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Cognitive bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656487/experimental-research-requires-valid-and-sensitive-measures-of-alcohol-intake-and-this-is-a-step-in-the-right-direction-commentary-on-leeman-et-al-2018
#1
Matt Field, Andrew Jones, Inge Kersbergen, Eric Robinson
The paper by Leeman and colleagues (2018) makes an important contribution to the broader literature on cognitive bias modification (CBM) for alcohol use disorders. In a balanced discussion, the authors speculate on possible explanations for their null findings, including failure of CBM to change cognitive biases, participant characteristics, and the suitability and sensitivity of the alcohol self-administration paradigm that was the primary outcome measure. The former explanations have been the subject of recent discussion, often heated (see Cristea, Kok, & Cuijpers, 2015, 2017, 2018; Grafton et al...
April 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653156/oestrous-phase-cyclicity-influences-judgment-biasing-in-rats
#2
Timothy Hugh Barker, Karen Lee Kind, Peta Danielle Groves, Gordon Stanley Howarth, Alexandra Louise Whittaker
The identification of cognitive bias has become an important measure of animal welfare. Negative cognitive biases develop from a tendency for animals to process novel information pessimistically. Judgment-bias testing is the commonplace methodology to detect cognitive biases. However, concerns with these methods have been frequently-reported; one of which being the discrepancy between male and female cognitive expression. The current study assessed the factors of social status and oestrus, to investigate whether oestrous cycle rotation, or subordination stress encouraged an increase in pessimistic responses...
April 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651264/from-innate-spatial-biases-to-enculturated-spatial-cognition-the-case-of-spatial-associations-in-number-and-other-sequences
#3
Koleen McCrink, Maria Dolores de Hevia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650697/cell-type-specific-contributions-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-to-flexible-behaviors
#4
Hirofumi Nakayama, Ines Ibañez-Tallon, Nathaniel Heintz
Behavioral flexibility and impulse control are necessary for successful execution of adaptive behavior. They are impaired in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in some clinically important conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been investigated as a critical structure for behavioral flexibility and impulse control, the contribution of the underlying pyramidal neuron cell types in the mPFC remained to be understood. Here we show that interneuron-mediated local inactivation of pyramidal neurons in the mPFC of male and female mice induces both premature responses and choice bias, and establish that these impulsive and compulsive responses are modulated independently...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650067/diagnostic-errors-and-the-bedside-clinical-examination
#5
REVIEW
Bennett W Clark, Arsalan Derakhshan, Sanjay V Desai
Diagnostic errors are common in clinical practice and lead to adverse patient outcomes. Systematic reviews have shown that inadequate history taking and physical examination lead to a plurality, if not a majority, of diagnostic errors. Recent advances in cognitive science have also shown that unconscious biases likely contribute to many diagnostic errors. Research into diagnostic error has been hampered by methodologic inconsistency and a paucity of studies in real-world clinical settings. The best evidence indicates that educational interventions to reduce diagnostic error should give physicians feedback about clinical outcomes and enhance their ability to recognize signs and symptoms of specific diseases at the bedside...
May 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648928/an-optimistic-outlook-creates-a-rosy-past-the-impact-of-episodic-simulation-on-subsequent-memory
#6
Aleea L Devitt, Daniel L Schacter
People frequently engage in future thinking in everyday life, but it is unknown how simulating an event in advance changes how that event is remembered once it takes place. To initiate study of this important topic, we conducted two experiments in which participants simulated emotional events before learning the hypothetical outcome of each event via narratives. Memory was assessed for emotional details contained in those narratives. Positive simulation resulted in a liberal response bias for positive information and a conservative bias for negative information...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644469/-cognitive-bias-research-and-depression-in-chronic-pain
#7
REVIEW
A C Rusu, J Hülsebusch
Chronic back pain is of enormous health and economic relevance for industrialized countries because a small group of patients with chronic disease is responsible for a large proportion of medical costs. The prevention of chronic disease is therefore a primary goal in the treatment of patients with acute low back pain. Psychological factors are the central risk factors for later chronification. Above all, especially depressive symptoms and occupational distress, as well as various maladaptive forms of pain management are central risk factors...
April 11, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629186/systematic-review-of-acute-physically-active-learning-and-classroom-movement-breaks-on-children-s-physical-activity-cognition-academic-performance-and-classroom-behaviour-understanding-critical-design-features
#8
Andy J Daly-Smith, Stephen Zwolinsky, Jim McKenna, Phillip D Tomporowski, Margaret Anne Defeyter, Andrew Manley
Objective: To examine the impact of acute classroom movement break (CMB) and physically active learning (PAL) interventions on physical activity (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, Education Resources Information Center, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, SCOPUS and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: Studies investigating school-based acute bouts of CMB or PAL on (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628565/postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-indian-patients-undergoing-total-knee-replacement-under-spinal-anesthesia
#9
Praful Kilaru, A Ramachandra Reddy, Maryada Venketeshwar Reddy, Brijesh Kidiyoor, Vinay Mathew Joseph, Annapareddy Venkata Gurava Reddy
Introduction: Total knee replacement is a common surgical procedure in the elderly. The number of surgeries has increased owing to the increasing life expectancy of the population and better functional outcomes postsurgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an identified entity postsurgery in elderly but most of the studies have been on patients undergoing cardiac and other nonorthopaedic surgeries. The studies have shown variable incidence due to selection bias. We studied the incidence and probable predictive factors of POCD in elderly Indian population undergoing total knee replacement under spinal anesthesia...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628451/assessing-rehabilitation-eligibility-of-older-patients-an-ethical-analysis-of-the-impact-of-bias
#10
Josephine Najem, Priscilla Lam Wai Shun, Maude Laliberté, Vardit Ravitsky
Hospitalized older patients are more vulnerable to physical or cognitive functional decline. Inpatient rehabilitation programs improve significantly their functional status and may prevent their admission to nursing homes. While inpatient rehabilitation institutions have established admission criteria that can be seen as objective, the risk of bias remains and raises the question of equitable access for more vulnerable populations such as older patients. This paper reviews some established eligibility criteria for inpatient rehabilitation by examining a framework used in Montreal, Québec, Canada for assessing rehabilitation eligibility and by applying this framework to a case study...
2018: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624596/embodied-pain-in-fibromyalgia-disturbed-somatorepresentations-and-increased-plasticity-of-the-body-schema
#11
Endika Martínez, Zigor Aira, Itsaso Buesa, Ibane Aizpurua, Diego Rada, Jon Jatsu Azkue
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a highly prevalent, chronic musculoskeletal condition characterized by widespread pain and evoked pain at tender points. This study evaluated various aspects of body awareness in a sample of 14 women with FMS and 13 healthy controls, such as plasticity of the body schema, body esteem, and interoceptive awareness. To this end, the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI), the Body Esteem Scale (BES), and the Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ) were used, respectively. Consistent with increased plasticity of the body schema, FMS patients scored higher, with large or very large effect sizes, across all three domains evaluated in the RHI paradigm, namely proprioceptive drift and perceived ownership and motor control over the rubber hand...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623864/-clinical-drug-profiles-an-instrument-to-improve-shared-decision-making
#12
P J Jongen
Doctors and patients are increasingly choosing treatment options by means of the shared decision-making process. However, human decisions are subject to cognitive bias, i.e. systematic and predictable errors in probability estimation and information synthesis. Decision-making may also be hampered by incomplete information. Clinical Drug Profiles (CDPs) aim to provide up-to-date, evidence-based and independent information about drug characteristics that are relevant to doctors and patients alike in the context of shared decision-making...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620388/using-linked-data-to-investigate-developmental-vulnerabilities-in-children-of-convicted-parents
#13
Megan F Bell, Donna M Bayliss, Rebecca Glauert, Jeneva L Ohan
There is evidence that children of incarcerated parents are at risk of poor developmental and educational outcomes. However, much of this evidence is limited by biased samples, as studies must rely on opt-in recruitment. Administrative data present an opportunity to overcome this challenge, as they capture information on all incarcerated individuals. This study used administrative data on convictions of the parents of 19,071 children aged 5-6 years in Western Australia. Records of parental convictions (starting from 1 year prior to the child's birth) were linked to children's scores on the Australian Early Development Census, which is a teacher-reported measure of children's physical, social, emotional, communicative, and cognitive development...
April 5, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618408/is-major-depression-a-cognitive-disorder
#14
REVIEW
P Fossati
This is a review of cognitive abilities in major depression, which is associated with attention problems, memory deficit and wide impairment in executive functions. Depressed patients show two major cognitive biases: excessive processing of negatively valenced emotional stimuli; and increased self-focus. Both of these biases help to facilitate the integration of negative self-related information in depressed patients and to maintain their negative mood. Brain imaging studies suggest that this cognitive impairment is characterized by abnormal cooperation between the cognitive and limbic networks involved in cognitive control and self-referential processing...
April 1, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615961/hypertension-and-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#15
Liyan Hou, Qiujuan Li, Liping Jiang, Hongyan Qiu, Chengyan Geng, Jau-Shyong Hong, Huihua Li, Qingshan Wang
Background: Hypertension has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in the general population and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are contradictory data regarding the potential association between hypertension and diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after AD. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to synthesize data from cohort studies to explore the potential association between preexisting hypertension and subsequent PD diagnosis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614735/children-and-caregivers-exposure-to-adverse-childhood-experiences-aces-association-with-children-s-and-caregivers-psychological-outcomes-in-a-therapeutic-preschool-program
#16
Yair Ziv, Inbar Sofri, Kristen L Capps Umphlet, Stephanie Olarte, Jimmy Venza
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver's and the child's exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver's outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP)...
March 31, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614460/inequality-in-old-age-cognition-across-the-world
#17
Javier Olivera, Francesco Andreoli, Anja K Leist, Louis Chauvel
Although cohort and country differences in average cognitive levels are well established, identifying the degree and determinants of inequalities in old age cognitive functioning could guide public health and policymaking efforts. We use all publicly available and representative old age surveys with comparable information to assess inequalities of cognitive functioning for six distinctive age groups in 29 countries. We document that cognitive inequalities in old age are largely determined by earlier educational inequalities as well as gender differential survival rates...
March 22, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614188/diagnostic-reasoning-and-cognitive-biases-of-nurse-practitioners
#18
Thomas N Lawson
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic reasoning is often used colloquially to describe the process by which nurse practitioners and physicians come to the correct diagnosis, but a rich definition and description of this process has been lacking in the nursing literature. METHOD: A literature review was conducted with theoretical sampling seeking conceptual insight into diagnostic reasoning. RESULTS: Four common themes emerged: Cognitive Biases and Debiasing Strategies, the Dual Process Theory, Diagnostic Error, and Patient Harm...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613819/information-pooling-bias-in-collaborative-security-incident-correlation-analysis
#19
Prashanth Rajivan, Nancy J Cooke
OBJECTIVE: Incident correlation is a vital step in the cybersecurity threat detection process. This article presents research on the effect of group-level information-pooling bias on collaborative incident correlation analysis in a synthetic task environment. BACKGROUND: Past research has shown that uneven information distribution biases people to share information that is known to most team members and prevents them from sharing any unique information available with them...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611408/the-effect-of-mental-rotation-on-surgical-pathological-diagnosis
#20
Heejung Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Yoon Jin Cha, Junjeong Choi, Yangki Minn, Kyung Sik Kim, Se Hoon Kim
PURPOSE: Pathological diagnosis involves very delicate and complex consequent processing that is conducted by a pathologist. The recognition of false patterns might be an important cause of misdiagnosis in the field of surgical pathology. In this study, we evaluated the influence of visual and cognitive bias in surgical pathologic diagnosis, focusing on the influence of "mental rotation." MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed three sets of the same images of uterine cervix biopsied specimens (original, left to right mirror images, and 180-degree rotated images), and recruited 32 pathologists to diagnose the 3 set items individually...
May 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
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