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Cognitive bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915960/cognitive-bias-of-interpretation-in-type-d-personality-associations-with-physiological-indices-of-arousal
#1
Siobhán Howard, Adam O'Riordan, Michelle Nolan
It is argued that the Type D person experiences increased distress when encountering social situations, which results in altered stress responding. However, little is known about how Type D individuals behave or feel during social interactions. Using a within-subjects design, the present study examined the physiological arousal of Type D and non-Type D individuals when rating how they would deal with a number of hypothetical social situations. Results showed that across all social situations, Type D individuals experienced greater levels of discomfort...
June 18, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915949/dietary-supplements-and-fatigue-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Paula Tâmara Vieira Teixeira Pereira, Andréa Dias Reis, Renata Rodrigues Diniz, Franciléia Andrade Lima, Richard Diego Leite, Mayara Cristina Pinto da Silva, Rosane Nassar Meireles Guerra, Érica Brandão de Moraes Vieira, João Batista Santos Garcia
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is defined as a distressing, persistent, and subjective sense of physical or emotional and/or cognitive exhaustion. The treatment of CRF includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies; dietary strategies with promising results have also been used. This study aimed to identify dietary supplements that improve fatigue in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement...
June 18, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914574/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-interpersonal-psychotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-post-natal-depression-a-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
George Stamou, Azucena García-Palacios, Cristina Botella
BACKGROUND: Post-natal Depression (PND) is a depressive disorder that causes significant distress or impairment on different levels in the individual's life and their families. There is already evidence of the efficacy of psychological treatments for PND. We conducted a narrative review and researched the literature for identifying systematic reviews and studies for the best psychological treatments of PND, and examined what parameters made those treatments successful. METHODS: We searched 4 electronic databases...
June 18, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913382/the-perception-of-text-triggers-reflexive-oculomotor-orienting
#4
Keren Taub, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
As you read this text, your brain is busy integrating numerous different processes-perceptual, cognitive and motor. While you acquire the semantic and linguistic contents of this abstract, your eyes traverse its lines with speed and coordination. The oculomotor response to text is so rapid and precise that it is hypothesized it to be partially based on reflexive orienting mechanisms. In this study we examined the hypothesis that the presentation of written text triggers reflexive orienting toward the direction of reading, similarly to the effect of peripheral stimulation or that of symbolic directional cues (arrows or gazing eyes)...
May 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912008/processed-electroencephalogram-monitoring-and-postoperative-delirium-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Kristen K MacKenzie, Angelitta M Britt-Spells, Laura P Sands, Jacqueline M Leung
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium complicates approximately 15 to 20% of major operations in patients at least 65 yr old and is associated with adverse outcomes and increased resource utilization. Furthermore, patients with postoperative delirium might also be at risk of developing long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction. One potentially modifiable variable is use of intraoperative processed electroencephalogram to guide anesthesia. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the relationship between processed electroencephalogram monitoring and postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction...
June 15, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910801/lifelong-impacts-of-moderate-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-neuroimmune-function
#6
REVIEW
Shahani Noor, Erin D Milligan
In utero alcohol exposure is emerging as a major risk factor for lifelong aberrant neuroimmune function. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder encompasses a range of behavioral and physiological sequelae that may occur throughout life and includes cognitive developmental disabilities as well as disease susceptibility related to aberrant immune and neuroimmune actions. Emerging data from clinical studies and findings from animal models support that very low to moderate levels of fetal alcohol exposure may reprogram the developing central nervous system leading to altered neuroimmune and neuroglial signaling during adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909923/cognitive-mechanisms-of-disgust-in-the-development-and-maintenance-of-psychopathology-a-qualitative-review-and-synthesis
#7
REVIEW
Kelly A Knowles, Rebecca C Cox, Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O Olatunji
A growing body of research has implicated disgust in various psychopathologies, especially anxiety-related disorders. Although the observed role of disgust in many disorders is robust, the mechanisms that may explain this role are unclear. Cutting-edge research in cognitive science has the potential to elucidate such mechanisms and consequently improve our understanding of how disgust contributes to the etiology and maintenance of psychopathology. In this qualitative review, we systematically assess cognitive bias mechanisms that have been linked to disgust and its disorders...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909732/cognitive-outcomes-after-cochlear-implantation-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#8
Annes J Claes, Paul Van de Heyning, Annick Gilles, Vincent Van Rompaey, Griet Mertens
OBJECTIVES: To critically assess the current status of the literature on cognitive outcomes after cochlear implantation in older adults. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane Library, and checking reference lists of relevant articles. No restrictions were imposed regarding language, publication date, or publication status. Eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) the study sample included older adults aged 50 or over with severe to profound bilateral hearing loss, (2) the participants received a multi-electrode cochlear implant, and (3) a cognitive test was performed before and after implantation...
June 18, 2018: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909483/understanding-patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-huntington-disease-at-what-point-is-cognitive-impairment-related-to-poor-measurement-reliability
#9
N E Carlozzi, S Schilling, A L Kratz, J S Paulsen, S Frank, J C Stout
PURPOSE: Symptom progression in Huntington disease (HD) is associated with cognitive decline which may interfere with the self-report of symptoms. Unfortunately, data to support or refute the psychometric reliability of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as HD progresses are limited. This is problematic given that PROs are increasingly recognized as important measures of efficacy for new treatments. METHODS: We examined PRO data from the HDQLIFE Measurement System (Speech Difficulties; Swallowing Difficulties; Chorea) in 509 individuals with premanifest, early-stage, or late-stage HD...
June 16, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908472/cognitive-bias-modification-as-an-add-on-treatment-in-clinical-depression-results-from-a-placebo-controlled-single-blinded-randomized-control-trial
#10
Janna N Vrijsen, Verena S Fischer, Bernhard W Müller, Norbert Scherbaum, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Only 60% of depressed patients respond sufficiently to treatment, so there is a dire need for novel approaches to improve treatment effects. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) may be an effective and easily implemented computerized add-on to treatment-as-usual. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a positivity-attention training and a positivity-approach training compared to control trainings. METHODS: In a blinded randomized-controlled design, 139 depressed inpatients received either the CBM Attention Dot-Probe Training (DPT) or the CBM Approach-Avoidance Training (AAT), next to treatment as usual...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908392/differences-between-self-and-peer-rated-likability-in-relation-to-social-anxiety-and-depression-in-adolescents-with-mild-intellectual-disabilities
#11
Anke M Klein, Esther O Houtkamp, Elske Salemink, Jeanine M D Baartmans, Mike Rinck, Mariët J van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety and depressive symptoms are relatively common in adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID). Unfortunately, there are only a few studies that focus on examining processes underlying social anxiety and depression in these adolescents. AIMS: The aim was to examine the differences between self- and peer-rated likability in relation to social anxiety and depression in the classroom environment. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 631 normative non-clinical adolescents with MBID completed questionnaires to measure social anxiety, depression, and the estimation of their own likability by peers...
June 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903632/consciousness-in-a-multilevel-architecture-evidence-from-the-right-side-of-the-brain
#12
Boris M Velichkovsky, Olga A Krotkova, Artemy A Kotov, Vyacheslav A Orlov, Vitaly M Verkhlyutov, Vadim L Ushakov, Maxim G Sharaev
By taking into account Bruce Bridgeman's interest in an evolutionary framing of human cognition, we examine effective (cause-and-effect) connectivity among cortical structures related to different parts of the triune phylogenetic stratification: archicortex, paleocortex and neocortex. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 25 healthy subjects and spectral Dynamic Causal Modeling, we report interactions among 10 symmetrical left and right brain areas. Our results testify to general rightward and top-down biases in excitatory interactions of these structures during resting state, when self-related contemplation prevails over more objectified conceptual thinking...
June 11, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903598/trial-protocol-cognitive-functional-therapy-compared-with-combined-manual-therapy-and-motor-control-exercise-for-people-with-non-specific-chronic-low-back-pain-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Fabiana Terra Cunha Belache, Cíntia Pereira de Souza, Jessica Fernandez, Julia Castro, Paula Dos Santos Ferreira, Elizana Rodrigues de Sousa Rosa, Nathalia Cristina Gimenez de Araújo, Felipe José Jandre Reis, Renato Santos de Almeida, Leandro Alberto Calazans Nogueira, Luís Cláudio Lemos Correia, Ney Meziat-Filho
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain is a public health problem, and there is strong evidence that it is associated with a complex interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Cognitive functional therapy is an intervention that deals with potentially modifiable multidimensional aspects of pain (eg, provocative cognitive, movement and lifestyle behaviours). There is evidence (from a single randomised, controlled trial) that cognitive functional therapy is better than combined manual therapy and motor control exercise...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903472/is-chocolate-consumption-associated-with-health-outcomes-an-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#14
Nicola Veronese, Jacopo Demurtas, Stefano Celotto, Maria Gabriella Caruso, Stefania Maggi, Francesco Bolzetta, Joseph Firth, Lee Smith, Patricia Schofield, Ai Koyanagi, Lin Yang, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The literature regarding the potential health benefits of chocolate consumption are unclear and the epidemiological credibility has not been systematically scrutinized, while the strength of the evidence is undetermined. We therefore aimed to map and grade the diverse health outcomes associated with chocolate consumption using an umbrella review of systematic reviews. METHODS: Umbrella review of systematic reviews of observational and intervention studies (randomized placebo-controlled trials, RCTs)...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903443/nuclear-medicine-of-the-cerebellum
#15
Alessandra Vella, Mario Mascalchi
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) with different radiotracers enable regional evaluation of blood flow and glucose metabolism, of receptors and transporters of several molecules, and of abnormal deposition of peptides and proteins in the brain. The cerebellum has been used as a reference region for different radiotracers in several disease conditions. Whole-brain voxel-wise analysis is not affected by a priori knowledge bias and should be preferred. SPECT and PET have contributed to establishing the cerebellum role in motion, cognition, and emotion control in physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902055/dynamic-not-stable-daily-variations-in-subjective-age-bias-and-age-group-identification-predict-daily-well-being-in-older-workers
#16
Bibiana M Armenta, Susanne Scheibe, Katherine Stroebe, Tom Postmes, Nico W Van Yperen
This work examines the hypothesis that older workers' responses to negative events at work depend, in part, on daily fluctuations of subjective age bias (SAB; how old people feel compared to their actual age) and age group identification (age GI). We tested whether SAB and age GI fluctuate over time, whether they influence attributions of negative daily work events as age-related, and thereby predict older workers' daily affect and cognitive engagement in their work. A diary study with 169 older workers (aged 50-70 years) demonstrates that there are substantial daily variations in SAB and GI...
June 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901820/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-online-psychological-interventions-for-mental-and-physical-health-outcomes-in-gastrointestinal-disorders-including-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
REVIEW
I Hanlon, C Hewitt, K Bell, A Phillips, A Mikocka-Walus
BACKGROUND: Online psychotherapy has been successfully used as supportive treatment in many chronic illnesses. However, there is a lack of evidence on its role in the management of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. AIMS: To examine whether online psychological interventions improve mental and physical outcomes in gastrointestinal diseases. METHODS: We searched CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, a specialised register of the IBD/FBD Cochrane Group, MEDLINE (PubMed) WHO International Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials...
June 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901413/melatonin-as-a-treatment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-pre-clinical-and-clinical-literature
#18
Karen Barlow, Michael M J Esser, Myra Veidt, Roslyn Boyd
Traumatic brain injury is common and yet effective treatments of the secondary brain injury are scarce. Melatonin is a potent, non-selective neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent that is showing promising results in neonatal brain injury. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the pre-clinical and clinical literature for the effectiveness of Melatonin to improve outcome after TBI. Using the systematic review protocol for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE) and Cochrane methodology for clinical studies, a search of English articles was performed...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900614/a-failure-to-show-the-efficacy-of-a-dot-probe-attentional-training-in-dysphoria-evidence-from-an-eye-tracking-study
#19
Almudena Duque, Carmelo Vazquez
OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether a 4-day dot-probe attentional training to orient attention toward positive words could lead participants with dysphoria to change selective attention to emotional faces. It was also explored whether this positive attentional bias training could lead to a decrease in depressive symptoms. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to Positive Training Group (PTG) and No Training Group (NTG). PTG was composed of 16 subjects, whereas NTG was composed of 15 subjects...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897022/can-baclofen-change-alcohol-related-cognitive-biases-and-what-is-the-role-of-anxiety-herein
#20
Esther M Beraha, Elske Salemink, Erwin Krediet, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Baclofen has shown promise in the treatment of alcohol dependence. However, its precise (neuro-) psychological working mechanism is still under debate. AIMS: This study aimed to get a better understanding of baclofen's working mechanism by examining the effect of baclofen on cognitive biases. It was hypothesized that baclofen, compared to placebo, would lead to weaker cognitive biases. Furthermore, given a suggested anxiolytic effect of baclofen, we expected that anxiety would moderate this effect...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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