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Cognitive bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544975/-spiritual-but-not-religious-cognition-schizotypy-and-conversion-in-alternative-beliefs
#1
Aiyana K Willard, Ara Norenzayan
The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) are a growing population in secularizing societies. Yet, we know little about the underlying psychology of this group or their belief profile. Based on an individual difference approach, we address this knowledge gap by comparing SBNR with religious and non-religious participants. In a sample of Americans (n=1013), we find that the SBNR differ from non-religious and religious participants in a number of ways. SBNR participants are more likely to hold paranormal beliefs and to have an experiential relationship to the supernatural (e...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544303/a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-regarding-cognitive-therapy-skills-that-assist-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-adults-who-have-an-intellectual-disability
#2
REVIEW
Patricia Cooney, Conall Tunney, Gary O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is being increasingly adapted for use with people who have an intellectual disability. However, it remains unclear whether inherent cognitive deficits that are present in adults who have an intellectual disability preclude the use of cognitive-based therapies. This review aims to systematically examine "cognitive therapy skills" in adults who have an intellectual disability that assist engagement in CBT. METHOD: Two authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts of articles located through electronic database searching...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543218/the-time-course-of-indirect-moral-judgment-in-gossip-processing-modulated-by-different-agents
#3
Xiaozhe Peng, Can Jiao, Fang Cui, Qingfei Chen, Peng Li, Hong Li
Previous studies have investigated personal moral violations with different references (i.e., the protagonists in moral scenarios are the participants themselves or unknown other individuals). However, the roles of various agents in moral judgments have remained unclear. In the present study, ERPs were used to investigate moral judgments when the participants viewed gossip that described (im)moral behaviors committed by different agents (self, friend, celebrity). The results demonstrate that the P2 and late positive component (LPC) correspond to two successive processes of indirect moral judgment when individuals process gossip...
May 24, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539900/learning-potential-in-narrative-writing-measuring-the-psychometric-properties-of-an-assessment-tool
#4
Léia G Gurgel, Mônica M C de Oliveira, Maria C R A Joly, Caroline T Reppold
Objective: The Computerized and Dynamic Writing Test (TIDE) is designed to examine the learning potential of adolescents in narrative writing. This was a validation study of the TIDE based on its internal structure. Learning potential is responsible for cognitive modifiabilty according to the Theory of Cognitive Structural Modifiability (CSM) developed by Feüerstein. Method: Included 304 participants between 10 and 17 years of age from schools in the South of Brazil. The data collection involved student groups that were divided according to age and school grade...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539379/the-effect-of-nutrition-training-for-health-care-staff-on-learner-and-patient-outcomes-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Owen Marples, Christine Baldwin, C Elizabeth Weekes
Background: Nutrition training for health care staff has been prioritized internationally as a key means of tackling malnutrition; however, there is a lack of clear evidence to support its implementation. Systematic reviews in other fields of training for health care staff indicate that training strategies may have a beneficial impact on learner and patient outcomes.Objectives: We assessed whether nutrition training for health care staff caring for nutritionally vulnerable adults resulted in improved learner and patient outcomes and evaluated the effectiveness of different training strategies...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537109/facial-and-prosodic-emotion-recognition-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#6
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Yu-Lien Huang, Jian-Ting Chen, Kuei-Yu Liang, Chao-Cheng Lin, Sue-Huei Chen
INTRODUCTION: Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have a cognitive preference to negatively evaluate emotional information. In particular, the preferential biases in prosodic emotion recognition in SAD have been much less explored. The present study aims to investigate whether SAD patients retain negative evaluation biases across visual and auditory modalities when given sufficient response time to recognise emotions. METHODS: Thirty-one SAD patients and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy participants completed a culturally suitable non-verbal emotion recognition task and received clinical assessments for social anxiety and depressive symptoms...
May 24, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536918/-cognitive-errors-in-diagnostic-decision-making
#7
REVIEW
Martin Gäbler
Approximately 10-15% of our diagnostic decisions are faulty and may lead to unfavorable and dangerous outcomes, which could be avoided. These diagnostic errors are mainly caused by cognitive biases in the diagnostic reasoning process.Our medical diagnostic decision-making is based on intuitive "System 1" and analytical "System 2" diagnostic decision-making and can be deviated by unconscious cognitive biases.These deviations can be positively influenced on a systemic and an individual level. For the individual, metacognition (internal withdrawal from the decision-making process) and debiasing strategies, such as verification, falsification and rule out worst-case scenarios, can lead to improved diagnostic decisions making...
May 23, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536548/complementarity-as-generative-principle-a-thought-pattern-for-aesthetic-appreciations-and-cognitive-appraisals-in-general
#8
Yan Bao, Alexandra von Stosch, Mona Park, Ernst Pöppel
In experimental aesthetics the relationship between the arts and cognitive neuroscience has gained particular interest in recent years. But has cognitive neuroscience indeed something to offer when studying the arts? Here we present a theoretical frame within which the concept of complementarity as a generative or creative principle is proposed; neurocognitive processes are characterized by the duality of complementary activities like bottom-up and top-down control, or logistical functions like temporal control and content functions like perceptions in the neural machinery...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535815/internet-based-attentional-bias-modification-training-as-add-on-to-regular-treatment-in-alcohol-and-cannabis-dependent-outpatients-a-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-control-trial
#9
Janika Heitmann, Madelon E van Hemel-Ruiter, Karin M Vermeulen, Brian D Ostafin, Colin MacLeod, Reinout W Wiers, Laura DeFuentes-Merillas, Martine Fledderus, Wiebren Markus, Peter J de Jong
BACKGROUND: The automatic tendency to attend to and focus on substance-related cues in the environment (attentional bias), has been found to contribute to the persistence of addiction. Attentional bias modification (ABM) interventions might, therefore, contribute to treatment outcome and the reduction of relapse rates. Based on some promising research findings, we designed a study to test the clinical relevance of ABM as an add-on component of regular intervention for alcohol and cannabis patients...
May 23, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535111/relative-validity-and-reproducibility-of-an-interviewer-administered-14-item-ffq-to-estimate-flavonoid-intake-among-older-adults-with-mild-moderate-dementia
#10
Katherine Kent, Karen Charlton
There is a large burden on researchers and participants when attempting to accurately measure dietary flavonoid intake using dietary assessment. Minimizing participant and researcher burden when collecting dietary data may improve the validity of the results, especially in older adults with cognitive impairment. A short 14-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure flavonoid intake, and flavonoid subclasses (anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols, and flavanones) was developed and assessed for validity and reproducibility against a 24-hour recall...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531873/randomized-control-trial-investigating-the-efficacy-of-a-computer-based-intolerance-of-uncertainty-intervention
#11
Mary E Oglesby, Nicholas P Allan, Norman B Schmidt
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is an important transdiagnostic variable within various anxiety and mood disorders. Theory suggests that individuals high in IU interpret ambiguous information in a more threatening manner. A parallel line of research has shown that interpretive biases can be modified through cognitive training and previous research aimed at modifying negative interpretations through Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM-I) has yielded promising results. Despite these findings, no research to date has examined the efficacy of an IU-focused CBM-I paradigm...
May 11, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523743/applying-lessons-from-social-psychology-to-transform-the-culture-of-error-disclosure
#12
Jason Han, Denise LaMarra, Neha Vapiwala
CONTEXT: The ability to carry out prompt and effective error disclosure has been described in the literature as an essential skill among physicians that can lead to improved patient satisfaction, staff well-being and hospital outcomes. However, few studies have addressed the social psychology principles that may influence physician behaviour. METHODS: The authors provide an overview of recent administrative measures designed to encourage physicians to disclose error, but note that deliberate practice, buttressed with lessons from social psychology, is needed to implement further productive behavioural changes...
May 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521367/driving-problems-in-the-elderly-and-cognitively-impaired
#13
Robert Haussmann, Maria Buthut, Markus Donix
Driving ability in the elderly and cognitively impaired is of growing demographic relevance. Driving represents a complex task for which multiple central resources are needed. In mild cognitive impairment and dementia, we need to closely monitor driving ability, as it gets irrecoverably lost in the course of the disease. In normal aging, people are often able to self-regulate driving behavior with respect to their medical conditions. Some studies demonstrated that older drivers perform well compared with younger drivers...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521070/drug-therapy-for-symptoms-associated-with-anxiety-in-adult-palliative-care-patients
#14
REVIEW
Susan Salt, Caroline A Mulvaney, Nancy J Preston
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2004 (Issue 1) and previously updated in 2012 (Issue 10). Anxiety is common in palliative care patients. It can be a natural response to the complex uncertainty of having a life-limiting illness or impending death, but it may represent a clinically significant issue in its own right. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of drug therapy for treating symptoms of anxiety in adults with a progressive life-limiting illness who are thought to be in their last year of life...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517949/cognitive-behavioral-treatments-for-criminogenic-thinking-barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementation-within-the-veterans-health-administration
#15
Daniel M Blonigen, Allison L Rodriguez, Luisa Manfredi, Andrea Nevedal, Joel Rosenthal, James F McGuire, David Smelson, Christine Timko
Cognitive-behavioral treatments for criminogenic thinking (i.e., antisocial cognitions, attitudes, and traits) are regarded as best practices for reducing criminal recidivism among justice-involved adults. However, the barriers and facilitators to implementation of these treatments within large health care systems such as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) are largely unknown. To address this gap, we conducted qualitative interviews with 22 Specialists from the VHA's Veterans Justice Programs who had been trained in a cognitive-behavioral treatment for criminogenic thinking (i...
May 18, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517942/cognitive-bias-and-paw-preference-in-the-domestic-dog-canis-familiaris
#16
Deborah L Wells, Peter G Hepper, Adam D S Milligan, Shanis Barnard
Limb use, an indicator of hemispheric functioning, may be a useful predictor of cognitive bias and hence vulnerability to welfare risk. The relationship between cognitive bias and motor asymmetry, however, has been subject to little investigation. This study explored the association between motor asymmetry and cognitive bias in the domestic dog, a species that displays lateral bias in the form of paw preferences and exhibits positive and negative affective states. Thirty pet dogs had their paw preferences assessed using the Kong ball test...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516209/foreign-language-effect-and-psychological-distance
#17
Hong Im Shin, Juyoung Kim
Does using a foreign language result in forming different moral decisions than using our mother tongue? Two studies were conducted to investigate whether there is a relationship between foreign language effects (differences between native vs. foreign language conditions) and psychological distance. Study 1 tested four moral dilemmas adapted from Greene et al. (Cognition 107: 1144-1155, 2008). Non-fluent Korean-English bilingual participants (N = 161) indicated decisions regarding four moral dilemmas in either Korean or English languages...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515541/automaticity-of-attentional-bias-to-threat-in-high-and-low-worriers
#18
Huw Goodwin, Claire Eagleson, Andrew Mathews, Jenny Yiend, Colette Hirsch
Individuals with high levels of worry are more likely than others to attend to possible threats, although the extent of top-down attentional control processes on this bias is unknown. We compared the performance of high (n = 26) and low worriers (n = 26) on a probe discrimination task designed to assess attention to threat cues, under cognitive load or no-load conditions. The expected difference between groups was confirmed, with high worriers being more likely to attend to threat cues than low worriers...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514701/a-biased-opinion-demonstration-of-cognitive-bias-on-a-fingerprint-matching-task-through-knowledge-of-dna-test-results
#19
Sarah V Stevenage, Alice Bennett
One study is presented which explores the biasing effects of irrelevant contextual information on a fingerprint matching task. Bias was introduced by providing the outcomes of a DNA test relating to each fictitious case under consideration. This was engineered to suggest either a match, no match, or an inconclusive outcome, and was thus either consistent, misleading or unbiased depending on the ground truth of each fingerprint pair. The results suggested that, when the difficulty of the fingerprint matching task was measurably increased, participants became more vulnerable to the biasing information...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511579/does-an-attention-bias-to-appetitive-and-aversive-words-modulate-interference-control-in-youth-with-adhd
#20
Ili Ma, Gabry W Mies, Nanda N J Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Interference control refers to the ability to selectively attend to certain information while ignoring distracting information. This ability can vary as a function of distractor relevance. Distractors that are particularly relevant to an individual may attract more attention than less relevant distractors. This is referred to as attention bias. Weak interference control and altered reward sensitivity are both important features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, interference control is typically studied in isolation...
May 16, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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