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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351049/macular-edema-of-choroidal-origin
#1
Gisèle Soubrane
Macular edema is most often clinically defined as an accumulation of serous fluid within the neurosensory retina with increased thickness of the central retina. In exudative age-related macular degeneration the leakage of fluid from the choroidal new vessels may be the origin of macular edema. Their abnormal permeability and the inflammatory reaction are mechanisms involved in this accumulation of fluid, which occurs in all layers. Cystoid macular edema is more often associated with subepithelial occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV) than it is with pre-epithelial classic CNV...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351024/evaluating-the-prognostic-value-of-microrna-203-in-solid-tumors-based-on-a-meta-analysis-and-the-cancer-genome-atlas-tcga-datasets
#2
Yingjie Shao, Wendong Gu, Zhonghua Ning, Xing Song, Honglei Pei, Jingting Jiang
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that miR-203 expression was aberrant in various types of cancers, and it could be used as a prognostic biomarker. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of miR-203 expression in solid tumors by using meta-analysis and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. METHODS: By doing a literature research in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library (last update by December 2016), we were able to identify the studies assessing the prognostic role of miR-203 in various tumors...
March 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350987/the-super-elongation-complex-drives-neural-stem-cell-fate-commitment
#3
Kun Liu, Dan Shen, Jingwen Shen, Shihong M Gao, Bo Li, Chouin Wong, Weidong Feng, Yan Song
Asymmetric stem cell division establishes an initial difference between a stem cell and its differentiating sibling, critical for maintaining homeostasis and preventing carcinogenesis. Yet the mechanisms that consolidate and lock in such initial fate bias remain obscure. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the super elongation complex (SEC) acts as an intrinsic amplifier to drive cell fate commitment. SEC is highly expressed in neuroblasts, where it promotes self-renewal by physically associating with Notch transcription activation complex and enhancing HES (hairy and E(spl)) transcription...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350874/snon-upregulation-ameliorates-renal-fibrosis-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#4
Lirong Liu, Mingjun Shi, Yuanyuan Wang, Changzhi Zhang, Bo Su, Ying Xiao, Bing Guo
Progressive reduction of SnoN is associated with gradual elevation of TGF-β1 during diabetic nephropathy progression, suggesting SnoN to be a possible mediator of TGF-β1 signaling, with potential therapeutic benefits against TGF- β1 -induced renal fibrosis. To characterize SnoN for its role in renal fibrosis, we assessed SnoN expression patterns in response to high glucose stress, and evaluated the effects of upregulating SnoN on renal fibrosis. High glucose stress induced significantly elevated SnoN, TGF-β1, and Arkadia transcription; however, significantly reduced SnoN protein levels were observed under these conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350860/uniquely-altered-transcripts-are-associated-with-immune-preservation-in-hiv-infection
#5
Michelle Zanoni, Ítalo Karmann Aventurato, James Hunter, Maria Cecilia Araripe Sucupira, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
The mechanisms underlying host HIV control hold much promise in the search for a functional HIV cure. We investigated the host genomic signatures in elite controllers or rapid progressors following recent infection and the correlates of immune reconstitution during combination antiretroviral therapy. We characterized the HIV-specific longitudinal host transcriptional response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elite controllers, rapid progressors, immune responders and non-responders using a RT-qPCR array in a cohort of recently HIV-infected Brazilian individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350842/combination-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-injection-with-icariin-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-associated-erectile-dysfunction
#6
Xiyou Wang, Chuanhai Liu, Yong Xu, Ping Chen, Yue Shen, Yansheng Xu, Yubo Zhao, Weihao Chen, Xinyu Zhang, Yun Ouyang, Yi Wang, Changliang Xie, Maojun Zhou, Cuilong Liu
The present study was aimed to examine whether icariin, a traditional Chinese medicine, could improve therapeutic effects of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) for diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction (DMED). DMED were induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and confirmed by erectile function measurement. Then, rats of diabetic ED were randomly divided to receive the treatment of saline, ADSCs, icariin or ADSCs combined with icariin respectively. Compared with the treatment by ADSCs or icariin alone, intracavernosum injection of ADSCs combined with the following daily gastric gavage of icariin significantly augmented the value of ICP and ICP/MAP (p<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350813/role-of-p63-and-p73-isoforms-on-the-cell-death-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-submitted-to-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#7
Raúl González, Ángel J De la Rosa, Alessandro Rufini, María A Rodríguez-Hernández, Elena Navarro-Villarán, Trinidad Marchal, Sheila Pereira, Manuel De la Mata, Martina Müller-Schilling, Juan M Pascasio-Acevedo, María T Ferrer-Ríos, Miguel A Gómez-Bravo, Francisco J Padillo, Jordi Muntané
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) submitted to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have a variable 5-year survival rate limited mostly by tumor recurrence. The etiology, age, sex, alcohol, Child-Pugh, and the immunesuppressor have been associated with tumour recurrence. The expression of ΔNp73 is related to the reduced survival of patients with HCC. The study evaluated the expression of p63 and p73 isoforms and cell death receptors, and their relation to tumour recurrence and survival...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350784/targeting-smoothened-sensitizes-gastric-cancer-to-chemotherapy-in-experimental-models
#8
Huifa Ma, Yongsheng Tian, Xiangyang Yu
BACKGROUND The Hedgehog pathway receptor smoothened (SMO) has critical roles in tumor progression. However, whether SMO is a key factor regulating gastric cancer chemotherapy resistance is unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS We investigated the potential functions of SMO in inducing gastric cancer paclitaxel resistance in clinical samples, gastric cancer cell lines (424GC and AGS), and subcutaneous syngeneic mouse models. RESULTS We found high SMO expression in paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer clinical samples...
March 28, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350532/urethral-proteomic-analysis-in-ovariectomized-mice-administered-17%C3%AE-oestradiol-replacement-therapy
#9
Huey-Yi Chen, Yu-Ning Lin, Wen-Chi Chen, Shih-Jing Wang, Chao-Jung Chen, Yung-Hsiang Chen
The molecular mechanism by which 17β-oestradiol (E2) increases urethral tone is unclear. As human tissue is limited in availability, we explored changes in the urethras of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Twenty-four virgin female mice were randomised into three groups: mice with a sham operation only (control), OVX mice without E2 replacement (OVX), and OVX mice with E2 replacement (OVX + E2). Two weeks after the ovariectomy, mice received either E2 or placebo for 4 weeks. Leak point pressure (LPP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) were assessed in these mice at 6 weeks after OVX, under anaesthesia...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350524/an-atf4-atg5-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-regulates-obesity
#10
Yuzhong Xiao, Yalan Deng, Feixiang Yuan, Tingting Xia, Hao Liu, Zhigang Li, Shanghai Chen, Zhixue Liu, Hao Ying, Yi Liu, Qiwei Zhai, Feifan Guo
ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) is an important transcription factor that has many biological functions, while its role in hypothalamic POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin-alpha) neurons in the regulation of energy homeostasis has not been explored. We recently discovered that mice with an Atf4 deletion specific to POMC neurons (PAKO mice) are lean and have higher energy expenditure. Furthermore, these mice are resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Mechanistically, we found the expression of ATG5 (autophagy related 5) is upregulated in POMC neurons of PAKO mice, and ATF4 regulates ATG5 expression by binding directly to its promoter...
March 28, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350441/chemical-probes-unravel-an-antimicrobial-defense-response-triggered-by-binding-of-the-human-opioid-dynorphin-to-a-bacterial-sensor-kinase
#11
Megan Holly Wright, Christian Fetzer, Stephan A Sieber
Host-microbe communication via small molecule signals is important for both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships, but is often poorly understood at the molecular level. Under conditions of host stress, levels of the human opioid peptide dynorphin are elevated, triggering virulence in the opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa via an unknown pathway. Here we apply a multilayered chemical biology strategy to unravel the mode of action of this putative interkingdom signal. We designed and applied dynorphin-inspired photoaffinity probes to reveal the protein targets of the peptide in live bacteria via chemical proteomics...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346830/synergetic-neuroprotective-effect-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-aspirin-in-sh-y5y-by-inhibiting-mir-21-and-activating-rxr%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#12
Yongwang Fu, Jin Zhen, Zuneng Lu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder that lacks effective therapeutic methods. In this research, expressions of PPARα, RXRα, and miR-21 were evaluated in PD patients and normal controls. To investigate the effects of miR-21, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and aspirin (ASA) on PD, as well as the relationships between them, SH-Y5Y cells were treated with DHA, ASA, or both for 24 h. The assay showed that levels of miR-21 were increased and levels of PPARα were decreased in PD patients compared with normal controls...
March 27, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346809/malat1-promotes-osteosarcoma-development-by-regulation-of-hmgb1-via-mir-142-3p-and-mir-129-5p
#13
Ke Liu, Jun Huang, Jiangdong Ni, Deye Song, Muliang Ding, Junjie Wang, Xianzhe Huang, Wenzhao Li
Recently, emerging evidence has demonstrated that metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), contributes to the initiation and development of tumors, including osteosarcoma (OS). Multiple studies have suggested an oncogenic role of MALAT1 and high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in OS tumorigenesis and metastasis, but the effects and mechanisms are not unanimous. Here, we showed that MALAT1 and HMGB1 were significantly increased in human OS cell lines and knockdown of MALAT1 reduced HMGB1 expression...
March 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346793/early-immune-responses-to-marek-s-disease-vaccines
#14
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken cells and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. Although MD vaccines have been in use for several decades, the exact mechanism of vaccine-induced protection is unclear. It is believed that the innate immune system plays a role in vaccine-induced immunity against pathogenic strains of MDV. To shed light on the possible function of the innate immunity in vaccine-mediated protection, we investigated the effect of vaccination, Rispens/CVI988, on the activation of cellular components of the innate immune system by analyzing the expression pattern of select immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils (CT) and duodenum of two MD-susceptible and MD-resistant chicken lines at 3, 5, and 10 days postvaccination (dpv)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346476/reduced-dosage-of-%C3%AE-catenin-provides-significant-rescue-of-cardiac-outflow-tract-anomalies-in-a-tbx1-conditional-null-mouse-model-of-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#15
Silvia E Racedo, Erica Hasten, Mingyan Lin, Gnanapackiam Sheela Devakanmalai, Tingwei Guo, Ertugrul M Ozbudak, Chen-Leng Cai, Deyou Zheng, Bernice E Morrow
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome; DiGeorge syndrome) is a congenital anomaly disorder in which haploinsufficiency of TBX1, encoding a T-box transcription factor, is the major candidate for cardiac outflow tract (OFT) malformations. Inactivation of Tbx1 in the anterior heart field (AHF) mesoderm in the mouse results in premature expression of pro-differentiation genes and a persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) in which septation does not form between the aorta and pulmonary trunk...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346420/hepatic-cyclooxygenase-2-overexpression-induced-spontaneous-hepatocellular-carcinoma-formation-in-mice
#16
H Chen, W Cai, E S H Chu, J Tang, C-C Wong, S H Wong, W Sun, Q Liang, J Fang, Z Sun, J Yu
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the direct causative effect of COX-2 in spontaneous HCC formation remains unknown. We thus investigate the role and molecular pathogenesis of COX-2 in HCC by using liver-specific COX-2 transgenic (TG) mice. We found spontaneous HCC formation with elevated inflammatory infiltrates and neovessels in male TG mice (3/21, 14.3%), but not in any of male WT mice (0/19). Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and gene expression microarrays were performed in the HCC tumor and non-HCC liver tissues to investigate the molecular mechanisms of COX-2-driven HCC...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346398/sirtuin-1-sirt1-overexpression-in-baf3-cells-contributes-to-cell-proliferation-promotion-apoptosis-resistance-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production
#17
Qian Wang, Chao Yan, Miaomiao Xin, Li Han, Yunqing Zhang, Mingshu Sun
BACKGROUND B lymphocyte hyperactivity is a main characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and B lymphocytes play a prominent pathogenic role in the development and progression of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in B lymphocytes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mouse B lymphocytes BaF3 was transfected with Sirt1 vector or shRNA against Sirt1. Then the transfected cells viability and apoptosis were respectively determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA levels of three pro-inflammatory cytokines and p53 were detected by RT-PCR...
March 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346392/impact-of-novel-sorghum-bran-diets-on-dss-induced-colitis
#18
Lauren E Ritchie, Stella S Taddeo, Brad R Weeks, Raymond J Carroll, Linda Dykes, Lloyd W Rooney, Nancy D Turner
We have demonstrated that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets alter fecal microbiota; however, little is known regarding their effect on colon inflammation. Our aim was to characterize the effect of sorghum bran diets on intestinal homeostasis during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 20/diet) were provided diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins) or Hi Tannin Black (both) sorghum bran. Colitis was induced (N = 10/diet) with three separate 48-h exposures to 3% DSS, and feces were collected...
March 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346367/transplantation-of-menstrual-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-the-repair-of-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury
#19
Bingyu Xiang, Lu Chen, Xiaojun Wang, Yongjia Zhao, Yanling Wang, Charlie Xiang
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) have been shown to be good therapeutic tools in diseases such as ovarian failure and cardiac fibrosis. However, relevant studies of MenSCs in ALI have not yet proceeded. We hypothesized that MenSC could attenuate the inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and promote the repair of damaged lung. ALI model was induced by LPS in C57 mice, and saline or MenSCs were administered via tail vein after four hours...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346008/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-is-required-for-distraction-osteogenesis-in-rats
#20
Xuemei Wang, En Luo, Ruiye Bi, Bin Ye, Jing Hu, Shujuan Zou
OVERVIEW: The Wnt signaling pathway plays crucial roles in embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone regeneration. However, mechanisms of Wnt signaling functioning in distraction osteogenesis (DO) haven't been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established a DO model using Sprague-Dawley rat tibia. And a Wnt signaling blocking agent, recombinant rat Dickkopf-related protein 1 (rrDkk1), was locally applied in the distracted gap to study the role of Wnt signaling during DO process...
March 1, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
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