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Cognitive bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645980/association-between-human-herpesvirus-infections-and-dementia-or-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-protocol
#1
Charlotte Warren-Gash, Harriet Forbes, Judith Breuer, Andrew C Hayward, Angelique Mavrodaris, Basil H Ridha, Martin Rossor, Sara L Thomas, Liam Smeeth
INTRODUCTION: Persisting neurotropic viruses are proposed to increase the risk of dementia, but evidence of association from robust, adequately powered population studies is lacking. This is essential to inform clinical trials of targeted preventive interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will carry out a comprehensive systematic review of published and grey literature of the association between infection with, reactivation of, vaccination against or treatment of any of the eight human herpesviruses and dementia or mild cognitive impairment...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645078/facial-affect-recognition-and-social-functioning-among-individuals-with-varying-degrees-of-schizotypy
#2
Marta Statucka, Deborah J Walder
Facial affect recognition (FAR) accuracy is impaired in schizophrenia and, to a lesser extent, in individuals at-risk for psychosis. Reduced reaction time and negative bias on FAR tasks are also evident in schizophrenia, though few studies have examined these measures in at-risk samples. Social dysfunction is associated with FAR deficits in schizophrenia and at-risk individuals. We aimed to elucidate the nature of FAR and social functioning among individuals from a non-clinical population reporting a range of schizotypal traits (i...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642165/can-the-way-pigs-are-handled-alter-behavioural-and-physiological-measures-of-affective-state
#3
Ricard Carreras, Laura Arroyo, Eva Mainau, Daniel Valent, Anna Bassols, Antoni Dalmau, Luigi Faucitano, Xavier Manteca, Antonio Velarde
Research on human-animal relationship in animal production has been mainly focused on its effect on stress, productivity and meat quality. Only few studies have assessed its effects on the animals' affective state. In the present study, the influence of positive and negative handling (PH and NH, respectively) on affective state and fear as assessed by the cognitive bias test, the novel object test and the defence cascade test was studied in 56 pigs. Serum, saliva and hair were sampled during the study for the analysis of cortisol concentration...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#4
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641601/the-impact-of-traumatic-stress-on-pavlovian-biases
#5
O T Ousdal, Q J Huys, A M Milde, A R Craven, L Ersland, T Endestad, A Melinder, K Hugdahl, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system. METHODS: Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641221/a-curse-of-knowledge-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-people-misattribute-fluency-when-judging-how-common-knowledge-is-among-their-peers
#6
Susan A J Birch, Patricia E Brosseau-Liard, Taeh Haddock, Siba E Ghrear
Knowledge can be a curse: Once we have acquired a particular item of knowledge it tends to bias, or contaminate, our ability to reason about a less informed perspective (referred to as the 'curse of knowledge' or 'hindsight bias'). The mechanisms underlying the curse of knowledge bias are a matter of great import and debate. We highlight two mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie this bias-inhibition and fluency misattribution. Explanations that involve inhibition argue that people have difficulty fully inhibiting or suppressing the content of their knowledge when trying to reason about a less informed perspective...
June 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640686/prevalence-of-financial-fraud-and-scams-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
David Burnes, Charles R Henderson, Christine Sheppard, Rebecca Zhao, Karl Pillemer, Mark S Lachs
BACKGROUND: The financial exploitation of older adults was recently recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a serious public health problem. Knowledge of the prevalence of elder financial exploitation is mostly limited to the category of financial abuse, which occurs in relationships involving an expectation of trust. Little is known about the other major category of elder financial exploitation-elder financial fraud and scams, which is perpetrated by strangers...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640035/the-professionalism-and-integrity-in-research-program-description-and-preliminary-outcomes
#8
James M DuBois, John T Chibnall, Raymond Tait, Jillon S Vander Wal
Violations of rules and regulations in research can cause significant problems for human participants, animal subjects, data integrity, institutions, and investigators. The Professionalism and Integrity in Research Program (PI Program) provides remediation training that addresses the root causes of violations of rules and regulations in research. Through assessments, a three-day workshop, and follow-up coaching calls, the PI Program teaches evidence-based decision-making strategies designed to help researchers to compensate for bias, uncertainty, and work-related stress, and foster the skills needed to oversee research projects in today's complex regulatory environments...
June 20, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639802/a-cross-cultural-analysis-of-the-test-of-memory-malingering-among-latin-american-spanish-speaking-adults
#9
Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Diego Rivera, Barry Rosenfeld, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
Cognitive efforts tests, such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1997), are widely used internationally, yet there is a dearth of research that has assessed the utility of these measures in different cultures, countries, and languages. This study evaluated the specificity of the TOMM Trial 2 among a sample of 3,590 Spanish-speaking adults residing in 8 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico). Trial 2 TOMM scores were negatively associated with participants' age and positively associated with level of education...
June 22, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638703/childhood-trauma-and-negative-memory-bias-as-shared-risk-factors-for-psychopathology-and-comorbidity-in-a-naturalistic-psychiatric-patient-sample
#10
Janna N Vrijsen, Camiel T van Amen, Bauke Koekkoek, Iris van Oostrom, Aart H Schene, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Both childhood trauma and negative memory bias are associated with the onset and severity level of several psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety disorders. Studies on these risk factors, however, generally use homogeneous noncomorbid samples. Hence, studies in naturalistic psychiatric samples are lacking. Moreover, we know little about the quantitative relationship between the frequency of traumatic childhood events, strength of memory bias and number of comorbid psychiatric disorders; the latter being an index of severity...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633620/reversing-the-manual-digit-bias-in-two-digit-number-comparison
#11
Thomas J Faulkenberry, Alexander Cruise, Samuel Shaki
Though recent work in numerical cognition has supported a strong tie between numerical and spatial representations (e.g., a mental number line), less is known about such ties in multi-digit number representations. Along this line, Bloechle, Huber, and Moeller (2015) found that pointing positions in two-digit number comparison were biased leftward toward the decade digit. Moreover, this bias was reduced in unit-decade incompatible pairs. In the present study, we tracked computer mouse movements as participants compared two-digit numbers to a fixed standard (55)...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632770/men-women%C3%A2-who-cares-a-population-based-study-on-sex-differences-and-gender-roles-in-empathy-and-moral-cognition
#12
Sandra Baez, Daniel Flichtentrei, María Prats, Ricardo Mastandueno, Adolfo M García, Marcelo Cetkovich, Agustín Ibáñez
Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631816/cognitive-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-to-improve-occupational-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
K Suresh Kumar, Selvaraj Samuelkamaleshkumar, Anand Viswanathan, Ashish S Macaden
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) could affect multiple facets of their daily functioning. Cognitive rehabilitation brings about clinically significant improvement in certain cognitive skills. However, it is uncertain if these improved cognitive skills lead to betterments in other key aspects of daily living. We evaluated whether cognitive rehabilitation for people with TBI improves return to work, independence in daily activities, community integration and quality of life...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629646/memory-and-time-backward-and-forward-telescoping-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Mohamad El Haj, Steve M J Janssen, Pascal Antoine
Backward and forward telescoping are opposite timing biases. The former refers to misattributing events to earlier dates, whereas the latter refers to misattributing events to later dates. The present study investigated both biases in participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and healthy older adults, matched on age, sex, and education level. Participants were asked to recall the years when five remote and five recent public events had occurred. They were also assessed with a cognitive and clinical battery that included a context memory task on which they had to associate letters and locations...
June 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629540/kinetics-and-dose-dependency-of-intranasal-oxytocin-effects-on-amygdala-reactivity
#15
Franny B Spengler, Johannes Schultz, Dirk Scheele, Maximiliane Essel, Wolfgang Maier, Markus Heinrichs, René Hurlemann
BACKGROUND: Current neuroimaging perspectives on a variety of mental disorders emphasize dysfunction of the amygdala. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), a key mediator in the regulation of social cognition and behavior, accumulates in cerebrospinal fluid after intranasal administration in macaques and humans and modulates amygdala reactivity in both species. However, the translation of neuromodulatory OXT effects to novel treatment approaches is hampered by the absence of studies defining the most effective dose and dose-response latency for targeting the amygdala...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627913/effect-of-attentional-retraining-on-cognition-craving-and-smoking-in-african-american-smokers
#16
Cendrine D Robinson, Christine Muench, Emily Brede, Romano Endrighi, Edwin H Szeto, Joanna R Sells, John P Lammers, Kolawole S Okuyemi, Andrew J Waters
African American cigarette smokers have lower rates of cessation than Whites and live in communities with a higher number of tobacco advertisements. Exposure to smoking cues may promote smoking and undermine cessation. It may be possible to reduce attention to smoking cues ("attentional bias"). In this study, we investigated the effect of attentional retraining (AR) on attentional bias and smoking in African American smokers. Nontreatment- seeking African American smokers (N = 64) were randomly assigned to an AR or control condition...
June 19, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626812/electrocortical-reactivity-during-self-referential-processing-in-female-youth-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#17
Randy P Auerbach, Naomi Tarlow, Erin Bondy, Jeremy G Stewart, Blaise Aguirre, Cynthia Kaplan, Wenhui Yang, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is debilitating, and theoretical models have postulated that cognitive-affective biases contribute to the onset and maintenance of BPD symptoms. Despite advances, our understanding of BPD pathophysiology in youth is limited. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify cognitive-affective processes that underlie negative self-referential processing in BPD youth. METHODS: Healthy females (n = 33) and females with BPD (n = 26) 13 to 22 years of age completed a self-referential encoding task while 128-channel electroencephalography data were recorded to examine early (i...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625188/symptoms-of-depression-in-a-large-healthy-population-cohort-are-related-to-subjective-memory-complaints-and-memory-performance-in-negative-contexts
#18
S Schweizer, R A Kievit, T Emery, R N Henson
BACKGROUND: Decades of research have investigated the impact of clinical depression on memory, which has revealed biases and in some cases impairments. However, little is understood about the effects of subclinical symptoms of depression on memory performance in the general population. METHODS: Here we report the effects of symptoms of depression on memory problems in a large population-derived cohort (N = 2544), 87% of whom reported at least one symptom of depression...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625108/memory-dynamics-under-stress
#19
Conny W E M Quaedflieg, Lars Schwabe
Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity...
June 19, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619248/the-effectiveness-of-behavioural-and-cognitive-behavioural-therapies-for-insomnia-on-depressive-and-fatigue-symptoms-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Andrea Ballesio, Maria Raisa Jessica V Aquino, Bernd Feige, Anna F Johann, Simon D Kyle, Kai Spiegelhalder, Caterina Lombardo, Gerta Rücker, Dieter Riemann, Chiara Baglioni
This review aimed to assess the impact of behavioural therapy for insomnia administered alone (BT-I) or in combination with cognitive techniques (cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia, CBT-I) on depressive and fatigue symptoms using network meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched from 1986 to May 2015. Studies were included if they incorporated sleep restriction, a core technique of BT-I treatment, and an adult insomnia sample, a control group and a standardised measure of depressive and/or fatigue symptoms...
February 7, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
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