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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676573/tiacumicin-congeners-with-improved-antibacterial-activity-from-a-halogenase-inactivated-mutant
#1
Haibo Zhang, Xiaoxing Tian, Xiaohui Pu, Qingbo Zhang, Wenjun Zhang, Changsheng Zhang
Tiacumicin B (1, also known as fidaxomicin or difimicin) is a marketed drug for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections. The biosynthetic pathway of 1 has been studied in Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subsp. hamdenensis NRRL 18085 and has enabled the identification of TiaM as a tailoring dihalogenase. Herein we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and bioactivity evaluation of 14 tiacumicin congeners (including 11 new ones) from the tiaM-inactivated mutant. A new tiacumicin congener, 3, with a propyl group at C-7‴ of the aromatic ring was found to exhibit improved antibacterial activity...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674636/cationic-amphiphilic-bolaamphiphile-based-delivery-of-antisense-oligonucleotides-provides-a-potentially-microbiome-sparing-treatment-for-c-difficile
#2
Arun K Sharma, Jacek Krzeminski, Volkmar Weissig, John P Hegarty, David B Stewart
Conventional antibiotics for C. difficile infection (CDI) have mechanisms of action without organismal specificity, potentially perpetuating the dysbiosis contributing to CDI, making antisense approaches an attractive alternative. Here, three (APDE-8, CODE-9, and CYDE-21) novel cationic amphiphilic bolaamphiphiles (CABs) were synthesized and tested for their ability to form nano-sized vesicles or vesicle-like aggregates (CABVs), which were characterized based on their physiochemical properties, their antibacterial activities, and their toxicity toward colonocyte (Caco-2) cell cultures...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674329/regional-variability-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-practices-a-survey-of-the-southern-ontario-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-movement
#3
Susy S Hota, Salman Surangiwala, Aimee S Paterson, Bryan Coburn, Susan M Poutanen
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but little guidance exists for implementation of FMT programs. The objective of this study is to describe the program characteristics and protocols of 9 planned or operating FMT programs in the Southern Ontario Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (SOFT) Movement, to help guide future FMT program implementation. METHODS: A 59-item survey was administered electronically to clinical leads of the SOFT Movement on June 2, 2016...
April 18, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670381/molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-in-two-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-shandong-province-china
#4
Ying Luo, Wen Zhang, Jing-Wei Cheng, Meng Xiao, Gui-Rong Sun, Cheng-Jie Guo, Ming-Jun Liu, Pei-Shan Cong, Timothy Kudinha
Purpose: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have markedly increased over the past decade. However, there is very limited epidemiological data on CDI in China so far, specifically no data in Shandong Province. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic algorithm for CDI and to gain data on molecular epidemiology of CDI in the Shandong Province of China. Materials and methods: Nonrepetitive unformed fecal specimens (n=504) were investigated by the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), C...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665558/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-with-diarrhoea-results-of-a-polish-multicenter-prospective-biannual-point-prevalence-study
#6
Hanna Pituch, Piotr Obuch-Woszczatyński, Dominika Lachowicz, Robert Kuthan, Katarzyna Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Agnieszka Mikucka, Katarzyna Jermakow, Aleksandra Pituch-Zdanowska, Kerrie Davies
PURPOSE: We aimed to measure the underdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection across Poland and the distribution of PCR-ribotypes of C. difficile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven Polish healthcare facilities (HCFs) participated in this prospective study. Each HCF systematically sent all diarrhoeal stools received from inpatients at their laboratories on two days (one in January 2013 and one in July 2013), independently of CDI test request, to the National Coordinating Laboratory (NCL) for standardized testing of CDI...
April 13, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659747/two-distinct-patterns-of-clostridium-difficile-diversity-across-europe-indicates-contrasting-routes-of-spread
#7
David W Eyre, Kerrie A Davies, Georgina Davis, Warren N Fawley, Kate E Dingle, Nicola De Maio, Andreas Karas, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background: Rates of Clostridium difficile infection vary widely across Europe, as do prevalent ribotypes. The extent of Europe-wide diversity within each ribotype is however unknown. Methods: Inpatient diarrhoeal faecal samples submitted on one day in summer and winter (2012-2013) to laboratories in 482 European hospitals were cultured for C. difficile, and isolates ribotyped; those from the 10 most prevalent ribotypes were Illumina whole-genome sequenced. Pairwise single nucleotide differences (SNPs) were obtained from recombination-corrected maximum-likelihood phylogenies...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655966/secular-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-barcelona-2006-2015-a-prospective-observational-study
#8
Thais Larrainzar-Coghen, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Carles Pigrau, Carmen Ferrer, Virginia Rodríguez, Rosa Bartolomé, David Campany, Benito Almirante
OBJECTIVE: Describe secular trends in the epidemiology and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: All consecutive primary CDI episodes in adults (January 2006-December 2015) were included. CDI was diagnosed on the presence of diarrhoea and a positive stool test for C. difficile toxin A and/or B. To define trends, a time-series analysis was performed using yearly data on demographics, clinical characteristics, management, antimicrobial treatment, and outcome of CDI...
April 12, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655671/overreporting-healthcare-associated-c-difficile-a-comparison-of-nhsn-labid-with-clinical-surveillance-definitions-in-the-era-of-molecular-testing
#9
Kathryn Albert, Barbara Ross, David P Calfee, Matthew S Simon
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-associated gastrointestinal infection. Hospitals are required to report cases of healthcare facility-onset CDI (HO-CDI) using the National Healthcare Safety Network's CDI laboratory-identified (LabID) event definition. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of potential over-reporting due to the exclusion of important clinical data within LabID reporting definitions. METHODS: In 2015, retrospective chart review was performed on 212 HO-CDI cases reported from a large urban medical center...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650357/clinical-outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-according-to-strain-type-a-prospective-study-in-medical-wards
#10
S Serafino, D Consonni, M Migone De Amicis, F Sisto, G Domeniconi, S Formica, M Zarantonello, A Maraschini, M D Cappellini, P Spigaglia, F Barbanti, S Castaldi, G Fabio
OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients in Internal Medicine, to identify ribotypes (RTs); to evaluate the association between RT and patient clinical characteristics and report outcome. METHODS: One year prospective cohort study. Clinical data, Barthel Index (BI) and outcomes were collected for all inpatients suffering from CDI (n = 148) in hospital wards in Northern Italy. 84 fecal samples were analysed for molecular typing...
April 9, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649308/subtyping-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-591-106-and-002-the-dominant-strain-types-circulating-in-medellin-colombia
#11
Clara Lina Salazar, Catalina Reyes, Astrid Vanessa Cienfuegos-Gallet, Emma Best, Santiago Atehortua, Patricia Sierra, Margarita M Correa, Warren N Fawley, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Mark Wilcox, Angel Gonzalez
We aimed to achieve a higher typing resolution within the three dominant Clostridium difficile ribotypes (591,106 and 002) circulating in Colombia. A total of 50 C. difficile isolates we had previously typed by PCR-ribotyping, representing the major three ribotypes circulating in Colombia, were analyzed. Twenty-seven isolates of ribotype 591, 12 of ribotype 106 and 11 of ribotype 002 were subtyped by multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). The presence of the PaLoc genes (tcdA/tcdB), toxin production in culture and antimicrobial susceptibility were also determined...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644943/reduced-clostridium-difficile-tests-and-laboratory-identified-events-with-a-computerized-clinical-decision-support-tool-and-financial-incentive
#12
Gregory R Madden, Ian German Mesner, Heather L Cox, Amy J Mathers, Jason A Lyman, Costi D Sifri, Kyle B Enfield
We hypothesized that a computerized clinical decision support tool for Clostridium difficile testing would reduce unnecessary inpatient tests, resulting in fewer laboratory-identified events. Census-adjusted interrupted time-series analyses demonstrated significant reductions of 41% fewer tests and 31% fewer hospital-onset C. difficile infection laboratory-identified events following this intervention.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
April 12, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644517/systemic-inflammatory-responses-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-and-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
Julajak Limsrivilai, Krishna Rao, Ryan W Stidham, Shail M Govani, Akbar K Waljee, Andrew Reinink, Laura Johnson, Emily Briggs, Peter D R Higgins
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Finding differences in systemic inflammatory response in ulcerative colitis (UC), UC with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and CDI could lead to a better ability to differentiate between UC with symptomatic CDI and UC with C. difficile colonization, and could identify specific inflammatory pathways for UC or CDI, which could be therapeutic targets. METHODS: We prospectively collected sera from symptomatic UC patients whose stools were tested for toxigenic C...
April 12, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643194/quantitative-thresholds-enable-accurate-identification-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-the-luminex-xtag-gi-pathogen-panel
#14
Sixto M Leal, Elena B Popowitch, Kara J Levinson, Teny M John, Bethany Lehman, Maria Bueno Rios, Peter H Gilligan, Melissa B Miller
Clostridium difficile colonizes the gastrointestinal tract resulting in either asymptomatic carriage or a spectrum of diarrheal illness. If clinical suspicion for C. difficile is low, stool samples are often submitted for analysis by multiplex molecular assays capable of detecting multiple GI pathogens and some institutions do not report this organism due to concerns for high false positive rates. Since clinical disease correlates with organism burden and molecular assays yield quantitative data, we hypothesized that numerical cutoffs could be utilized to improve the specificity of the Luminex xTAG GI pathogen panel (GPP) for C...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627950/molecular-based-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-is-associated-with-reduced-mortality
#15
Tomer Avni, Tanya Babich, Haim Ben-Zvi, Alaa Atamna, Dafna Yahav, Daniel Shepshelovich, Yaara Leibovici-Weissman, Jihad Bishara
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) might result in overdiagnosis. The clinical outcomes of symptomatic CDI patients diagnosed by PCR remain uncertain. We aimed to determine whether patients whose diagnosis of CDI was based on PCR had different characteristics and clinical outcomes than those diagnosed by toxin immunoassay. Consecutive CDI patients, hospitalized at Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Petah Tikva, Israel, between January 2013 and January 2016, were identified retrospectively and included in the study...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627510/occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-serbia-and-high-proportion-of-pcr-ribotype-027-strains-in-two-hospitals-in-belgrade
#16
Milica Jovanović, Tanja Tošić, Mitra Drakulović, Rajica Stošović, Snežana Jovanović
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS) and the entire Serbia has been constantly rising in the previous 5 years. We aimed to study C. difficile PCR-ribotypes isolated from patients hospitalized at two healthcare institutions: CCS and Specialized Hospital for Cerebrovascular Diseases "Sveti Sava" (SS), both of them from Belgrade, and to investigate the incidence rates of CDI in hospital settings in Serbia, from 2009 to 2013...
April 5, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626003/probable-fidaxomicin-induced-pancytopenia
#17
Samantha Axtell, Aisha Shokoya, Christine Yocum
PURPOSE: A case of pancytopenia in a patient receiving treatment with fidaxomicin for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is described. SUMMARY: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital with a chief complaint of loose stools occurring approximately 7 times a day; she also reported fever, nausea, diffuse abdominal pain, and fatigue. The patient had a history of recurrent CDI, recurrent urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, chronic hepatitis C, and endometriosis...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623279/-clostridium-difficile-colitis-leading-to-reactive-arthritis-a-rare-complication-associated-with-a-common-disease
#18
Asghar Marwat, Hassan Mehmood, Ali Hussain, Muzammil Khan, Asad Ullah, Medha Joshi
The relationship between reactive arthritis and enteric infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni , and Salmonella typhimurium is well documented. Clostridium difficile colitis is a less recognized cause of reactive arthritis. We present a case of a 58-year-old woman with Clostridium difficile colitis complicated by reactive arthritis. A 58-year-old woman with no significant past medical history presented to our hospital with complaints of nonbloody watery diarrhea, abdominal pain for the past 1 week, and right knee pain starting 1 day prior...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621604/clostridioides-difficile-infection-in-dogs-with-chronic-recurring-diarrhea-responsive-to-dietary-changes
#19
Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior, Dominique S Blanc, Silvia Trindade Pereira, Mário Cesar Rennó, Artur Vasconcelos, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
Five dogs with chronic-recurring diarrhea were positive for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), but were unresponsive to treatment with metronidazole. One of these animals was subjected to a colonoscopy, which revealed eosinophilic infiltration of the colon. All five animals completely recovered after dietary changes. The present work suggests that CDI might occur in dogs with other intestinal alterations. In addition, this report suggests that dysbiosis should be considered in animals that have chronic-recurring diarrhea and test positive for C...
April 2, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618503/defining-and-evaluating-a-core-genome-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme-for-genome-wide-typing-of-clostridium-difficile
#20
Stefan Bletz, Sandra Janezic, Dag Harmsen, Maja Rupnik, Alexander Mellmann
Clostridium difficile , recently renamed to Clostridioides difficile , is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated nosocomial gastrointestinal infections worldwide. To differentiate endogenous infections and transmission events, a highly discriminatory subtyping is necessary. Today, methods based on whole genome sequencing data are increasingly used to subtype bacterial pathogens; however, frequently a standardized methodology and typing nomenclature is missing. Here we report a core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) approach developed for C...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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