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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526311/dramatic-effects-of-a-new-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-rural-community-hospital
#2
Claudia R Libertin, Stephanie H Watson, William L Tillett, Joy H Peterson
BACKGROUND: New Joint Commission antimicrobial stewardship requirements took effect on January 1, 2017, promoted as a central strategy for coping with the emerging problems of antimicrobial resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Our objective was to measure the effects of a new antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in a rural community hospital with no prior ASP, in the context of having a new infectious disease specialist on staff. METHODS: An ASP team was formed to implement a prospective audit with health care provider feedback and targeting 12 antimicrobial agents in a rural hospital in Georgia...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520953/evolving-insights-into-the-epidemiology-and-control-of-clostridium-difficile-in-hospitals
#3
Daniel A Caroff, Deborah S Yokoe, Michael Klompas
Typing studies suggest most cases of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection are unrelated to other cases of active disease in the hospital. New cases may instead be due to transmissions from asymptomatic carriers or progression of latent C.difficile present-on-admission to active infection. Direct exposure to antibiotics remains the primary risk factor for C.difficile infection but ward-level antibiotic use, antibiotic exposure of the prior room occupant, and C.difficile status of the prior room occupant increase risk for C...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512094/intrinsic-toxin-derived-peptides-destabilize-and-inactivate-clostridium-difficile-tcdb
#4
Jason L Larabee, Sarah J Bland, Jonathan J Hunt, Jimmy D Ballard
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of hospital-associated, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, which is largely mediated by the production of two large multidomain clostridial toxins, TcdA and TcdB. Both toxins coordinate the action of specific domains to bind receptors, enter cells, and deliver a catalytic fragment into the cytosol. This results in GTPase inactivation, actin disassembly, and cytotoxicity. TcdB in particular has been shown to encode a region covering amino acids 1753 to 1851 that affects epitope exposure and cytotoxicity...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510584/identification-of-novel-risk-factors-for-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-spatial-statistics-and-geographic-information-system-analyses
#5
Deverick J Anderson, Leoncio Flavio Rojas, Shera Watson, Lauren P Knelson, Sohayla Pruitt, Sarah S Lewis, Rebekah W Moehring, Emily E Sickbert Bennett, David J Weber, Luke F Chen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: The rate of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is increasing. While receipt of antibiotics remains an important risk factor for CDI, studies related to acquisition of C. difficile outside of hospitals are lacking. As a result, risk factors for exposure to C. difficile in community settings have been inadequately studied. MAIN OBJECTIVE: To identify novel environmental risk factors for CA-CDI. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with CA-CDI from 1/1/2007 through 12/31/2014 in a 10-county area in central North Carolina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506317/changes-in-microbial-ecology-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-c-difficile-infection-affected-by-underlying-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Sahil Khanna, Yoshiki Vazquez-Baeza, Antonio González, Sophie Weiss, Bradley Schmidt, David A Muñiz-Pedrogo, John F Rainey, Patricia Kammer, Heidi Nelson, Michael Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Stefan L Farrugia, Rob Knight, Darrell S Pardi, Purna C Kashyap
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota play a key role in maintaining homeostasis in the human gut. Alterations in the gut microbial ecosystem predispose to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and gut inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor can restore gut microbial diversity and pathogen colonization resistance; consequently, it is now being investigated for its ability to improve inflammatory gut conditions such as IBD...
May 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505637/in-c-difficile-infection-adding-iv-bezlotoxumab-to-standard-antibiotics-reduced-recurrence-at-12-weeks
#7
Fred Arthur Zar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501554/molecular-typing-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-cultured-from-patient-stool-samples-and-gastroenterological-medical-devices-in-a-single-iranian-hospital
#8
Masoumeh Azimirad, Marcela Krutova, Otakar Nyc, Zahra Hasani, Leili Afrisham, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Reza Zali
This study aimed to characterize Clostridium difficile isolates cultured from stool samples of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) and swabs from a medical environment in a gastroenterology centre in Tehran, Iran. A total of 158 samples (105 stool samples from hospitalized patients and 53 swabs from medical devices and the environment) were collected from January 2011 to August 2011 and investigated for the presence of C. difficile by direct anaerobic culture on a selective media for C. difficile. C...
May 10, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498996/protective-factors-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-against-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-recipients-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Yeon Joo Lee, Esther S Arguello, Robert R Jenq, Eric Littmann, Grace J Kim, Liza C Miller, Lilan Ling, Cesar Figueroa, Elizabeth Robilotti, Miguel-Angel Perales, Juliet N Barker, Sergio Giralt, Marcel R M van den Brink, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent complication in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), who receive intensive treatments that significantly disrupt the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we examined the microbiota composition of allo-HSCT recipients to identify bacterial colonizers that confer protection against CDI after engraftment. Methods: Feces collected from adult recipients allo-HSCT at engraftment were analyzed; 16S ribosomal RNA genes were sequenced and analyzed from each sample...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497295/assessing-the-risk-and-disease-burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-patients-with-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-at-a-university-hospital-in-central-china
#10
Chunhui Li, Juping Duan, Sidi Liu, Xiujuan Meng, Chenchao Fu, Cui Zeng, Anhua Wu
PURPOSE: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) remains one of the major hospital-acquired infections in China. Antibiotic treatment of HAP may lead to subsequent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Baseline data on the occurrence of CDI among HAP patients in China are currently unavailable. This study examines the risk and disease burden of CDI among HAP hospitalized patients (HAP-CDI). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among ICU patients with HAP and hospital-onset diarrhea from January 2014 to December 2014 in a teaching hospital in China...
May 11, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497217/inhibition-of-clostridium-difficile-in-mice-using-a-mixture-of-potential-probiotic-strains-enterococcus-faecalis-nm815-e-faecalis-nm915-and-e-faecium-nm1015-novel-candidates-to-control-c-difficile-infection-cdi
#11
Nahla M Mansour, Walid F Elkhatib, Khaled M Aboshanab, May M A Bahr
This study is aimed at the isolation, identification, and characterization of potential probiotic strains capable of inhibiting Clostridium difficile in vitro and in vivo. Twenty isolates were isolated from infant fecal samples and screened against C. difficile using their cell-free supernatant. Only three isolates showed maximum inhibition from 56.05 to 60.60%, thus they were characterized for probiotic properties and safety. The results obtained approved their tolerance to the gastrointestinal tract conditions and safety profile...
May 11, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491889/infections-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-results-from-the-organ-transplant-infection-project-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Mindy G Schuster, Angela A Cleveland, Erik R Dubberke, Carol A Kauffman, Robin K Avery, Shahid Husain, David L Paterson, Fernanda P Silveira, Tom M Chiller, Kaitlin Benedict, Kathleen Murphy, Peter G Pappas
BACKGROUND: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our object was to better define the epidemiology and outcomes of infections after HCT. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter cohort study of HCT recipients and conducted from 2006 to 2011. The study included 4 US transplant centers and 444 HCT recipients. Data were prospectively collected for up to 30 months after HCT using a standardized data collection tool...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489336/antimicrobial-activity-of-natural-products-against-clostridium-difficile-in-vitro
#13
Niloufar Roshan, Thomas V Riley, Katherine A Hammer
AIMS: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of various natural products against C. difficile in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: The antibacterial activity of 20 natural products was determined by the agar well diffusion and broth microdilution assays against four C. difficile strains, three comparator organisms and four gastrointestinal commensal organisms. Of the raw natural products, garlic juice had the highest activity. The most active processed products were peppermint oil and the four pure compounds trans-cinnamaldehyde, allicin, menthol and zingerone...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487371/a-clostridium-difficile-alanine-racemase-affects-spore-germination-and-accommodates-serine-as-a-substrate
#14
Ritu Shrestha, Steve W Lockless, Joseph A Sorg
Clostridium difficile has become one of the most common bacterial pathogens in hospital-acquired infections in the United States. Although C. difficile is strictly anaerobic, it survives in aerobic environments and transmits between hosts via spores. C. difficile spore germination is triggered in response to certain bile acids and glycine. Although glycine is the most effective co-germinant, other amino acids can substitute with varying efficiencies. Of these, L-alanine is an effective co-germinant and is also a germinant for most bacterial spores...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484801/optimal-control-of-vaccination-rate-in-an-epidemiological-model-of-clostridium-difficile-transmission
#15
Brittany Stephenson, Cristina Lanzas, Suzanne Lenhart, Judy Day
The spore-forming, gram-negative bacteria Clostridium difficile can cause severe intestinal illness. A striking increase in the number of cases of C. difficile infection (CDI) among hospitals has highlighted the need to better understand how to prevent the spread of CDI. In our paper, we modify and update a compartmental model of nosocomial C. difficile transmission to include vaccination. We then apply optimal control theory to determine the time-varying optimal vaccination rate that minimizes a combination of disease prevalence and spread in the hospital population as well as cost, in terms of time and money, associated with vaccination...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484429/protective-effect-of-carvacrol-against-gut-dysbiosis-and-clostridium-difficile-associated-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Shankumar Mooyottu, Genevieve Flock, Abhinav Upadhyay, Indu Upadhyaya, Kendra Maas, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
This study investigated the effect of carvacrol (CR), a phytophenolic compound on antibiotic-associated gut dysbiosis and C. difficile infection in a mouse model. Five to six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into seven treatment groups (challenge and control) of eight mice each. Mice were fed with irradiated feed supplemented with CR (0, 0.05, and 0.1%); the challenge groups were made susceptible to C. difficile by orally administering an antibiotic cocktail in water and an intra-peritoneal injection of clindamycin...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480750/bezlotoxumab-could-this-b-the-answer-for-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#17
Ryan W Chapin, Tiffany Lee, Christopher McCoy, Carolyn D Alonso, Monica V Mahoney
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and place in therapy of bezlotoxumab (BEZ), a novel monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was conducted for data between 1946 and April 2017 using MeSH terms bezlotoxumab, MK-6072, or MDX-1388 alone and the terms Clostridium difficile combined with monoclonal antibody or antitoxin. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The literature search was limited to English-language studies that described clinical efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics in humans and animals...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480289/community-environmental-contamination-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile
#18
M Jahangir Alam, Seth T Walk, Bradley T Endres, Eugenie Basseres, Mohammed Khaleduzzaman, Jonathan Amadio, William L Musick, Jennifer L Christensen, Julie Kuo, Robert L Atmar, Kevin W Garey
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is often considered to result from recent acquisition of a C difficile isolate in a healthcare setting. However, C difficile spores can persist for long periods of time, suggesting a potentially large community environmental reservoir. The objectives of this study were to assess community environmental contamination of toxigenic C difficile and to assess strain distribution in environmental versus clinical isolates. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, we collected community environmental swabs from homes and public areas in Houston, Texas to assess C difficile contamination...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473000/tracking-microbial-colonization-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-experiments-via-genome-resolved-metagenomics
#19
Sonny T M Lee, Stacy A Kahn, Tom O Delmont, Alon Shaiber, Özcan C Esen, Nathaniel A Hubert, Hilary G Morrison, Dionysios A Antonopoulos, David T Rubin, A Murat Eren
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and shows promise for treating other medical conditions associated with intestinal dysbioses. However, we lack a sufficient understanding of which microbial populations successfully colonize the recipient gut, and the widely used approaches to study the microbial ecology of FMT experiments fail to provide enough resolution to identify populations that are likely responsible for FMT-derived benefits...
May 4, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470456/-bezlotoxumab-for-the-secondary-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-modify%C3%A2-i-and-modify%C3%A2-ii-studies
#20
C Lübbert, S Nitschmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Der Internist
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