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Cognitive bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035302/oligoarticular-hemarthroses-and-osteomyelitis-complicating-pasteurella-meningitis-in-an-infant
#1
Charles Nathan Nessle, Allison K Black, Justin Farge, Victoria A Statler
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates...
October 16, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035078/overrepresentation-of-extreme-events-in-decision-making-reflects-rational-use-of-cognitive-resources
#2
Falk Lieder, Thomas L Griffiths, Ming Hsu
People's decisions and judgments are disproportionately swayed by improbable but extreme eventualities, such as terrorism, that come to mind easily. This article explores whether such availability biases can be reconciled with rational information processing by taking into account the fact that decision makers value their time and have limited cognitive resources. Our analysis suggests that to make optimal use of their finite time decision makers should overrepresent the most important potential consequences relative to less important, put potentially more probable, outcomes...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034489/modification-of-automatic-alcohol-approach-tendencies-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#3
Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033784/top-down-control-of-visual-attention-by-the-prefrontal-cortex-functional-specialization-and-long-range-interactions
#4
REVIEW
Sofia Paneri, Georgia G Gregoriou
The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033532/seeing-is-believing-using-video-feedback-in-cognitive-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#5
Emma Warnock-Parkes, Jennifer Wild, Richard Stott, Nick Grey, Anke Ehlers, David M Clark
Distorted negative self-images and impressions appear to play a key role in maintaining Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). In previous research, McManus et al. (2009) found that video feedback can help people undergoing cognitive therapy for SAD (CT-SAD) to develop a more realistic impression of how they appear to others, and this was associated with significant improvement in their social anxiety. In this paper we first present new data from 47 patients that confirms the value of video feedback. Ninety-eighty percent of the patients indicated that they came across more favorably than they had predicted after viewing a video of their social interactions...
May 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031837/impaired-contrast-sensitivity-at-low-spatial-frequency-in-cannabis-users-with-early-onset
#6
Laurence Lalanne, Eglantine Ferrand-Devouge, Sebastien Kirchherr, Lucie Rauch, Estelle Koning, Claude Speeg, Vincent Laprevote, Anne Giersch
The regular use of cannabis generates pronounced cognitive disorders, especially in users who begin before the age of 15-16. However, less is known about the impact of regular cannabis on visual function, especially in the case of early onset. Cannabinoid receptors (CB1) are expressed in areas of the visual system, like the thalamus and primary cortex, which might originate sensory disorders. Hence, we measured contrast sensitivity (CS) in three groups, i.e. cannabis users with late onset of cannabis use (after 16 years old), cannabis users with early onset"...
October 11, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031084/moving-towards-the-benign-automatic-interpretation-bias-modification-in-dysphoria
#7
Alexandra H Cowden Hindash, Jonathan A Rottenberg
Automatic cognitive biases are important to theories of depression and reducing such biases may contribute to therapeutic gains. The present study examined (1) whether it was possible to reduce automatic interpretation biases (AIB) in a single session among dysphoric subjects and (2) whether the effects of modifying AIB generalized to other measures of cognition and emotion. 76 dysphoric students completed a modified semantic association paradigm in which they were randomized to receive active or random-feedback-based training...
September 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030878/the-association-between-ptsd-and-functional-outcome-is-mediated-by-perception-of-cognitive-problems-rather-than-objective-neurological-test-performance
#8
Kristin W Samuelson, Linda Abadjian, Joshua T Jordan, Alisa Bartel, Jennifer Vasterling, Karen Seal
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently linked to poorer functional outcomes, including quality of life, health problems, and social and occupational functioning. Less is known about the potential mechanisms by which PTSD leads to poorer functional outcomes. We hypothesized that neurocognitive functioning and perception of cognitive problems would both mediate the relationship between PTSD diagnosis and functioning. In a sample of 140 veterans of the recent wars and conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, we assessed PTSD symptoms, history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), depression, self-report measures of quality of life, social and occupational functioning, and reintegration to civilian life, as well as perception of cognitive problems...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030322/pain-affects-visual-orientation-an-eye-tracking-study
#9
K Schmidt, M Gamer, K Forkmann, U Bingel
Due to its unique evolutionary relevance, it is understood that pain automatically attracts attention. So far, such attentional bias has mainly been shown for pain-related stimuli whereas little is known about shifts in attentional focus following actual painful stimulation. This study investigated attentional shifts by assessing eye movements into the direction of painful stimulation. Healthy participants were presented either a blank screen or a picture showing a natural scene while painful electrical stimuli were applied to the left or right hand...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028956/age-differences-in-the-neural-mechanisms-of-intertemporal-choice-under-subjective-decision-conflict
#10
Ben Eppinger, Hauke R Heekeren, Shu-Chen Li
Older decision-makers may capitalize on their greater experiences in financial decisions and by this offset decline in cognitive abilities. However, this pattern of results should reverse in situations that place high demands on cognitive control functions. In this study, we investigated how decision conflict affects the neural mechanisms of intertemporal decision-making in younger and older adults. To individually adjust the level of decision conflict we determined the indifference point (IDP) in intertemporal decision-making for each participant...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028523/the-interplay-between-trait-anxiety-cognitive-biases-and-attentional-control-in-healthy-individuals-with-psychotic-like-experiences
#11
Katarzyna Prochwicz, Joanna Kłosowska
Although both anxiety and cognitive biases contribute to psychosis, it is still unclear whether these factors interact in their influence on psychotic symptoms. The aim of the study was to examine the interactions between trait anxiety, cognitive biases and delusion-like experiences (PLEs) in a non-clinical sample; the moderational role of attentional control on this relationship was also considered in the study. Two subgroups of participants, 92 individuals (M=24.76; SD=6.33) with heightened (HA) trait anxiety and 78 individuals (M=23...
October 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026993/task-intentions-and-their-implementation-into-actions-cognitive-control-from-adolescence-to-middle-adulthood
#12
Edita Poljac, Rianne Haartsen, Renske van der Cruijsen, Andrea Kiesel, Ervin Poljac
Cognitive control processes involved in human multitasking arise, mature, and decline across age. This study investigated how age modulates cognitive control at two different levels: the level of task intentions and the level of the implementation of intentions into the corresponding actions. We were particularly interested in specifying maturation of voluntary task choice (intentions) and task-switching execution (their implementations) between adolescence and middle adulthood. Seventy-four participants were assigned to one of the four age groups (adolescents, 12-17 years; emerging adults, 18-22 years; young adults, 23-27 years; middle-aged adults, 28-56 years)...
October 13, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024962/age-related-changes-in-headache-days-across-the-cognitive-spectrum
#13
Karl Echiverri, Gregory A Jicha, Jonathan H Smith
Introduction: Prior studies demonstrating age-related declines in headache prevalence have not accounted for the potentially confounding effects of cognitive impairment. Our primary goal was to assess the relationship between aging and self-reported monthly headache days across the cognitive spectrum. Methods: A detailed headache questionnaire was included prospectively as part of an annual mailing to participants in the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging longitudinal cohort...
August 4, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024609/the-goldwater-rule-perspectives-from-and-implications-for-psychological-science
#14
Scott O Lilienfeld, Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam
When, if ever, should psychological scientists be permitted to offer professional opinions concerning the mental health of public figures they have never directly examined? This contentious question, which attracted widespread public attention during the 1964 U.S. presidential election involving Barry Goldwater, received renewed scrutiny during and after the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, when many mental health professionals raised pointed questions concerning the psychiatric status of Donald Trump. Although the Goldwater Rule prohibits psychiatrists from offering diagnostic opinions on individuals they have never examined, no comparable rule exists for psychologists...
October 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023934/spontaneous-emergence-of-legibility-in-writing-systems-the-case-of-orientation-anisotropy
#15
Olivier Morin
Cultural forms are constrained by cognitive biases, and writing is thought to have evolved to fit basic visual preferences, but little is known about the history and mechanisms of that evolution. Cognitive constraints have been documented for the topology of script features, but not for their orientation. Orientation anisotropy in human vision, as revealed by the oblique effect, suggests that cardinal (vertical and horizontal) orientations, being easier to process, should be overrepresented in letters. As this study of 116 scripts shows, the orientation of strokes inside written characters massively favors cardinal directions, and it is organized in such a way as to make letter recognition easier: Cardinal and oblique strokes tend not to mix, and mirror symmetry is anisotropic, favoring vertical over horizontal symmetry...
October 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022516/folk-economic-beliefs-an-evolutionary-cognitive-model
#16
Pascal Boyer, Michael Bang Petersen
The domain of "folk-economics" consists in explicit beliefs about the economy held by laypeople, untrained in economics, about such topics as e.g., the causes of the wealth of nations, the benefits or drawbacks of markets and international trade, the effects of regulation, the origins of inequality, the connection between work and wages, the economic consequences of immigration, or the possible causes of unemployment. These beliefs are crucial in forming people's political beliefs, and in shaping their reception of different policies...
October 12, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020651/is-negative-self-referent-bias-an-endophenotype-for-depression-an-fmri-study-of-emotional-self-referent-words-in-twins-at-high-vs-low-risk-of-depression
#17
K W Miskowiak, J E Larsen, C J Harmer, H R Siebner, L V Kessing, J Macoveanu, M Vinberg
BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of self-referent emotional words seem to be trait-marks of depression. However, it is unclear whether these neurocognitive changes are present in unaffected first-degree relatives and constitute an illness endophenotype. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy, never-depressed monozygotic or dizygotic twins with a co-twin history of depression (high-risk group: n = 26) or no first-degree family history of depression (low-risk group: n = 27) underwent neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) as part of a follow-up cohort study...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020028/learning-speed-is-affected-by-personality-and-reproductive-investment-in-a-songbird
#18
Hector Fabio Rivera-Gutierrez, Tine Martens, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Individuals from different taxa, including songbirds, differ consistently in behaviour and personality when facing different situations. Although our understanding of animal behaviour has increased, knowledge about between-individual differences in cognitive abilities is still limited. By using an experimental approach and a free-living songbird (Parus major) as a model, we attempted to understand between-individual differences in habituation to playbacks (as a proxy of learning speed), by investigating the role of personality, age and reproductive investment (clutch size)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017990/healthy-beyond-pregnancy-a-web-based-intervention-to-improve-adherence-to-postpartum-care-randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial
#19
Katherine Park Himes, Heidi Donovan, Stephanie Wang, Carrie Weaver, Jillian Rae Grove, Francesca Lucia Facco
BACKGROUND: During the postpartum visit, health care providers address issues with short- and long-term implications for maternal and child health. Women with Medicaid insurance are less likely to return for a postpartum visit compared with women with private insurance. Behavioral economics acknowledges that people do not make exclusively rational choices, rather immediate gratification, cognitive and psychological biases, and social norms influence decision making. Drawing on insights from decision science, behavioral economists have examined how these biases can be modulated through carefully designed interventions...
October 10, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992377/a-single-session-of-attentional-bias-modification-reduces-alcohol-craving-and-implicit-measures-of-alcohol-bias-in-young-adult-drinkers
#20
Peter Luehring-Jones, Courtney Louis, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary, Joel Erblich
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques for reducing problematic alcohol consumption hold promise as highly-accessible and cost-effective treatment approaches. A growing body of literature has examined ABM as a potentially efficacious intervention for reducing drinking and drinking-related cognitions in alcohol-dependent individuals as well as those at-risk of developing problem drinking habits. METHODS: The present study tested the effectiveness of a single session of visual probe-based ABM training in a cohort of 60 non-treatment-seeking young adult drinkers, with a focus on examining mechanisms underlying training efficacy...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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