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C difficile infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239198/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-a-lyophilized-inoculum-from-non-related-donors-a-case-series-involving-19-patients
#1
Szabolcs Vigvári, Dávid Sipos, Jenő Solt, Áron Vincze, Béla Kocsis, Zsuzsanna Nemes, Ágnes Kappéter, Zsófia Feiszt, Beáta Kovács, Zoltán Péterfi
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported to be effective in treating relapsing of refractory Clostridium difficile infections, although some practical barriers are limiting its widespread use. In this study, our objective was to evaluate the rate of resolution of diarrhea following administration of lyophilized and resolved FMT via a nasogastric (NG) tube. We recruited 19 patients suffered from laboratory-confirmed C. difficile infection. Each of them was treated by lyophilized and resolved inoculum through a NG tube...
December 14, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237788/naat-quantitation-as-predictor-of-toxin-presence-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
M J T Crobach, N Duszenko, E M Terveer, C M Verduin, E J Kuijper
Multi-step algorithmic testing in which a sensitive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is followed by a specific toxin A and B Enzyme Immunoassay (Tox A/B EIA) is among the most accurate methods for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis. The obvious shortcoming of this approach is that multiple tests must be performed to establish a CDI diagnosis, which may delay treatment. As such, we sought to determine whether a preliminary diagnosis could be made on the basis of the quantitative result of the first test in algorithmic testing, which provides a measure of organism burden...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235503/inactivation-of-the-dnak-gene-in-clostridium-difficile-630-%C3%AE-erm-yields-a-temperature-sensitive-phenotype-and-increases-biofilm-forming-ability
#3
Shailesh Jain, Deborah Smyth, Barry M G O'Hagan, John T Heap, Geoff McMullan, Nigel P Minton, Nigel G Ternan
Clostridium difficile infection is a growing problem in healthcare settings worldwide and results in a considerable socioeconomic impact. New hypervirulent strains and acquisition of antibiotic resistance exacerbates pathogenesis; however, the survival strategy of C. difficile in the challenging gut environment still remains incompletely understood. We previously reported that clinically relevant heat-stress (37-41 °C) resulted in a classical heat-stress response with up-regulation of cellular chaperones...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229281/potential-of-real-time-pcr-threshold-cycle-ct-to-predict-presence-of-free-toxin-and-clinically-relevant-c-difficile-infection-cdi-in-patients-with-cancer
#4
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Tracy McMillen, Elizabeth Robilotti, Alejandro Herrera, Kent Sepkowitz, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated disease. Oncology patients are at increased risk for developing CDI. Diagnosis of CDI by PCR has led to misclassification of some C. difficile carriers as CDI cases. We determined if an optimized C. difficile PCR cycle threshold value (CT) could reliably predict presence of free toxin, and in turn improve the utility of PCR in detecting clinically relevant CDI in oncology patients. METHODS: 183 consecutive patients positive for C...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229019/clostridium-difficile-epidemiology-pathogenicity-and-an-update-on-the-limitations-of-and-challenges-in-its-diagnosis
#5
Abdullah A Alyousef
The bacterium originally named Bacillus difficilis was later renamed Clostridium difficile because of the difficulty associated with its isolation in the laboratory. C. difficile causes human-associated diarrhea, which is now known as C. difficile infection (CDI), a major cause of nosocomial infection mainly occurring in developed countries. Changes in antibiotic patterns in its strains produce toxins that are responsible for the high mortality rates associated with CDI; therefore, the epidemiology and severity of CDI have recently changed...
December 12, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227201/early-rescue-from-acute-severe-clostridium-difficile-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#6
Biniam Kidane, Kalvin Lung, Greig McCreery, Chadia El-Khatib, Michael C Ott, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, Chris Vinden, Daryl Gray, Neil G Parry, Kenneth A Leslie, Tina S Mele
BACKGROUND: Severe Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) can lead to significant impediments to effective treatment. We developed a novel treatment protocol utilizing bedside gastrointestinal lavage (GIL) for the management of patients with severe, complicated CDI. We describe the development and early outcomes of non-operative bedside GIL in hospitalized patients with severe, complicated CDI following the Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long Term Study (IDEAL) framework at the Idea stage...
December 11, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226561/the-long-term-effects-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-general-health-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
J Jalanka, A Hillamaa, R Satokari, E Mattila, V-J Anttila, P Arkkila
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. In short-term the treatment has been shown to be safe, however, there are no large, long-term follow-up studies looking into the potential adverse effects. AIM: To analyse the long-term effect of FMT treatment in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection and to compare the outcome to antibiotic treated patients. METHODS: Altogether 84 patients of which 45 received a FMT treatment and 39 served as controls receiving antibiotics for the infection were followed on average for 3...
December 11, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225756/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-its-toxigenic-genotype-in-beef-samples-in-west-of-iran
#8
Malihe Kheradmand, Somayeh Jalilian, Amirhooshang Alvandi, Ramin Abiri
Background and Objectives: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The prevalence of C. difficile infection differs in various geographical areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile isolates and the prevalence of cdd3, tcdA and tcdB genes in beef samples in Kermanshah Province. Materials and Methods: One hundred ground beef samples were randomly collected from the butchers of Kermanshah province during March 2014 to March 2015...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222426/surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-common-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-in-hong-kong
#9
Viola C Y Chow, Thomas N Y Kwong, Erica W M So, Yolanda I I Ho, Sunny H Wong, Raymond W M Lai, Raphael C Y Chan
Incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is rapidly increasing and it poses a major health burden globally. However, data regarding the epidemiology of CDI in Asia are limited. We aimed to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common ribotypes of toxigenic C. difficile in Hong Kong. Fifty-three PCR ribotypes were identified among 284 toxigenic C. difficile clinical isolates. The five most prevalent ribotypes were 002 (13%), 017 (12%), 014 (10%), 012 (9.2%), and 020 (9.5%). All tested C...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218569/toxin-positivity-and-tcdb-gene-load-in-broad-spectrum-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
Hyeong Nyeon Kim, Hanah Kim, Hee-Won Moon, Mina Hur, Yeo-Min Yun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of toxin positivity and toxin gene load, and the relation between them in the broad spectrum of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) including colonization, significant diarrhea, and severe disease. METHODS: We included 2671 fecal samples submitted for CDI diagnosis and 180 samples from healthy individuals. The clinical spectrum was categorized as category I (toxigenic C. difficile positive without clinical CDI criteria), category II (mild CDI), and category III (severe CDI)...
December 7, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214047/high-resolution-profiling-of-the-gut-microbiome-reveals-the-extent-of-clostridium-difficile-burden
#11
Ninalynn Daquigan, Anna Maria Seekatz, K Leigh Greathouse, Vincent B Young, James Robert White
Microbiome profiling through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis has proven to be a useful research tool in the study of C. difficile infection (CDI); however, CDI microbiome studies typically report results at the genus level or higher, thus precluding identification of this pathogen relative to other members of the gut microbiota. Accurate identification of C. difficile relative to the overall gut microbiome may be useful in assessments of colonization in research studies or as a prognostic indicator for patients with CDI...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213333/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-027-strains-including-the-newly-sequenced-strain-nckuh-21-isolated-from-a-patient-in-taiwan
#12
Haruo Suzuki, Masaru Tomita, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko, Yuan-Pin Hung, I-Hsiu Huang, Jenn-Wei Chen
Background: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive anaerobe and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. The emergence of ribotype 027 (RT027) strains is associated with increased incidence of infection and mortality. To further understand the relationship between C. difficile NCKUH-21, a RT027 strain isolated from a patient in Taiwan, and other RT027 strains, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing on NCKUH-21 and comparative genomic analyses. Results: The genome size, G+C content, and gene number for the NCKUH-21 strain were determined to be similar to those for other C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208562/microbiological-factors-affecting-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#13
REVIEW
C H Chilton, D S Pickering, J Freeman
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may impact quality of life, leaving patients in a 'rCDI cycle', and dependant on antibiotic therapy. AIMS: This article discusses the importance of microbiological factors in the development of rCDI. SOURCES: Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term "recurrent Clostridium difficile infection"; and further references quoted within these articles...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206751/the-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-on-mortality-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Raseen Tariq, Cindy C Y Law, Sahil Khanna, Sanjay Murthy, Jeffrey D McCurdy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been associated with an increased mortality risk among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in multiple observational studies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to help clearly define the magnitude of risk in IBD patients with and without CDI, and to assess the risk in individual IBD subtypes. METHODS: A systematic search of multiple electronic databases was conducted for observational studies reporting the risk of mortality in IBD, stratified by the presence of CDI...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203364/the-presence-of-il-8-781-t-c-polymorphism-is-associated-with-the-parameters-of-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Jacek Czepiel, Grażyna Biesiada, Mirosław Dróżdż, Joanna Gdula-Argasińska, Justyna Żurańska, Jakub Marchewka, William Perucki, Paweł Wołkow, Aleksander Garlicki
PURPOSE: There is large variation in the clinical manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We also still can not predict which patients are more susceptible to reinfection with CDI. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of proinflammatory cytokines, specifically IL-1β, IL-8 on the development, clinical course and recurrence of CDI. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of adults (130 people ≥ 18 years) including 65 patients with CDI treated in tertiary hospital and 65 healthy persons...
December 2, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202142/antibiotic-overprescribing-still-a-major-concern
#16
David C Fiore, Lacy P Fettic, Stephanie D Wright, Bonnie R Ferrara
Despite universal agreement that antibiotic overprescribing is a problem, the practice continues to vex us. Antibiotic use--whether appropriate or not--has been linked to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, disruption of the gut microbiome leading to Clostridium difficile infections, allergic reactions, and increased health care costs. And yet, physicians continue to overprescribe this class of medication. A 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report estimates that at least 30% of antibiotics prescribed in US outpatient settings are unnecessary...
December 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201180/rapid-visual-detection-of-binary-toxin-producing-clostridium-difficile-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#17
Lan Yu, Huan Li, Xiangna Zhao, Xuesong Wang, Xiao Wei, Weishi Lin, Puyuan Li, Lihong Cui, Jing Yuan
The binary toxin Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT) is frequently observed in C. difficile strains and is associated with an increased severity of C. difficile infection. CDT-producing C. difficile infections cause higher fatality rates than infections with CDT negative isolates. Thus, the rapid and accurate identification of a CDT positive C. difficile infection is critical for effective treatment. The present study demonstrates how loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) can be used to detect CDT-producing C...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193949/-case-series-of-clostridium-difficile-nap1-027-bi-with-novels-treatments
#18
Silvia Esmeralda Pérez-Topete, Tomás Miranda-Aquino, Juan Jacobo Ayala-Gaytan
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacterium, producing exotoxins, causing potentially fatal nosocomial diarrhea. They have recently reported outbreaks of C. difficile ribotype 027, which is characterized by a hypervirulent strain and high resistance to standard therapy. CLINICAL CASE: We present three cases of Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI associated infection, they were presented with different clinical manifestations. Two of the patients were successfully treated with the combination of vancomycin plus tigecycline...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193458/high-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-on-retail-root-vegetables-western-australia
#19
S C Lim, N F Foster, B Elliott, T V Riley
AIMS: The incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) in Australia has increased since mid-2011. With reports of clinically important C. difficile strains being isolated from retail foods in Europe and North America, a foodborne source of C. difficile in cases of CA-CDI is a possibility. This study represents the first to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of C. difficile in Australian retail vegetables. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 300 root vegetables grown in Western Australia (WA) were collected from retail stores and farmers' markets...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189354/probiotics-for-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
John P Mills, Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Probiotics may prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a leading healthcare-associated infection in the United States. However, prior studies were limited by heterogeneity in products and patient populations. Recent clinical evidence and new approaches to probiotic development are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Probiotic use may reduce incident CDI in high-risk populations by as much as 50%, though prior clinical trials have yielded conflicting results...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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