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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916188/new-horizons-in-breast-cancer-the-promise-of-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
L de la Cruz-Merino, N Palazón-Carrión, F Henao-Carrasco, E Nogales-Fernández, M Álamo-de la Gala, A Vallejo-Benítez, M Chiesa, V Sánchez-Margalet
Immunology and immunotherapy of cancer is an expanding field in oncology, with recent great achievements obtained through the new successful approaches implemented to circumvent immune evasion, which is undoubtedly considered a novel hallmark of cancer. Translational research in this topic has revealed targets that can be modulated in the clinical setting with new compounds and strategies. Like most of the tumors, breast cancer is considered a complex and heterogeneous disease in which host immune responses have been also recently demonstrated of critical relevance...
June 18, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916184/antibiotics-protect-against-eae-by-increasing-regulatory-and-anti-inflammatory-cells
#2
Hilary A Seifert, Gil Benedek, Ha Nguyen, Grant Gerstner, Ying Zhang, Gail Kent, Arthur A Vandenbark, Jürgen Bernhagen, Halina Offner
A seven day pretreatment course of an oral antibiotic cocktail (Ampicillin, Metronidazole, Neomycin Sulfate, and Vancomycin) was shown to induce changes in peripheral immune regulation and protect mice from signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To determine if a shorter course of antibiotic pretreatment could also protect the mice from EAE and induce regulatory immune cells, studies were conducted using the same oral antibiotic cocktail for three days. In addition, the CNS was examined to determine the effects of antibiotic pretreatment on EAE disease course and immune modulation within the affected tissue...
June 18, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915587/glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-fine-tuning-of-dendritic-cells-function
#3
REVIEW
Mathias Vétillard, Géraldine Schlecht-Louf
Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen-presenting cells that control the induction of both tolerance and immunity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating DCs commitment toward a regulatory- or effector-inducing profile is critical for better designing prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. Initially identified in dexamethasone-treated thymocytes, the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein has emerged as a critical factor mediating most, but not all, glucocorticoids effects in both non-immune and immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915580/cd8-hladr-regulatory-t-cells-change-with-aging-they-increase-in-number-but-lose-checkpoint-inhibitory-molecules-and-suppressive-function
#4
Stella Lukas Yani, Michael Keller, Franz Leonard Melzer, Birgit Weinberger, Luca Pangrazzi, Sieghart Sopper, Klemens Trieb, Monia Lobina, Valeria Orrù, Edoardo Fiorillo, Francesco Cucca, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein
CD4+ regulatory T cells have been intensively studied during aging, but little is still known about age-related changes of other regulatory T cell subsets. It was, therefore, the goal of the present study to analyze CD8+ human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related (HLADR)+ T cells in old age, a cell population reported to have suppressive activity and to be connected to specific genetic variants. We demonstrate a strong increase in the number of CD8+ HLADR+ T cells with age in a cohort of female Sardinians as well as in elderly male and female persons from Austria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915563/immunological-profile-and-predisposition-to-autoimmunity-in-girls-with-turner-syndrome
#5
Aneta Monika Gawlik, Elzbieta Berdej-Szczot, Dorota Blat, Renata Klekotka, Tomasz Gawlik, Ewa Blaszczyk, Magdalena Hankus, Ewa Malecka-Tendera
Objective: The risk of autoimmune diseases (AD) in patients with Turner Syndrome (TS) is twice higher than in the general female population and four times higher than in the male population. The causes of the increased incidence of AD in TS are still under discussion. We hypothesized the presence of a specific humoral, cellular, and regulatory T cell (Treg) immunity profile which predisposes to AD, disorders of immunity, and disorders of immune regulation. Methods: The study encompassed 37 girls with TS and with no signs of infection...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915300/publisher-correction-transcription-factor-hoxb5-reprograms-b-cells-into-functional-t-lymphocytes
#6
Mengyun Zhang, Yong Dong, Fangxiao Hu, Dan Yang, Qianhao Zhao, Cui Lv, Ying Wang, Chengxiang Xia, Qitong Weng, Xiaofei Liu, Chen Li, Peiqing Zhou, Tongjie Wang, Yuxian Guan, Rongqun Guo, Lijuan Liu, Yang Geng, Hongling Wu, Juan Du, Zheng Hu, Sheng Xu, Jiekai Chen, Aibin He, Bing Liu, Demin Wang, Yong-Guang Yang, Jinyong Wang
In the version of this article initially published, some identification of the supplementary information was incorrect. The items originally called Supplementary Tables 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 should be Source Data Figures 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7, respectively; those originally called Supplementary Tables 6, 7 and 8 should be Supplementary Tables 1, 2 and 3, respectively; and those originally called Source Data Figures 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 should be Supplementary Tables 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. The errors have been corrected in the HTML version of the article...
June 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915298/suppression-of-il-17f-but-not-of-il-17a-provides-protection-against-colitis-by-inducing-t-reg-cells-through-modification-of-the-intestinal-microbiota
#7
Ce Tang, Shigeru Kakuta, Kenji Shimizu, Motohiko Kadoki, Tomonori Kamiya, Tomoyuki Shimazu, Sachiko Kubo, Shinobu Saijo, Harumichi Ishigame, Susumu Nakae, Yoichiro Iwakura
The cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F have 50% amino-acid identity and bind the same receptor; however, their functional differences have remained obscure. Here we found that Il17f-/- mice resisted chemically induced colitis, but Il17a-/- mice did not, and that Il17f-/- CD45RBhi CD4+ T cells induced milder colitis in lymphocyte-deficient Rag2-/- mice, accompanied by an increase in intestinal regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Clostridium cluster XIVa in colonic microbiota capable of inducing Treg cells was increased in both Il17f-/- mice and mice given transfer Il17f-/- T cells, due to decreased expression of a group of antimicrobial proteins...
June 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915154/zinc-finger-protein-521-regulates-early-hematopoiesis-through-cell-extrinsic-mechanisms-in-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#8
Courtney J Fleenor, Tessa Arends, Hong Lei, Josefine Åhsberg, Kazuki Okuyama, Jacob Kuruvilla, Susana Cristobal, Jennifer L Rabe, Ahwan Pandey, Thomas Danhorn, Desiree Straign, Joaquin M Espinosa, Søren Warming, Eric M Pietras, Mikael Sigvardsson, James R Hagman
Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521), a DNA-binding protein containing 30 Krüppel-like zinc fingers, has been implicated in the differentiation of multiple cell types, including hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) and B lymphocytes. Here, we report a novel role for ZFP521 in regulating the earliest stages of hematopoiesis and lymphoid cell development via a cell-extrinsic mechanism. Mice with inactivated Zfp521 genes ( Zfp521-/- ) possess reduced frequencies and numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, common lymphoid progenitors, and B and T cell precursors...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915147/proteomics-reveals-scope-of-mycolactone-mediated-sec61-blockade-and-distinctive-stress-signature
#9
Jean-David Morel, Anja O Paatero, Jiajie Wei, Jonathan W Yewdell, Laure Guenin-Macé, Delphi Van Haver, Francis Impens, Natalia Pietrosemoli, Ville O Paavilainen, Caroline Demangel
Mycolactone is a bacteria-derived macrolide that blocks the biogenesis of a large array of secretory and integral transmembrane proteins (TMP) through potent inhibition of the Sec61 translocon. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to delineate the direct and indirect effects of mycolactone-mediated Sec61 blockade in living cells. In T lymphocytes, dendritic cells and sensory neurons, Sec61 substrates downregulated by mycolactone were in order of incidence: secretory proteins (with a signal peptide but no transmembrane domain), TMPs with a signal peptide (Type I) and TMPs without signal peptide and a cytosolic N-terminus (Type II)...
June 18, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914756/age-related-impaired-efficacy-of-bone-marrow-cell-therapy-for-myocardial-infarction-reflects-a-decrease-in-b-lymphocytes
#10
Songtao An, Xiaoyin Wang, Melissa A Ruck, Hilda J Rodriguez, Dmitry S Kostyushev, Monika Varga, Emmy Luu, Ronak Derakhshandeh, Sergey V Suchkov, Scott C Kogan, Michelle L Hermiston, Matthew L Springer
Treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) with bone marrow cells (BMCs) improves post-MI cardiac function in rodents. However, clinical trials of BMC therapy have been less effective. While most rodent experiments use young healthy donors, patients undergoing autologous cell therapy are older and post-MI. We previously demonstrated that BMCs from aged and post-MI donor mice are therapeutically impaired, and that donor MI induces inflammatory changes in BMC composition including reduced levels of B lymphocytes...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914685/glucocorticosteroids-administration-is-associated-with-increased-regulatory-t-cells-in-equine-asthmatic-lungs
#11
Roxane Boivin, Amandine Vargas, Patricia Cano, Jean-Pierre Lavoie
Recurrent inflammation in severe equine asthma causes a remodeling of the airways leading to incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Despite the improvement of clinical signs and lung function with glucocorticoids (GC), inflammation, translated by an increased percentage of neutrophils, persists in the airways. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and play an important role in balancing the immune response by suppressing effector lymphocyte activity. However, interactions between Treg, neutrophils and glucocorticosteroids in vivo are unclear, particularly in asthma...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914683/effects-of-a-p-class-cpg-odn-administered-by-intramuscular-injection-on-plasma-cytokines-and-on-white-blood-cells-of-healthy-horses
#12
I Tosi, F Bureau, F Farnir, J M Denoix, P Lekeux, T Art
Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG-ODN) has been described as a potent immunostimulatory agent in different species. No study reported the effect of a P-class CpG when administered systemically in healthy horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and the effect of an intramuscularly administered P-class CpG-ODN on hematology and on plasma cytokines (IFN-α, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) in 8 healthy horses. Intra-muscular CpG-ODN or placebo (PBS) was administered twice at a 7 days-interval. Groups were inversed after 2 months of washout period...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914540/cooperation-of-pd-1-and-lag-3-in-the-exhaustion-of-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-during-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection
#13
Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Junko Kohara, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shinji Yamada, Yukinari Kato, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that infects B cells in cattle and causes bovine leukosis after a long latent period. Progressive exhaustion of T cell functions is considered to facilitate disease progression of BLV infection. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) are immunoinhibitory receptors that contribute to T-cell exhaustion caused by BLV infection in cattle. However, it is unclear whether the cooperation of PD-1 and LAG-3 accelerates disease progression of BLV infection...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914285/discordance-of-twin-placentas-for-multifocal-eosinophilic-t-cell-chorionic-vasculitis
#14
Erik W Nohr, James R Wright
Eosinophilic/T-cell chorionic vasculitis (ETCV) is an idiopathic placental lesion characterized by chorionic vasculitis composed predominantly of eosinophils and CD3+ T lymphocytes. It usually presents as a unifocal lesion, but a subset have multifocal involvement. We report 4 Di-Di and 2 Di-Mo twins sharing fused placental discs with discordant circulatory involvement by multifocal ETCV. The findings are difficult to explain by sampling alone. The limitation of ETCV to 1 fetus's vascular territory in monozygotic twin pregnancies is difficult to explain but could provide insights into the fetal immune system and the etiology of ETCV...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913426/heat-treatment-improves-the-immunomodulatory-and-cellular-antioxidant-behavior-of-a-natural-flavanone-eriodictyol
#15
Rihab Khlifi, Zaineb Dhaouefi, Mouna Maatouk, Aicha Sassi, Najet Boudhiba, Irina Ioannou, Kamel Ghedira, Leila Chekir-Ghedira, Soumaya Kilani-Jaziri
Plants and natural molecules are generally consumed not in raw state but after different processing conditions (heating, mechanical agitation or cooking). The understanding of the chemistry and biological outcome of thermal treatment is still scarce. In the current study, Eriodictyol, a natural flavanone, has undergone heat treatment, generating hence three different products ((3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, (3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanal) and an unidentified component). The consequences of aforementioned treatment on the immunomodulatory behavior of resulted molecules were evaluated...
June 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913309/the-causes-and-consequences-of-variation-in-human-cytokine-production-in-health
#16
REVIEW
Melanie Schirmer, Vinod Kumar, Mihai G Netea, Ramnik J Xavier
Cytokines are important cell-signaling molecules that activate and modulate immune responses. Major factors influencing cytokine variation in healthy individuals are host genetics, non-heritable factors and the microbiome. Genetic variation accounts for a significant part of heterogeneity in cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Variation in cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-6Ra is strongly influenced by heritability, suggesting an evolutionarily pressure for their genetic regulation that potentially contributes to differences in immune responsiveness between human populations...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913001/efficacy-of-rituximab-vs-tacrolimus-in-pediatric-corticosteroid-dependent-nephrotic-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Biswanath Basu, Anja Sander, Birendranath Roy, Stella Preussler, Shilpita Barua, T K S Mahapatra, Franz Schaefer
Importance: Calcineurin inhibitors are an established first-line corticosteroid-sparing therapy for patients with corticosteroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (CDNS), whereas B-lymphocyte-depleting therapy is mostly used as a rescue for calcineurin inhibitor-resistant cases. The positive efficacy and safety profile of rituximab raises the question of whether it could be used as a first-line alternative to calcineurin inhibitor therapy. Objective: To compare the efficacy of rituximab and tacrolimus in maintaining relapse-free survival among children with CDNS...
June 18, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911696/plasmid-dna-vaccines-where-are-we-now
#18
F Ghaffarifar
DNA vaccines are considered as third-generation vaccines. The recombinant DNA technology plays an important role in the production of DNA vaccines. These vaccines are intended to increase DNA insertion and translation in the cell, activate CD4+ T cells, and enhance cytotoxic T-lymphocyte induction and antibody production. DNA vaccines are safe with few side effects in humans and animals. Their immunogenicity can be improved by the use of suitable adjuvants and proper delivery systems. In recent years, strategies have been developed to increase the efficacy of DNA vaccines through electroporation, as well as the use of cytokines, genetically engineered vectors, liposomes, and micro- or nanoparticles...
May 2018: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910806/targeting-the-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-can-counteract-the-inhibition-of-natural-killer-cell-function-exerted-by-colorectal-tumor-associated-fibroblasts
#19
Delfina Costa, Roberta Venè, Roberto Benelli, Emanuele Romairone, Stefano Scabini, Silvia Catellani, Barbara Rebesco, Luca Mastracci, Federica Grillo, Simona Minghelli, Fabrizio Loiacono, Maria Raffaella Zocchi, Alessandro Poggi
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) present in the tumor microenvironment [usually named tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF)] can exert immunosuppressive effects on T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, favoring tumor immune escape. We have analyzed this mechanism in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and found that co-culture of NK cells with TAF can prevent the IL-2-mediated NKG2D upregulation. This leads to the impairment of NKG2D-mediated recognition of CRC cells, sparing the NK cell activation through DNAM1 or FcγRIIIA (CD16)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910771/use-of-readily-accessible-inflammatory-markers-to-predict-diabetic-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Lauren Winter, Lydia A Wong, George Jerums, Jas-Mine Seah, Michele Clarke, Sih Min Tan, Melinda T Coughlan, Richard J MacIsaac, Elif I Ekinci
Diabetic kidney disease is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. Early detection of diabetic kidney disease will facilitate early intervention aimed at reducing the rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. Diabetic kidney disease has been traditionally classified based on the presence of albuminuria. More recently estimated glomerular filtration rate has also been incorporated into the staging of diabetic kidney disease...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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