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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031042/humoral-and-cellular-immune-response-of-mice-challenged-with-yersinia-pestis-antigenic-preparations
#1
Elida A Leal, Josimar D Moreira, Fernanda F Nunes, Larissa R Souza, Janaina M Martins, Vicente P C Toledo, Alzira M P Almeida, Tania M P Guimarães
OBJECTIVES: The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response...
October 11, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029192/paracoccidioidomycosis-associated-with-a-heterozygous-stat4-mutation-and-impaired-ifn-%C3%AE-immunity
#2
Lena F Schimke, James Hibbard, Ruben Martinez-Barricarte, Taj Ali Khan, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Edgar Borges de Oliveira Junior, Tabata Takahashi França, Asif Iqbal, Guilherme Yamamoto, Christina Arslanian, Claudia Feriotti, Tania Alves da Costa, Jacinta Bustamante, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Jean-Laurent Casanova, José Alexandre Marzagao Barbuto, Mayana Zatz, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Vera Lucia Garcia Calich, Hans D Ochs, Troy R Torgerson, Otávio Cabral-Marques, Antonio Condino-Neto
Background: Mutations in genes affecting interferon (IFN)-γ immunity have contributed to understand the essential role of IFN-γ in the protection against intracellular pathogens. However, inborn errors in STAT4, which controls IL-12 responses, have not yet been reported. Objective: To determine the underlying genetic defect in a family with a history of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) disease. Methods: Genetic analysis was performed by whole-exome sequencing and sanger sequencing...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028787/relationship-between-pd-l1-expression-and-cd8-t-cell-immune-responses-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Chun-Yu Huang, Ying Wang, Guang-Yu Luo, Feng Han, Yong-Qiang Li, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Guo-Liang Xu
As PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors exhibited promising clinical outcomes in various types of solid tumors, PD-1/PD-L1 blockades have been explored for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association of PD-L1 with antitumor immunoregulation is not clearly defined in HCC. Here, we evaluated the characteristics of PD-L1 expression, CD8 T-cell infiltration and their relationship in HCC. A total of 411 resected tumor specimens from HCC patients were immunostained for PD-L1 and CD8...
November 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028770/expression-and-clinical-correlations-of-co-stimulatory-molecules-on-peripheral-t-lymphocyte-subsets-of-early-stage-severe-sepsis-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Yi Lu, Le An, Qiang Liu, Chunsheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and clinical correlations of co-stimulatory molecules on peripheral T cell subsets of severe sepsis (SS) patients. METHODS: Blood samples of patients with community-acquired pneumonia associated SS and healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed. SS patients were followed up for 28 days. Co-stimulatory molecules expression on T cell subsets was determined by flow cytometry analysis. The clinical correlations of these parameters were examined...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028426/a-single-bead-based-fully-integrated-microfluidic-system-for-high-throughput-cd4-t-lymphocyte-enumeration
#5
Xianbo Qiu, Junhui Zhang, Shisong Gong, Dong Wang, Shan Qiao, Shengxiang Ge, Ningshao Xia, Duli Yu, Shizhi Qian
A single-bead-based, fully integrated microfluidic system has been developed for high-throughput CD4+T lymphocyte enumeration at point-of-care testing. Instead of directly counting CD4+T lymphocytes, CD4+T lymphocyte enumeration is achieved by quantitatively detecting CD4 antigen from the lysed blood sample with a functionalized polycarbonate single bead based on chemiluminescence. To implement the sandwiched chemiluminescence immunoassay with reduced nonspecific binding, a streamlined microfluidic chip with multiple reaction chambers is developed to allow each reaction step to be completed in an independent chamber where reagent is pre-stored...
October 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028090/a-comparative-study-on-inflammatory-factors-and-immune-functions-of-lung-cancer-and-pulmonary-ground-glass-attenuation
#6
C-Y Liu, W-G Xie, S Wu, J-W Tian, J Li
OBJECTIVE: To compare the inflammatory factors and immune functions of patients with lung cancer and pulmonary ground-glass attenuation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 108 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis treated in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into lung cancer group (Group A, n=32), diffuse ground-glass nodule group (Group B, n=35) and solitary ground-glass nodule group (Group C, n=41) according to the diagnosis results. Levels of inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), in serum were detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); the T-lymphocyte subset levels (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+) in the immune system of patients in the three groups were detected using the flow cytometer; the levels of immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM), were detected via immunoturbidimetric assay...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027915/a-combination-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-with-metronomic-chemotherapy-as-a-way-of-targeting-therapy-resistant-cancer-cells
#7
REVIEW
Irina Kareva
Therapeutic resistance remains a major obstacle in treating many cancers, particularly in advanced stages. It is likely that cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) have the potential to eliminate therapy-resistant cancer cells. However, their effectiveness may be limited either by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, or by immune cell death induced by cytotoxic treatments. High-frequency low-dose (also known as metronomic) chemotherapy can help improve the activity of CTLs by providing sufficient stimulation for cytotoxic immune cells without excessive depletion...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027526/-investigation-of-the-structure-of-a-functionally-intact-xenopericardial-bioconduit-after-long-term-implantation
#8
R A Mukhamadiyarov, N V Rutkovskaya, I V Milto, O D Sidopova, Yu А Kudryavtseva, L S Barbarash
AIM: to investigate the cellular composition of a functionally intact xenopericardial valve in a recipient with acquired mitral defect after long-term implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Uniline bioconduit (BC) ('Neocor', Kemerovo) removed from the heart in the mitral position at 7.2 years after implantation was investigated. Heart valve leaflets were fixed in a buffered 4% paraformaldehyde solution and imbedded in paraffin or epoxy resin. Slices made from the paraffin samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or underwent immunohistochemical (IHC) examination for typing endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and T and B lymphocytes...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027230/immunogenic-stress-and-death-of-cancer-cells-contribution-of-antigenicity-vs-adjuvanticity-to-immunosurveillance
#9
REVIEW
Norma Bloy, Pauline Garcia, Céline M Laumont, Jonathan M Pitt, Antonella Sistigu, Gautier Stoll, Takahiro Yamazaki, Eric Bonneil, Aitziber Buqué, Juliette Humeau, Jan W Drijfhout, Guillaume Meurice, Steffen Walter, Jens Fritsche, Toni Weinschenk, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Cornelis Melief, Pierre Thibault, Claude Perreault, Jonathan Pol, Laurence Zitvogel, Laura Senovilla, Guido Kroemer
Cancer cells are subjected to constant selection by the immune system, meaning that tumors that become clinically manifest have managed to subvert or hide from immunosurveillance. Immune control can be facilitated by induction of autophagy, as well as by polyploidization of cancer cells. While autophagy causes the release of ATP, a chemotactic signal for myeloid cells, polyploidization can trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress with consequent exposure of the "eat-me" signal calreticulin on the cell surface, thereby facilitating the transfer of tumor antigens into dendritic cells...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027004/blood-lymphocyte-subsets-identify-optimal-responders-to-ifn-beta-in-ms
#10
Raquel Alenda, Lucienne Costa-Frossard, Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente, Carmen Espejo, Eulalia Rodríguez-Martín, Susana Sainz de la Maza, Noelia Villarrubia, Jordi Río, María I Domínguez-Mozo, Xavier Montalban, José C Álvarez-Cermeño, Luisa M Villar
Response to interferon-beta (IFN-beta) treatment is heterogeneous in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to search for biomarkers predicting no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) status upon IFN-beta treatment in MS. 119 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) initiating IFN-beta treatment were included in the study, and followed prospectively for 2 years. Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) were explored in serum samples obtained after 6 and 12 months of IFN-beta treatment. Soluble cytokines and blood lymphocytes were studied in basal samples by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026596/flow-cytometry-of-duodenal-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-improves-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease-in-difficult-cases
#11
Julio Valle, José Mario T Morgado, Juan Ruiz-Martín, Antonio Guardiola, Miriam Lopes-Nogueras, Almudena García-Vela, Beatriz Martín-Sacristán, Laura Sánchez-Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of celiac disease is difficult when the combined results of serology and histology are inconclusive. Studies using flow cytometry of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) have found that celiac patients have increased numbers of γδ IELs, along with a decrease in CD3-CD103 + IELs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to assess the role of flow cytometric analysis of IELs in the diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases. METHODS: A total of 312 patients with suspicion of celiac disease were included in the study...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026463/t-cell-allorecognition-of-donor-glutathione-s-transferase-t1-in-plasma-cell-rich-rejection
#12
María José Martínez-Bravo, Berta Sánchez, José Manuel Sousa, María José Acevedo, Miguel Angel Gómez-Bravo, Antonio Núñez-Roldán, Isabel Aguilera
AIM: To investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase T1 donor-specific T lymphocytes in plasma cell-rich rejection of liver allografts. METHODS: The study group included 22 liver transplant patients. Among them, 18 patients were mismatched for the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) alleles (don+/rec-), and 4 were matched (don+/rec+). Seven of the mismatched patients produced anti-GSTT1 antibodies and developed plasma cell-rich rejection (former de novo immune hepatitis)...
September 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026335/challenging-the-standard-of-care-in-advanced-melanoma-focus-on-pembrolizumab
#13
REVIEW
Raghad M Abdul-Karim, C Lance Cowey
The last several years have seen a dramatic rise in the number of effective therapies that have been shown to improve survival outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma. Among these treatments are the immune checkpoint inhibitors, a new class of immunotherapy, that have demonstrated the ability to improve both response rates and survival outcomes. Pembrolizumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor that blocks the negative regulatory PD-1 receptor on T-cell lymphocytes, has shown improved efficacy compared to standard therapies with an acceptable tolerability profile...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025857/endocrine-side-effects-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Priscilla Cukier, Fernando C Santini, Mariana Scaranti, Ana O Hoff
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently become a cornerstone for the treatment of different advanced cancers. These drugs, represented mainly by monoclonal antibodies anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and anti-PD-1 ligand molecules (PD-L1 and L2), have the ability to reactivate the immune system against tumor cells, but can also trigger a myriad of autoimmune side effects, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs). In particular, there are a number of endocrine related irAEs...
October 12, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025424/understanding-immune-phenotypes-in-human-gastric-disease-tissues-by-multiplexed-immunohistochemistry
#15
Le Ying, Feng Yan, Qiaohong Meng, Xiangliang Yuan, Liang Yu, Bryan R G Williams, David W Chan, Liyun Shi, Yugang Tu, Peihua Ni, Xuefeng Wang, Dakang Xu, Yiqun Hu
BACKGROUND: Understanding immune phenotypes and human gastric disease in situ requires an approach that leverages multiplexed immunohistochemistry (mIHC) with multispectral imaging to facilitate precise image analyses. METHODS: We developed a novel 4-color mIHC assay based on tyramide signal amplification that allowed us to reliably interrogate immunologic checkpoints, including programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)T) and regulatory T cells (Foxp3), in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of various human gastric diseases...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024769/identification-of-a-single-p19-gene-and-three-p40-paralogues-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-their-potential-for-the-formation-of-interleukin-23-and-inducible-expression-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Xinyan Wang, Lei Qin, Linyong Du, Di Chen, Anying Zhang, Kun Yang, Hong Zhou
Interleukin (IL-) 23, a member of IL-12 family, is a composite cytokine with the subunits of p19 and p40. Although IL-12 and IL-23 share the p40 subunit, they play vastly different roles in immune regulation. In teleost, much emphasis has been placed on the identification of IL-12, but evidence for the existence of IL-23 is still lacking. In the present study, a p19 gene and three p40 paralogues were isolated and identified from grass carp, suggesting multiple assembly of IL-23 molecules in fish species. To address this issue, the existence of different p19/p40 heterodimers were examined by Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay, showing that only co-expression of p19 and each p40 subunit could produce the soluble proteins corresponding to three IL-23 isoforms...
October 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024606/role-of-the-tslp-dc-ox40l-pathway-in-asthma-pathogenesis-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#17
Shuang Feng, Li Zhang, Xu-Hua Bian, Ying Luo, Guang-Hui Qin, Rui-Ming Shi
This study aims to explore the effect of the TSLP/DC/OX40L pathway in asthma pathogenesis and airway inflammation in mice. Sixty-five male BALF/c mice were divided into the control, asthma, IgG + asthma (IgG, 500 g/500 l, intratracheal injection of 50 l each time), LY294002 (OX40L inhibitor) + asthma (intratracheal injection of 2 mg/kg LY294002), and anti-TSLP + asthma (intratracheal injection of 500 ug/500 l TSLP antibody, 50 l each time) groups. ELISA was applied to measure the serum levels of IgE, ovalbumin (OVA)-sIgE, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), flow cytometry was employed to detect Treg cells and dendritic cell (DC) and lymphopoiesis...
October 12, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024572/radiological-manifestations-of-immune-related-adverse-effects-observed-in-patients-with-melanoma-undergoing-immunotherapy
#18
Parveen Sidhu, Alexander M Menzies, Georgina Long, Matteo Carlino, Shirleen Lorens, Rony Kapoor
Immunotherapy drugs work by stimulating the patient's own immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. This subclass of drugs is increasingly administered to patients with advanced melanoma. They are also commonly incorporated into other cancer therapies such as non-small cell lung cancer, renal cancer, head and neck cancers and Hodgkin lymphoma. The most commonly administered immunotherapeutic agents in the treatment of melanoma include programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors and a subclass of cytokines...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023541/improved-influenza-viral-vector-based-brucella-abortus-vaccine-induces-robust-b-and-t-cell-responses-and-protection-against-brucella-melitensis-infection-in-pregnant-sheep-and-goats
#19
Aigerim Mailybayeva, Bolat Yespembetov, Sholpan Ryskeldinova, Nadezhda Zinina, Abylai Sansyzbay, Gourapura J Renukaradhya, Nikolai Petrovsky, Kaissar Tabynov
We previously developed a potent candidate vaccine against bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus using the influenza viral vector expressing Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins (Flu-BA). Our success in the Flu-BA vaccine trial in cattle and results of a pilot study in non-pregnant small ruminants prompted us in the current study to test its efficacy against B. melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats. In this study, we improved the Flu-BA vaccine formulation and immunization method to achieve maximum efficacy and safety...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023417/control-of-nk-cell-activation-by-immune-checkpoint-molecules
#20
REVIEW
Asma Beldi-Ferchiou, Sophie Caillat-Zucman
The development of cancer and chronic infections is facilitated by many subversion mechanisms, among which enhanced expression of immune checkpoints molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), on exhausted T cells. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown remarkable efficiency in the treatment of a number of cancers. However, expression of immune checkpoints on natural killer (NK) cells and its functional consequences on NK cell effector functions are much less explored...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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