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Cognitive bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451886/which-preferences-associate-with-school-performance-lessons-from-an-exploratory-study-with-university-students
#1
Daniel Horn, Hubert Janos Kiss
Success in life is determined to a large extent by school performance so it is important to understand the effect of the factors that influence it. In this exploratory study, in addition to cognitive abilities, we attempt to link measures of preferences with outcomes of school performance. We measured in an incentivized way risk, time, social and competitive preferences and cognitive abilities of university students to look for associations between these measures and two important academic outcome measures: exam results and GPA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450793/the-quality-of-response-time-data-inference-a-blinded-collaborative-assessment-of-the-validity-of-cognitive-models
#2
Gilles Dutilh, Jeffrey Annis, Scott D Brown, Peter Cassey, Nathan J Evans, Raoul P P P Grasman, Guy E Hawkins, Andrew Heathcote, William R Holmes, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Colin N Kupitz, Fábio P Leite, Veronika Lerche, Yi-Shin Lin, Gordon D Logan, Thomas J Palmeri, Jeffrey J Starns, Jennifer S Trueblood, Leendert van Maanen, Don van Ravenzwaaij, Joachim Vandekerckhove, Ingmar Visser, Andreas Voss, Corey N White, Thomas V Wiecki, Jörg Rieskamp, Chris Donkin
Most data analyses rely on models. To complement statistical models, psychologists have developed cognitive models, which translate observed variables into psychologically interesting constructs. Response time models, in particular, assume that response time and accuracy are the observed expression of latent variables including 1) ease of processing, 2) response caution, 3) response bias, and 4) non-decision time. Inferences about these psychological factors hinge upon the validity of the models' parameters...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450789/control-by-association-transfer-of-implicitly-primed-attentional-states-across-linked-stimuli
#3
Christina Bejjani, Ziwei Zhang, Tobias Egner
Although cognitive control has traditionally been viewed in opposition to associative learning, recent studies show that people can learn to link particular stimuli with specific cognitive control states (e.g., high attentional selectivity). Here, we tested whether such learned stimulus-control associations can transfer across paired-associates. In the Stimulus-Stimulus (S-S) Association phase, specific face or house images repeatedly preceded the presentation of particular scene stimuli, creating paired face/house-scene associates in memory...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450561/cognitive-performance-of-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-on-sacubitril-valsartan-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
R De Vecchis, C Ariano, G Di Biase, M Noutsias
BACKGROUND: Sacubitril, a neprilysin inhibitor in the combination molecule sacubitril/valsartan, slows down degradation of endogenous natriuretic peptides, thereby enhancing their beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, sacubitril might also promote neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) treated with sacubitril/valsartan, due to possible neprilysin inhibition at the level of Central Nervous System. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to detect the effects exerted by sacubitril/valsartan on cognitive function in CHF patients...
February 15, 2018: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450239/alcohol-related-mental-imagery-the-effects-of-a-priming-dose-in-at-risk-drinkers
#5
Michael Yates, Sunjeev K Kamboj
Objectives: Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the 'elaborated intrusion' theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods: Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n = 40) consumed alcohol (0...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450231/free-will-in-addictive-behaviors-a-matter-of-definition
#6
REVIEW
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450225/online-specific-fear-of-missing-out-and-internet-use-expectancies-contribute-to-symptoms-of-internet-communication-disorder
#7
Elisa Wegmann, Ursula Oberst, Benjamin Stodt, Matthias Brand
Some of the most frequently used online applications are Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter. These applications allow individuals to communicate with other users, to share information or pictures, and to stay in contact with friends all over the world. However, a growing number of users suffer from negative consequences due to their excessive use of these applications, which can be referred to as Internet-communication disorder. The frequent use and easy access of these applications may also trigger the individual's fear of missing out on content when not accessing these applications...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448238/parsing-the-heterogeneity-of-depression-an-exploratory-factor-analysis-across-commonly-used-depression-rating-scales
#8
Elizabeth D Ballard, Julia S Yarrington, Cristan A Farmer, Marc S Lener, Bashkim Kadriu, Níall Lally, Deonte Williams, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Mark J Niciu, Lawrence Park, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: Due to the heterogeneity of depressive symptoms-which can include depressed mood, anhedonia, negative cognitive biases, and altered activity levels-researchers often use a combination of depression rating scales to assess symptoms. This study sought to identify unidimensional constructs measured across rating scales for depression and to evaluate these constructs across clinical trials of a rapid-acting antidepressant (ketamine). METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on baseline ratings from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Rating Scale (SHAPS)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448083/sympathetic-arousal-but-not-disturbed-executive-functioning-mediates-the-impairment-of-cognitive-flexibility-under-stress
#9
Martin Marko, Igor Riečanský
Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference...
February 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447217/does-napping-enhance-the-effects-of-cognitive-bias-modification-appraisal-training-an-experimental-study
#10
Marcella L Woud, Jan C Cwik, Simon E Blackwell, Birgit Kleim, Emily A Holmes, Dirk Adolph, Hui Zhang, Jürgen Margraf
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App) training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446699/investigating-d-cycloserine-as-a-potential-pharmacological-enhancer-of-an-emotional-bias-learning-procedure
#11
Marcella L Woud, Simon E Blackwell, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Michael Browning, Emily A Holmes, Catherine J Harmer, Jürgen Margraf, Andrea Reinecke
The partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist d-cycloserine may enhance psychological therapies. However, its exact mechanism of action is still being investigated. Cognitive bias modification techniques allow isolation of cognitive processes and thus investigation of how they may be affected by d-cycloserine. We used a cognitive bias modification paradigm targeting appraisals of a stressful event, Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal, to investigate whether d-cycloserine enhanced the modification of appraisal, and whether it caused greater reduction in indices of psychopathology...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445122/deep-phenotyping-of-speech-and-language-skills-in-individuals-with-16p11-2-deletion
#12
Cristina Mei, Evelina Fedorenko, David J Amor, Amber Boys, Caitlyn Hoeflin, Peter Carew, Trent Burgess, Simon E Fisher, Angela T Morgan
Recurrent deletions of a ~600-kb region of 16p11.2 have been associated with a highly penetrant form of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Yet prior findings have been based on a small, potentially biased sample using retrospectively collected data. We examine the prevalence of CAS in a larger cohort of individuals with 16p11.2 deletion using a prospectively designed assessment battery. The broader speech and language phenotype associated with carrying this deletion was also examined. 55 participants with 16p11...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441518/haloperidol-for-delirium-in-critically-ill-patients-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#13
M Barbateskovic, S R Kraus, M O Collet, O Mathiesen, J C Jakobsen, A Perner, J Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit, the prevalence of delirium is high. Delirium has been associated with morbidity and mortality including more ventilator days, longer intensive care unit stay, increased long-term mortality, and cognitive impairment. Thus, the burden of delirium for patients, relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients...
February 14, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439064/interventions-that-enhance-health-services-for-parents-and-infants-to-improve-child-development-and-social-and-emotional-well-being-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#14
Lisa Hurt, Shantini Paranjothy, Patricia Jane Lucas, Debbie Watson, Mala Mann, Lucy J Griffiths, Samuel Ginja, Tapio Paljarvi, Jo Williams, Mark A Bellis, Raghu Lingam
BACKGROUND: Experiences in the first 1000 days of life have a critical influence on child development and health. Health services that provide support for families need evidence about how best to improve their provision. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the evidence for interventions in high-income countries to improve child development by enhancing health service contact with parents from the antenatal period to 24 months postpartum. We searched 15 databases and trial registers for studies published in any language between 01 January 1996 and 01 April 2016...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438597/personally-tailored-activities-for-improving-psychosocial-outcomes-for-people-with-dementia-in-long-term-care
#15
REVIEW
Ralph Möhler, Anna Renom, Helena Renom, Gabriele Meyer
BACKGROUND: People with dementia who are being cared for in long-term care settings are often not engaged in meaningful activities. Offering them activities which are tailored to their individual interests and preferences might improve their quality of life and reduce challenging behaviour. OBJECTIVES: ∙ To assess the effects of personally tailored activities on psychosocial outcomes for people with dementia living in long-term care facilities.∙ To describe the components of the interventions...
February 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437739/a-foreign-older-diabetic-woman-with-an-acute-myocardial-infarction-when-cognitive-biases-in-clinical-decision-making-become-especially-important
#16
Mathias Schlögl, Daniel Hofmänner, Robert Manka, Dagmar I Keller
We present a case of an 80-year-old Turkish female patient with diabetes who suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and underwent percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA)/stenting. Due to new ischaemic episodes, a second PTCA/stenting had to be preformed 6 days later, which revealed a partial restent thrombosis. This case report raises several important issues. First, language problems are an important barrier for safety and quality in healthcare. Second, gender, ethnicity and age differences in patients with AMI need to be considered in order to eliminate inequities in clinical practice...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436486/randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study-of-single-dose-guanfacine-in-unilateral-neglect-following-stroke
#17
Edwin S Dalmaijer, Korina M S Li, Nikos Gorgoraptis, Alexander P Leff, David L Cohen, Andrew D Parton, Masud Husain, Paresh A Malhotra
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral neglect is a poststroke disorder that impacts negatively on functional outcome and lacks established, effective treatment. This multicomponent syndrome is characterised by a directional bias of attention away from contralesional space, together with impairments in several cognitive domains, including sustained attention and spatial working memory. This study aimed to test the effects of guanfacine, a noradrenergic alpha-2A agonist, on ameliorating aspects of neglect...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435357/right-from-the-start-protocol-for-a-pilot-study-for-a-randomised-trial-of-the-new-baby-programme-for-improving-outcomes-for-children-born-to-socially-vulnerable-mothers
#18
Geraldine Macdonald, Fiona Alderdice, Mike Clarke, Oliver Perra, Fiona Lynn, Theresa McShane, Sharon Millen
Background: Children born to mothers who experience social complexity (e.g. substance misuse, intimate partner violence, mental ill health, a history of maltreatment) are at increased risk for a range of adverse outcomes at birth and during development. Home visiting programmes have been advocated as a strategy for improving outcomes for disadvantaged mothers and children, such as the Nurse-Family Partnership for young, socially disadvantaged first-time mothers. However, no evidence-based programme is available for multiparous women or older first-time mothers...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435269/current-understanding-of-chronic-total-occlusion-of-the-internal-carotid-artery
#19
Baofeng Xu, Chao Li, Yunbao Guo, Kan Xu, Yi Yang, Jinlu Yu
At present, there is limited understanding of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Therefore, the present report collected related cases from PubMed and reviewed the literature. Cerebral vessels may form collateral circulation immediately or gradually following CTO of the ICA. The natural history of CTO of the ICA includes a variety of outcomes, all of which are biased toward a non-benign progressive process and are characterized by insufficient cerebral perfusion, embolus detachment and cognitive dysfunction...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434540/perceptual-color-space-representations-in-the-oculomotor-system-are-modulated-by-surround-suppression-and-biased-selection
#20
Devin H Kehoe, Maryam Rahimi, Mazyar Fallah
The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE (x,y) color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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