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C difficile infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464969/clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-infection-current-and-alternative-therapeutic-strategies
#1
Fernando Gil, Iván L Calderón, Juan A Fuentes, Daniel Paredes-Sabja
Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) has become a pathogen of worldwide importance considering that epidemic strains are disseminated in hospitals of several countries, where community-acquired infections act as a constant source of new C. difficile strains into hospitals. Despite the advances in the treatment of infections, more effective therapies against C. difficile are needed but, at the same time, these therapies should be less harmful to the resident gastrointestinal microbiota. The purpose of this review is to present a description of issues associated to C...
February 21, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463537/impact-of-oral-fidaxomicin-administration-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-mice
#2
N J Ajami, J L Cope, M C Wong, J F Petrosino, L Chesnel
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a common cause of hospital-acquired infections, typically occurs after disruption of the normal gut microbiome by broad-spectrum antibiotics. Fidaxomicin is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic that demonstrates reduced impact on the normal gut microbiota and is approved for the treatment of CDI. To further explore the benefits of this property, we used a murine model to examine the effects of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin on gut microbiota and susceptibility to C. difficile colonization while tracking microbiota recovery over time...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462695/a-3d-intestinal-tissue-model-supports-clostridioides-difficile-germination-colonization-toxin-production-and-epithelial-damage
#3
Lamyaa Shaban, Ying Chen, Alyssa C Fasciano, Yinan Lin, David L Kaplan, Carol A Kumamoto, Joan Mecsas
Endospore-forming Clostridioides difficile is a causative agent of antibiotic-induced diarrhea, a major nosocomial infection. Studies of its interactions with mammalian tissues have been hampered by the fact that C. difficile requires anaerobic conditions to survive after spore germination. We recently developed a bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model and found that low O2 conditions are produced in the lumen of these tissues. Here, we compared the ability of C. difficile spores to germinate, produce toxin and cause tissue damage in our bioengineered 3D tissue model versus in a 2D transwell model in which human cells form a polarized monolayer...
February 17, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462386/mice-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-are-susceptible-to-clostridium-difficile-infection-with-severe-disease-outcomes
#4
Fenfen Zhou, Therwa Hamza, Ashley S Fleur, Yongrong Zhang, Hua Yu, Kevin Chen, Jonathon E Heath, Ye Chen, Haihui Huang, Hanping Feng
Background: Over the past several decades, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, a wild-type animal model is not available to study these comorbid diseases. Methods: We evaluated the susceptibility to CDI of mice with dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced colitis (IBD mice) with or without antibiotic exposure; we examined the histopathology and cytokine response in the concomitant diseases after the model was created...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462280/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-2017-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-shea
#5
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460760/artificial-differences-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-rates-associated-with-disparity-in-testing
#6
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Anoshe Aslam, Jessica Kennington, N Esther Babady, David Calfee, Yoko Furuya, Donald Chen, Michael Augenbraun, Belinda Ostrowsky, Gopi Patel, Monica Mircescu, Vivek Kak, Roman Tuma, Teresa A Karre, Deborah A Fry, Yola P Duhaney, Amber Moyer, Denise Mitchell, Sherry Cantu, Candace Hsieh, Nancy Warren, Stacy Martin, Jill Willson, Jeanne Dickman, Julie Knight, Kim Delahanty, Annemarie Flood, Jennifer Harrington, Deborah Korenstein, Janet Eagan, Kent Sepkowitz
In 2015, Clostridium difficile testing rates among 30 US community, multispecialty, and cancer hospitals were 14.0, 16.3, and 33.9/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Pooled hospital onset rates were 0.56, 0.84, and 1.57/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Higher testing rates may artificially inflate reported rates of C. difficile infection. C. difficile surveillance should consider testing frequency.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459891/evaluating-the-sporicidal-activity-of-disinfectants-against-clostridium-difficile-and-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-spores-by-using-the-improved-methods-based-on-astm-e2197-11
#7
Marie Christine Uwamahoro, Richard Massicotte, Yves Hurtubise, François Gagné-Bourque, Akier Assanta Mafu, L'Hocine Yahia
Spore-forming pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile , are associated with nosocomial infection, leading to the increased use of sporicidal disinfectants, which impacts socioeconomic costs. However, C. difficile can be prevented using microorganisms such as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , a prophylactic agent that has been proven to be effective against it in recent tests or it can be controlled by sporicidal disinfectants. These disinfectants against spores should be evaluated according to a known and recommended standard...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457584/immunological-stability-of-clostridium-difficile-toxins-in-clinical-specimens
#8
Donna M Schora, Lance R Peterson, Elena A Usacheva
OBJECTIVE The impact of storage on stability and detection of Clostridium difficile toxins in feces is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the immunological stability of C. difficile toxins in clinical stool specimens under different storage conditions by evaluating this stability using toxin detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). METHODS Stool specimens positive for C. difficile infection (CDI) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used for EIA testing with the C...
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452598/7-versus-14-days-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-critically-ill-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Nick Daneman, Asgar H Rishu, Ruxandra Pinto, Pierre Aslanian, Sean M Bagshaw, Alex Carignan, Emmanuel Charbonney, Bryan Coburn, Deborah J Cook, Michael E Detsky, Peter Dodek, Richard Hall, Anand Kumar, Francois Lamontagne, Francois Lauzier, John C Marshall, Claudio M Martin, Lauralyn McIntyre, John Muscedere, Steven Reynolds, Wendy Sligl, Henry T Stelfox, M Elizabeth Wilcox, Robert A Fowler
BACKGROUND: Shorter-duration antibiotic treatment is sufficient for a range of bacterial infections, but has not been adequately studied for bloodstream infections. Our systematic review, survey, and observational study indicated equipoise for a trial of 7 versus 14 days of antibiotic treatment for bloodstream infections; a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) was a necessary next step to assess feasibility of a larger trial. METHODS: We conducted an open, pilot RCT of antibiotic treatment duration among critically ill patients with bloodstream infection across 11 intensive care units (ICUs)...
February 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451873/in-silico-analysis-of-antibiotic-induced-clostridium-difficile-infection-remediation-techniques-and-biological-adaptations
#10
Eric W Jones, Jean M Carlson
In this paper we study antibiotic-induced C. difficile infection (CDI), caused by the toxin-producing C. difficile (CD), and implement clinically-inspired simulated treatments in a computational framework that synthesizes a generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) model with SIR modeling techniques. The gLV model uses parameters derived from an experimental mouse model, in which the mice are administered antibiotics and subsequently dosed with CD. We numerically identify which of the experimentally measured initial conditions are vulnerable to CD colonization, then formalize the notion of CD susceptibility analytically...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446866/tacrolimus-concentration-to-dose-ratio-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients-treated-with-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#11
Michael H Woodworth, Colleen S Kraft, Erika J Meredith, Aneesh K Mehta, Tiffany Wang, Yafet T Mamo, Tanvi Dhere, Kaitlin L Sitchenko, Rachel E Patzer, Rachel J Friedman-Moraco
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being performed for Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant patients; however, little is known about the potential pharmacokinetic or pharmacomicrobial effects this may have on tacrolimus levels. We reviewed the medical records of 10 solid organ transplant patients from September 2012 - December 2016 who were taking tacrolimus at time of FMT for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. We compared the differences in tacrolimus concentration / dose ratio (C/D ratio) three months prior to FMT vs three months after FMT...
February 15, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445826/genome-based-comparison-of-clostridioides-difficile-average-amino-acid-identity-analysis-of-core-genomes
#12
Adriana Cabal, Se-Ran Jun, Piroon Jenjaroenpun, Visanu Wanchai, Intawat Nookaew, Thidathip Wongsurawat, Mary J Burgess, Atul Kothari, Trudy M Wassenaar, David W Ussery
Infections due to Clostridioides difficile (previously known as Clostridium difficile) are a major problem in hospitals, where cases can be caused by community-acquired strains as well as by nosocomial spread. Whole genome sequences from clinical samples contain a lot of information but that needs to be analyzed and compared in such a way that the outcome is useful for clinicians or epidemiologists. Here, we compare 663 public available complete genome sequences of C. difficile using average amino acid identity (AAI) scores...
February 14, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443839/how-common-and-how-serious-is-clostridium-difficile-colitis-after-geriatric-hip-fracture-findings-from-the-nsqip-dataset
#13
Patawut Bovonratwet, Daniel D Bohl, Glenn S Russo, Nathaniel T Ondeck, Denis Nam, Craig J Della Valle, Jonathan N Grauer
BACKGROUND: Patients with geriatric hip fractures may be at increased risk for postoperative Clostridium difficile colitis, which can cause severe morbidity and can influence hospital quality metrics. However, to our knowledge, no large database study has calculated the incidence of, factors associated with, and effect of C. difficile colitis on geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To use a large national database with in-hospital and postdischarge data (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program [NSQIP®]) to (1) determine the incidence and timing of C...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441500/the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-japan-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Thomas V Riley, Tomomi Kimura
To increase understanding of the epidemiology, risks, consequences and resource utilization of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Japan, a systematic literature review was undertaken of relevant publications from January 2006 to November 2017. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and methods, 55 articles met the criteria for full review. The majority (58%) of studies were from a single site, with the most recent data from 2015. The incidence, reported prevalence and recurrence rate of CDI in Japan were 0...
February 13, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434201/advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infections
#15
Zhong Peng, Lifen Ling, Charles W Stratton, Chunhui Li, Christopher R Polage, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang
Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. The diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) requires both clinical manifestations and a positive laboratory test for C. difficile and/or its toxins. While antibiotic therapy is the treatment of choice for CDI, there are relatively few classes of effective antibiotics currently available. Therefore, the development of novel antibiotics and/or alternative treatment strategies for CDI has received a great deal of attention in recent years...
February 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428547/evaluation-of-4-molecular-assays-as-part-of-a-2-step-algorithm-for-the-detection-of-clostridium-difficile-in-stool-specimens
#16
Adam J Caulfield, Catherine M Bolster LaSalle, Yu-Hui H Chang, Thomas E Grys
Detection of Clostridium difficile infection is important for clinical laboratories, owing to debilitating disease, severe outcomes, patient awareness, and public reporting of hospital data. This study evaluated the performance of 4 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) assays as part of a 2-step algorithm that involves reflexive NAAT following enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing that is indeterminate for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A/B (GDH+/toxin- or GDH-/toxin+). A total of 500 stool specimens from consecutive patients were tested by each of the 5 methods and also evaluated as part of a 2-step algorithm...
January 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428498/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
REVIEW
Michael Samarkos, Elpida Mastrogianni, Olga Kampouropoulou
Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a major health problem. Because it is a spore-forming microorganism, C. difficile is difficult to eradicate and recurrences of the infection are frequent. The strong association of CDI with prior use of antibiotics led to the recognition that disturbances in the gut microbiota apparently plays a central role in CDI. Except for antibiotics, several other risk factors for CDI have been recognised, such as advanced age and use of proton pump inhibitors. The common characteristic of these factors is that they are associated with changes in the composition of gut microbiota...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427800/new-insights-into-transmission-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-narrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Ana Durovic, Andreas Widmer, Sarah Tschudin Sutter
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, Clostridium difficile has been considered a typical healthcare-associated pathogen - transmitted within healthcare facilities and thus prevented by implementation of standard infection control measures. More recently, this concept has been challenged by studies suggesting a relevant role for community-acquisition of C. difficile. AIMS: To discusses the current literature, compiled during the last decade, reporting on sources of acquisition of C...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427406/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-transplant-recipients-during-the-first-year-post-transplant
#19
Luis Guzman, Fang Qiu, Andre C Kalil, David F Mercer, Alan Langnas, Diana F Florescu
BACKGROUND: C. difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhea. Risk factors for C. difficile infections (CDI) in intestinal transplant recipients (ITR) are not well defined. The aim of our study was to assess specific risk factors for CDI in ITR. METHODS: This is a 1:3 case-control study that included 29 ITR who developed CDI (cases) and 87 ITR without CDI (controls) observed during the first year post transplantation. Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare variables...
February 10, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422809/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Kosaku Nanki, Shinta Mizuno, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Keiko Ono, Shinya Sugimoto, Hiroki Kiyohara, Mari Arai, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Keiichiro Saigusa, Mitsutoshi Senoh, Tadashi Fukuda, Makoto Naganuma, Haru Kato, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported as a safe and effective therapy in patients with refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). FMT has also been reported as a promising therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Both, CDI and UC, are believed to be caused by dysbiosis, such as altered compositions or decreased diversity of the intestinal microbiota. This report describes a patient with UC in remission with a second recurrent episode of CDI, who was treated with FMT...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
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