D McBryde, Julian F R Paton
The carotid body has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target for treating cardiovascular disease, however the potential impact of carotid bodies removal on the dynamic cardiovascular responses to acute stressors such as exercise, hypoxia and hypercapnia in hypertension is an important safety consideration that has not been studied. We first validated a novel surgical approach to selectively resect the carotid bodies bilaterally (CBR) sparing the carotid sinus baroreflex. Second, we evaluated the impact of CBR on the cardiovascular responses to exercise, hypoxia and hypercapnia in the conscious, chronically instrumented spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296095/free-radical-scavenging-reverses-fructose-induced-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#4
Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes
We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium-hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure...
2018: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295950/endothelin-type-b-etb-receptors-friend-or-foe-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pre-eclampsia-and-future-cardiovascular-disease-cvd-risk
#5
Katrina M Mirabito Colafella
In a recent issue of Clinical Science, Stanhewicz et al. investigated persistent microvascular dysfunction in women up to 16 months postpartum. The authors found sensitivity to the pressor effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) was enhanced when compared with women who had a normotensive pregnancy. Importantly, the authors demonstrated that this effect was mediated via the endothelin type B (ETB) receptors. Therefore, the present study highlights the possibility that alterations in the localization of the ETB receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285423/renal-intercalated-cells-and-blood-pressure-regulation
#6
REVIEW
Susan M Wall
Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl- absorption and HCO3- secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO3 administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO3- secretion modulates acid-base balance...
December 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284857/to-compare-the-effect-of-two-different-doses-of-dexmedetomidine-on-the-attenuation-of-airway-and-pressor-response-during-tracheostomy-tube-change-in-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#7
Abdul Alim Khan, Neeraj Kumar, Yashpal Singh, Atul Kumar Singh, Sharad Kumar Mathur
Background: Tracheostomy tube (TT) change is the common procedure in trauma Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and almost always associated with cough reflex, increase in blood pressure, and heart rate. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist well studied for the prevention of pressor response during laryngoscopy and extubation, but literature on prevention of pressor response during TT change is lacking. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare two doses (0...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284850/a-comparative-study-of-dexmedetomidine-and-diltiazem-for-attenuating-pressor-responses-to-laryngoscopy-and-endotracheal-intubation-a-double-blind-randomized-study
#8
Raj Bahadur Singh, Shivendu Ojha, Sanjay Choubey
Context: Endotracheal intubation has been suggested to be one of the most invasive stimuli in anesthesia, particularly during induction and after tracheal intubation. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine as compared to diltiazem on hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Aims: To assess and compare the hemodynamic response of dexmedetomidine as compared to diltiazem in patients undergoing laryngoscopy and intubation and rate and type of side effects of the drugs if any...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260443/medulla-oblongata-hemorrhage-and-reverse-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#9
Kevin T Gobeske, Maurice E Sarano, Jennifer E Fugate, Eelco F Wijdicks
BACKGROUND: Acute brain injury with strong surges of adrenergic outflow has resulted in takotsubo cardiomyopathy, but there are surprisingly few reports of takotsubo cardiomyopathy after intracranial hemorrhage, and none have been described from hemorrhage within the brainstem. RESULTS: We describe a patient with reverse and reversible cardiomyopathy following a hemorrhage in the lateral medulla oblongata. While it is limited in size, the location of the hemorrhage caused acute systolic failure with left ventricular ejection fraction of 27% and vasopressor requirement for cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema...
December 19, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259348/cold-pressor-test-in-spinal-cord-injury-revisited
#10
REVIEW
Michèle Hubli, Doris Bolt, Andrei V Krassioukov
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVES: A spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results in alterations of cardiovascular physiology. In order to investigate such alterations, the cold pressor test (CPT) has been used as an established challenge test. This review summarizes the basic physiology underlying a CPT, discusses potential mechanisms responsible for abnormal pressor responses following SCI, and highlights the utility of CPT in the SCI population. SETTING: Canada and Switzerland...
December 20, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235554/morning-and-afternoon-appetite-and-gut-hormone-responses-to-meal-and-stress-challenges-in-obese-individuals-with-and-without-binge-eating-disorder
#11
S Carnell, C Grillot, T Ungredda, S Ellis, N Mehta, J Holst, A Geliebter
BACKGROUND: Eating late in the day is common, and stress can induce eating. Little is understood about how time of day and stress interact to affect appetite and thereby body weight. These may be particularly important influences in binge eaters, who tend to binge in the evening, and in response to stress. METHOD: Obese participants with (n=16) and without (n=16) Binge Eating Disorder (BED) participated in two identical test protocols beginning either in the morning or the afternoon (AM condition/PM condition), each following an 8 h fast...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229213/swearing-as-a-response-to-pain-a-cross-cultural-comparison-of-british-and-japanese-participants
#12
Olivia Robertson, Sarita Jane Robinson, Richard Stephens
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research suggests swearing can moderate pain perception. The present study assessed whether changes in pain perception due to swearing reflect a "scripting" effect by comparing swearing as a response to pain in native English and Japanese speakers. Cognitive psychology denotes a 'script' to be a sequence of learnt behaviours expected for given situations. Japanese participants were included as they rarely, if ever, swear as a response to pain and therefore do not possess an available script for swearing in the context of pain...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214188/the-effects-of-acute-stress-on-the-calibration-of-persistence
#13
Karolina M Lempert, Joseph T McGuire, Danielle B Hazeltine, Elizabeth A Phelps, Joseph W Kable
People frequently fail to wait for delayed rewards after choosing them. These preference reversals are sometimes thought to reflect self-control failure. Other times, however, continuing to wait for a delayed reward may be counterproductive (e.g., when reward timing uncertainty is high). Research has demonstrated that people can calibrate how long to wait for rewards in a given environment. Thus, the role of self-control might be to integrate information about the environment to flexibly adapt behavior, not merely to promote waiting...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207810/comparative-study-of-the-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-vs-fentanyl-on-haemodynamic-response-in-patients-undergoing-elective-laparoscopic-surgery
#14
Jayshree P Vaswani, Debasis Debata, Varsha Vyas, Surekha Pattil
Introduction: Dexmedetomidine and fentanyl, both have sedative and analgesic effects. They are often used as adjunct during anaesthesia to attenuate pressor response during tracheal intubation. Limited study has been done comparing the effect of both drugs on haemodynamic response in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Aim: The study was designed to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine Vs fentanyl on haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation, following pneumoperitoneum and intraoperative period in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207251/oral-contraceptives-modulate-the-muscle-metaboreflex-in-healthy-young-women
#15
Hanna R Parmar, Jasmin Sears, Yannick Molgat-Seon, Cara L McCulloch, Laura A McCracken, Courtney V Brown, Andrew William Sheel, Paolo B Dominelli
There are known sex-differences in blood pressure regulation. The differences are related to ovarian hormones that influence β-adrenergic receptors and the transduction of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Oral contraceptives (OC) modulate the ovarian hormonal profile in women and therefore may alter the cardiovascular response. We questioned if OC would alter the absolute pressor response to static exercise and influence the day-to-day variability of the response. Healthy men (n=11) and women (n=19) completed a familiarization day and two experimental testing days...
December 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203629/exaggerated-vasoconstriction-to-spontaneous-bursts-of-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-healthy-young-black-men
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jennifer R Vranish, Seth W Holwerda, Benjamin E Young, Daniel P Credeur, Jordan C Patik, Thales C Barbosa, David M Keller, Paul J Fadel
Blacks have the highest prevalence of hypertension, putting them at greater risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Previous studies have reported that, relative to whites, healthy black men have augmented pressor responses to sympathoexcitatory stressors. Although important, these studies do not inform about the resting state and the influence of spontaneous changes in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Likewise, little is known about the transduction of MSNA into a vascular response at rest on a beat-to-beat basis...
January 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196870/changes-in-birth-related-pain-perception-impact-of-neurobiological-and-psycho-social-factors
#17
Sebastian Berlit, Stefanie Lis, Katharina Häfner, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Ulf Baumgärtner, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Marc Sütterlin, Christian Schmahl
PURPOSE: To analyse post-partum short- and long-term pain sensitivity and the influence of endogenous pain inhibition as well as distinct psycho-social factors on birth-related pain. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed in 91 primiparous women at three times: 2-6 weeks before, one to 3 days as well as ten to 14 weeks after childbirth. Application of a pressure algometer in combination with a cold pressor test was utilised for measurement of pain sensitivity and assessment of conditioned pain modulation (CPM)...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178434/demonstration-of-an-anti-hyperalgesic-effect-of-a-novel-pan-trk-inhibitor-pf-06273340-in-a-battery-of-human-evoked-pain-models
#18
Peter Loudon, Pieter Siebenga, Donal Gorman, Katrina Gore, Pinky Dua, Guido van Amerongen, Justin L Hay, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Richard P Butt
AIM(S): Inhibitors of nerve growth factor (NGF) reduce pain in several chronic pain indications. NGF signals through tyrosine kinase receptors of the tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family and the unrelated p75 receptor. PF-06273340 is a small molecule inhibitor of Trks A, B and C that reduces pain in nonclinical models and this study aimed to investigate the pharmacodynamics of this first in class molecule in humans. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, single dose, placebo and active-controlled 5 period cross-over study was conducted in healthy human subjects (NCT02260947)...
November 27, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176268/hemodynamic-implications-of-carbon-monoxide-co-and-nitrogen-oxide-no-during-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#19
Hyunyoung Lim, Suk-Koo Lee, Gaabsoo Kim
Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NO) affect vasodilation and cause hemodynamic change. Hemodynamic instability due to liver transplantation may result in poor prognosis of graft. This study investigated the hemodynamic implications of CO and NO levels measured using carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The hemodynamic instability with a pressor dose (norepinephrine equivalent) was estimated 1 hour after graft reperfusion. COHb and MetHb were used as indexes of CO and NO, and were measured using an arterial blood gas analyzer...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175514/reward-anticipation-modulates-the-effect-of-stress-related-increases-in-cortisol-on-episodic-memory
#20
Jörn A Quent, Andrew M McCullough, Matt Sazma, Oliver T Wolf, Andrew P Yonelinas
When acute stress is experienced shortly after an event is encoded into memory, this can slow the forgetting of the study event, which is thought to reflect the effect of cortisol on consolidation. In addition, when events are encoded under conditions of high reward they tend to be remembered better than those encoded under non-rewarding conditions, and these effects are thought to reflect the operation of the dopaminergic reward system. Although both modulatory systems are believed to impact the medial temporal lobe regions critical for episodic memory, the manner, and even the extent, to which these two systems interact is currently unknown...
November 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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