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Cognitive bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230894/diagnosing-crime-and-diagnosing-disease-bias-reduction-strategies-in-the-forensic-and-clinical-sciences
#1
Joseph J Lockhart, Saty Satya-Murti
Cognitive effort is an essential part of both forensic and clinical decision-making. Errors occur in both fields because the cognitive process is complex and prone to bias. We performed a selective review of full-text English language literature on cognitive bias leading to diagnostic and forensic errors. Earlier work (1970-2000) concentrated on classifying and raising bias awareness. Recently (2000-2016), the emphasis has shifted toward strategies for "debiasing." While the forensic sciences have focused on the control of misleading contextual cues, clinical debiasing efforts have relied on checklists and hypothetical scenarios...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230422/effects-of-arousal-and-context-on-recognition-memory-for-emotional-pictures-in-younger-and-older-adults
#2
Yang Wang, Jiongjiong Yang
: Background/Study Context: Previous studies found that older adults tend to remember more positive than negative information (i.e., positivity bias), leading to an age-related positivity effect. However, the extent to which factors of arousal and contextual information influence the positivity bias in older adults remains to be determined. METHODS: In this study, 27 Chinese younger adults (20.00 ± 1.75 years) and 33 Chinese older adults (70.76 ± 5.49) learned pictures with negative, positive, and neutral valences...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230413/the-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-are-not-systematically-falling-a-revision-of-johnsen-and-friborg-2015
#3
Ioana A Cristea, Simona Stefan, Eirini Karyotaki, Daniel David, Steven D Hollon, Pim Cuijpers
In a meta-analysis, Johnsen and Friborg (2015) reported a significant negative relationship between publication year and the effect sizes (ESs) of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressive disorders, suggesting its effectiveness was falling. We identified a series of methodological and conceptual caveats and consequently redid the meta-analysis. We used the same inclusion criteria, but only included randomized controlled trials and searched for additional eligible trials. We computed both within-group and between-group ESs for the CBT arm for the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)...
March 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229428/low-is-large-spatial-location-and-pitch-interact-in-voice-based-body-size-estimation
#4
Katarzyna Pisanski, Sari G E Isenstein, Kelyn J Montano, Jillian J M O'Connor, David R Feinberg
The binding of incongruent cues poses a challenge for multimodal perception. Indeed, although taller objects emit sounds from higher elevations, low-pitched sounds are perceptually mapped both to large size and to low elevation. In the present study, we examined how these incongruent vertical spatial cues (up is more) and pitch cues (low is large) to size interact, and whether similar biases influence size perception along the horizontal axis. In Experiment 1, we measured listeners' voice-based judgments of human body size using pitch-manipulated voices projected from a high versus a low, and a right versus a left, spatial location...
February 22, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227472/social-norms-of-good-design-interdisciplinary-perspectives-from-a-survey-of-engineers-and-clinicians-in-bioengineering
#5
Angela N Johnson, Angela N Johnson, Angela N Johnson
In bioengineering training for new researchers and engineers, a great deal of time is spent discussing what constitutes "good" design. Conceptualization of good design, however, varies widely across interdisciplinary team members, with potential to both foster innovation or lead to unproductive conflict. To explore how groups central to bioengineering teams (physicians/clinicians and engineers/physicists) conceptualize good design, we asked 176 professionals in bioengineering to complete a comprehensive online survey including items designed to assess cognitive and moral foundations (validated MFQ30 tool) and custom items assessing perceptions on good design in three areas (good design characteristics, reputation of design approvers, and perceived design patient/consumer suitability)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226594/novel-measure-of-the-weigh-distribution-balance-on-the-brain-network-graph-complexity-applied-to-schizophrenia
#6
J Gomez-Pilar, J Poza, A Bachiller, P Nunez, C Gomez, A Lubeiro, V Molina, R Hornero, J Gomez-Pilar, J Poza, A Bachiller, P Nunez, C Gomez, A Lubeiro, V Molina, R Hornero, J Gomez-Pilar, A Bachiller, C Gomez, J Poza, P Nunez, A Lubeiro, V Molina, R Hornero
The aim of this study was to assess brain complexity dynamics in schizophrenia (SCH) patients during an auditory oddball task. For this task, we applied a novel graph measure based on the balance of the node weights distribution. Previous studies applied complexity parameters that were strongly dependent on network topology. This could bias the results, as well as making correction techniques, such as surrogating process, necessary. In the present study, we applied a novel graph complexity measure derived from the information theory: Shannon Graph Complexity (SGC)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225789/non-melanoma-skin-cancer-and-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-all-cause-dementia
#7
Sigrun A J Schmidt, Anne G Ording, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Henrik T Sørensen, Victor W Henderson
Cancer patients may be at decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease. This hypothesis is best developed for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but supportive epidemiological data are sparse. We therefore conducted a nationwide cohort study of the association between NMSC and Alzheimer's disease (main outcome) and all-cause dementia. Using Danish medical databases, we identified adults diagnosed with NMSC between 1 January 1980 and 30 November 2013 (n = 216,221) and a comparison cohort of five individuals matched to each NMSC patient by sex and birth year (n = 1,081,097)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224482/dunning-kruger-effects-in-reasoning-theoretical-implications-of-the-failure-to-recognize-incompetence
#8
Gordon Pennycook, Robert M Ross, Derek J Koehler, Jonathan A Fugelsang
The Dunning-Kruger effect refers to the observation that the incompetent are often ill-suited to recognize their incompetence. Here we investigated potential Dunning-Kruger effects in high-level reasoning and, in particular, focused on the relative effectiveness of metacognitive monitoring among particularly biased reasoners. Participants who made the greatest numbers of errors on the cognitive reflection test (CRT) overestimated their performance on this test by a factor of more than 3. Overestimation decreased as CRT performance increased, and those who scored particularly high underestimated their performance...
February 21, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223933/increased-consumption-of-fruit-and-vegetables-is-related-to-a-reduced-risk-of-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-meta-analysis
#9
Xian Jiang, Jiang Huang, Daqiang Song, Ru Deng, Jicheng Wei, Zhuo Zhang
Background: Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in many epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the strength of this association in a meta-analysis. Methods: We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases (from 1970 to January 2016). Study were included if they reported relative risks and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cognitive impairment and dementia with respect to frequency of fruit and vegetable intake...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223373/nicu-based-interventions-to-reduce-maternal-depressive-and-anxiety-symptoms-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Tamar Mendelson, Fallon Cluxton-Keller, Genevieve C Vullo, S Darius Tandon, Sassan Noazin
CONTEXT: Parents whose infants are being treated in the NICU are at high risk for depression and anxiety, with negative implications for parenting and infant development. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of NICU-based interventions to reduce maternal depressive or anxiety symptoms. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo, Cochrane, and CINAHL were searched for relevant studies. Reference lists from selected studies were reviewed...
February 21, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222778/sample-size-considerations-for-trials-using-cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensity-progression-as-an-intermediate-outcome-at-1%C3%A2-year-after-mild-stroke-results-of-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Francesca M Chappell, Maria Del Carmen Valdés Hernández, Stephen D Makin, Kirsten Shuler, Eleni Sakka, Martin S Dennis, Paul A Armitage, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are commonly seen on in brain imaging and are associated with stroke and cognitive decline. Therefore, they may provide a relevant intermediate outcome in clinical trials. WMH can be measured as a volume or visually on the Fazekas scale. We investigated predictors of WMH progression and design of efficient studies using WMH volume and Fazekas score as an intermediate outcome. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 264 patients with mild ischaemic stroke and measured WMH volume, Fazekas score, age and cardiovascular risk factors at baseline and 1 year...
February 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221057/-understanding-the-neural-basis-of-cognitive-bias-modification-as-a-clinical-treatment-for-depression-correction-to-eguchi-et-al-2016
#12
(no author information available yet)
: Reports an error in "Understanding the neural basis of cognitive bias modification as a clinical treatment for depression" by Akihiro Eguchi, Daniel Walters, Nele Peerenboom, Hannah Dury, Elaine Fox and Simon Stringer (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 19, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Discussion section's first paragraph for Implications and Future Work. The in-text reference citation for Penton-Voak et al. (2013) was incorrectly listed as "Blumenfeld, Preminger, Sagi, and Tsodyks (2006)"...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221051/development-of-fraction-comparison-strategies-a-latent-transition-analysis
#13
Luke F Rinne, Ai Ye, Nancy C Jordan
The present study investigated the development of fraction comparison strategies through a longitudinal analysis of children's responses to a fraction comparison task in 4th through 6th grades (N = 394). Participants were asked to choose the larger value for 24 fraction pairs blocked by fraction type. Latent class analysis of performance over item blocks showed that most children initially exhibited a "whole number bias," indicating that larger numbers in numerators and denominators produce larger fraction values...
February 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220086/students-wearing-police-uniforms-exhibit-biased-attention-toward-individuals-wearing-hoodies
#14
Ciro Civile, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Police provide an essential public service and they often operate in difficult circumstances, requiring high-speed cognition. Recent incidents involving apparent profiling and aggressive behavior have led to accusations that the police are sometimes biased. Given that previous research has shown a link between clothing and cognition, we investigated the question of whether the police uniform itself might induce a bias in social attention. To address this question, and using a Canadian university student sample, we assessed whether wearing a police uniform biases attention toward black faces compared to white faces, and low-status individuals compared to high-status individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216431/optimizing-fmri-preprocessing-pipelines-for-block-design-tasks-as-a-function-of-age
#15
Nathan W Churchill, Pradeep Raamana, Robyn Spring, Stephen C Strother
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a powerful neuroimaging tool, which is often hampered by significant noise confounds. There is evidence that our ability to detect activations in task fMRI is highly dependent on the preprocessing steps used to control noise and artifact. However, the vast majority of studies examining preprocessing pipelines in fMRI have focused on young adults. Given the widespread use of fMRI for characterizing the neurobiology of aging, it is critical to examine how the impact of preprocessing choices varies as a function of age...
February 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214633/prevention-of-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Long Khanh-Dao Le, Jan J Barendregt, Phillipa Hay, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and quantify the effectiveness of Eating Disorder (ED) prevention interventions. METHODS: Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, EMBASE, and Scopus) were searched for published randomized controlled trials of ED prevention interventions from 2009 to 2015. Trials prior to 2009 were retrieved from prior reviews. RESULTS: One hundred and twelve articles were included...
February 12, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213341/the-benefit-of-web-and-computer-based-interventions-for-stress-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Elena Heber, David Daniel Ebert, Dirk Lehr, Pim Cuijpers, Matthias Berking, Stephanie Nobis, Heleen Riper
BACKGROUND: Stress has been identified as one of the major public health issues in this century. New technologies offer opportunities to provide effective psychological interventions on a large scale. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of Web- and computer-based stress-management interventions in adults relative to a control group. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed, including 26 comparisons (n=4226). Cohen d was calculated for the primary outcome level of stress to determine the difference between the intervention and control groups at posttest...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213301/mental-retirement-and-health-selection-analyses-from-the-u-s-health-and-retirement-study
#18
Sean A P Clouston, Nicole Denier
BACKGROUND: Research has recently suggested that retirement may decrease cognitive engagement, resulting in cognitive aging. Few studies have systematically documented whether or how selectivity into retirement shapes the relationship between retirement and cognitive aging. METHODS: We draw on data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998-2012) to examine the relationship between cognition and retirement for 18,575 labor force participants. Longitudinal regression discontinuity modeling was used to examine performance and decline in episodic memory...
January 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212943/effects-of-acute-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-manipulations-in-the-aci-paradigm-depend-on-the-basal-valence-of-cognitive-judgement-bias-in-rats
#19
Joanna Golebiowska, Rafal Rygula
Recent findings have revealed that pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic (DA) function by the administration of a DA precursor (dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; L-DOPA), but not the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, increases an optimism bias in humans. To test whether dopamine might play a similar role in non-human animals, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of acute injections of L-DOPA, the D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol, and the SSRI escitalopram on cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208068/altered-olfactory-processing-and-increased-insula-activity-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-fmri-study
#20
Heather A Berlin, Emily R Stern, Johnny Ng, Sam Zhang, David Rosenthal, Rachel Turetzky, Cheuk Tang, Wayne Goodman
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients show increased insula activation to disgust-inducing images compared to healthy controls (HC). We explored whether this disgust reactivity was also present in the olfactory domain by conducting the first fMRI study of olfaction in OCD. Neural activation in response to pleasant and unpleasant odors (vs. unscented air) was investigated in 15 OCD and 15 HC participants using fMRI. OCD participants (vs. HC) had increased left anterior insula activation to unpleasant odors (vs...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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