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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655836/incidence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-hcv-associated-cirrhosis-treated-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#1
Vincenza Calvaruso, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Irene Cacciola, Salvatore Petta, Salvatore Madonia, Alessandro Bellia, Fabio Tinè, Marco Distefano, Anna Licata, Lydia Giannitrapani, Tullio Prestileo, Giovanni Mazzola, Maria Antonietta Di Rosolini, Licia Larocca, Gaetano Bertino, Antonio Digiacomo, Francesco Benanti, Luigi Guarneri, Alfonso Averna, Carmelo Iacobello, Antonio Magro, Ignazio Scalisi, Fabio Cartabellotta, Francesca Savalli, Marco Barbara, Antonio Davì, Maurizio Russello, Gaetano Scifo, Giovanni Squadrito, Calogero Cammà, Giovanni Raimondo, Antonio Craxì, Vito Di Marco
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies have produced conflicting results of the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Data from clinics are needed to accurately assess the occurrence rate of HCC in patients with cirrhosis in the real world. METHODS: We collected data from a large prospective study of 2249 consecutive patients (mean age, 65.4 years and 56...
April 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652922/a-novel-mechanism-of-rnase-l-inhibition-theiler-s-virus-l-protein-prevents-2-5a-from-binding-to-rnase-l
#2
Melissa Drappier, Babal Kant Jha, Sasha Stone, Ruth Elliott, Rong Zhang, Didier Vertommen, Susan R Weiss, Robert H Silverman, Thomas Michiels
The OAS/RNase L pathway is one of the best-characterized effector pathways of the IFN antiviral response. It inhibits the replication of many viruses and ultimately promotes apoptosis of infected cells, contributing to the control of virus spread. However, viruses have evolved a range of escape strategies that act against different steps in the pathway. Here we unraveled a novel escape strategy involving Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) L* protein. Previously we found that L* was the first viral protein binding directly RNase L...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644736/editorial-are-the-miraculous-direct-acting-antiviral-daa-regimens-really-safe
#3
EDITORIAL
I S Papanikolaou, V Papadimitropoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628768/outcomes-and-predictors-of-treatment-response-with-sofosbuvir-plus-daclatasvir-with-or-without-ribavirin-in-egyptian-patients-with-genotype-4-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#4
Ossama A Ahmed, Mohamed A Elsebaey, Mohamed Hassan A Fouad, Heba Elashry, Ahmed I Elshafie, Ahmed A Elhadidy, Noha E Esheba, Mohammed H Elnaggar, Shaimaa Soliman, Sherief Abd-Elsalam
Background and aims: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) changed dramatically with the introduction of oral direct-acting antiviral drugs due to their high antiviral potency and safety profile. Sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir combination therapy was extensively investigated in HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, while published data regarding its real-life application in the treatment of genotype 4 is lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the outcomes and predictors of treatment response with sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir with or without ribavirin in Egyptian patients with genotype 4 hepatitis C virus infection...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628386/caffeic-acid-a-coffee-related-organic-acid-inhibits-infection-by-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-in-vitro
#5
Motohiko Ogawa, Yoshitaka Shirasago, Shuji Ando, Masayuki Shimojima, Masayuki Saijo, Masayoshi Fukasawa
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) causes tick-borne hemorrhagic fever in East Asia. The disease is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated the effects of caffeic acid (CA), a coffee-related organic acid with antiviral effects, against SFTSV infection. CA dose-dependently inhibited SFTSV infection in permissive human hepatoma Huh7.5.1-8 cells when SFTSV was added into the culture medium with CA. However, quinic acid (QA), another coffee-related organic acid, did not inhibit SFTSV infection...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623506/considerations-when-treating-hepatitis-c-in-a-cirrhotic-transplant-candidate
#6
REVIEW
Kimberly E Daniel, Adnan Said
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the issues in determining the decision to treat a HCV-positive patient who is a liver transplant (LT) candidate with highly effective and well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Cure of HCV with DAA can improve liver function and allow delisting in some patients. Beyond a threshold of hepatic impairment (likely MELD score > 16 to 20), patients may experience a decline in MELD score with HCV cure without improvement in liver-related complications resulting in decreased opportunity to receive a LT...
April 5, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622580/disruption-of-ifn-i-signaling-promotes-her2-neu-tumor-progression-and-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#7
Luciano Castiello, Paola Sestili, Giovanna Schiavoni, Rosanna Dattilo, Domenica M Monque, Fiorella Ciaffoni, Manuela Iezzi, Alessia Lamolinara, Antonella Sistigu, Federica Moschella, Anna Maria Pacca, Daniele Macchia, Maria Ferrantini, Ann Zeuner, Mauro Biffoni, Enrico Proietti, Filippo Belardelli, Eleonora Arico
Type I interferon (IFN-I) is a class of antiviral immunomodulatory cytokines involved in many stages of tumor initiation and progression. IFN-I acts directly on tumor cells to inhibit cell growth, and indirectly by activating immune cells to mount antitumor responses. To understand the role of endogenous IFN-I in spontaneous, oncogene-driven carcinogenesis, we characterized tumors arising in Her2/neu transgenic (neuT) mice carrying a nonfunctional mutation in the IFN-I receptor (IFNAR1). Such mice are unresponsive to this family of cytokines...
April 5, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621544/prevalence-of-ns5a-resistance-associated-variants-in-ns5a-inhibitor-treatment-failures-and-an-effective-treatment-for-ns5a-p32-deleted-hepatitis-c-virus-in-humanized-mice
#8
Yuji Teraoka, Takuro Uchida, Michio Imamura, Mitsutaka Osawa, Masataka Tsuge, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, C Nelson Hayes, Grace Naswa Makokha, Hiroshi Aikata, Daiki Miki, Hidenori Ochi, Yuji Ishida, Chise Tateno, Kazuaki Chayama
Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who have failed to respond to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment often acquire drug resistance-associated variants (RAVs). The NS5A-P32 deletion (P32del) RAV confers potent resistance to NS5A inhibitors; therefore, patients who acquire this deletion are likely to fail to respond to DAA re-treatment. We investigated the prevalence of N55A-P32del in patients who failed to respond to prior NS5A inhibitor treatment using direct sequencing and analyzed the efficacy of DAA combination treatment in the presence of NS5A-P32del RAVs using human hepatocyte transplanted mice...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619416/early-and-late-changes-in-natural-killer-cells-in-response-to-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-treatment
#9
Lucy Golden-Mason, Rachel H McMahan, Michael S Kriss, Alexandra L Kilgore, Linling Cheng, Rachael J Dran, Amanda Wieland, Hugo R Rosen
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by dysregulated natural killer (NK) cell responses. NKs play a critical role in achieving sustained responses to interferon (IFN)-α-based therapy. Rapid sustained HCV-RNA clearance is now achieved with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Studies of patients receiving first-wave DAAs suggest NK functional restoration. Here, we investigate the effect of mainstream DAA treatment on NKs. We collected a prospective cohort of male HCV genotype 1-infected patients treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (n = 22)...
April 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619090/host-targeting-therapies-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-current-developments-and-future-applications
#10
REVIEW
Emilie Crouchet, Florian Wrensch, Catherine Schuster, Mirjam B Zeisel, Thomas F Baumert
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. In the past few years, anti-HCV therapies have undergone a revolution with the approval of multiple direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which enable interferon-free treatments with considerable improvement of sustained virologic response in patients. Today, DAAs have become the standard of care for HCV therapy. However, several limitations remain, which include access to therapy, treatment failure in a subset of patients and persistent risk of HCC development following cure in patients with advanced fibrosis...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617735/direct-acting-antivirals-and-hepatitis-c-the-ethics-of-price-and-rationing-by-genotype
#11
Alexis Walker, Angie Boyce, Gail Geller, Chloe L Thio, Jeffrey P Kahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617443/changes-in-serum-levels-of-autotaxin-with-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#12
Tomoo Yamazaki, Satoru Joshita, Takeji Umemura, Yoko Usami, Ayumi Sugiura, Naoyuki Fujimori, Takefumi Kimura, Akihiro Matsumoto, Koji Igarashi, Masao Ota, Eiji Tanaka
Sustained virological response (SVR) rates have increased remarkably since the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for chronic hepatitis C. Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme converting lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid and a newly established biomarker for liver fibrosis. Interferon-free DAA regimens for chronic hepatitis C could improve liver stiffness in SVR patients according to several non-invasive evaluation methods, but the clinical response and significance of ATX in this context have not yet been defined...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616028/human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-receptor-repertoires-in-peripheral-blood-remain-stable-despite-clearance-of-persistent-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-by-direct-acting-antiviral-drug-therapy
#13
Sarina Ravens, Julia Hengst, Verena Schlapphoff, Katja Deterding, Akshay Dhingra, Christian Schultze-Florey, Christian Koenecke, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer, Immo Prinz
Human γδ T cells can contribute to clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but also mediate liver inflammation. This study aimed to understand the clonal distribution of γδ T cells in peripheral blood of chronic HCV patients and following HCV clearance by interferon-free direct-acting antiviral drug therapies. To this end, γδ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires were monitored by mRNA-based next-generation sequencing. While the percentage of Vγ9+ T cells was higher in patients with elevated liver enzymes and a few expanded Vδ3 clones could be identified in peripheral blood of 23 HCV-infected non-cirrhotic patients, overall clonality and complexity of γδ TCR repertoires were largely comparable to those of matched healthy donors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615488/development-and-clinical-validation-of-the-genedrive-point-of-care-test-for-qualitative-detection-of-hepatitis-c-virus
#14
Alba Llibre, Yusuke Shimakawa, Estelle Mottez, Shaun Ainsworth, Tan-Phuc Buivan, Rick Firth, Elliott Harrison, Arielle R Rosenberg, Jean-François Meritet, Arnaud Fontanet, Pablo Castan, Antonio Madejón, Mark Laverick, Allison Glass, Raquel Viana, Stanislas Pol, C Patrick McClure, William Lucien Irving, Gino Miele, Matthew L Albert, Darragh Duffy
OBJECTIVE: Recently approved direct acting antivirals provide transformative therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The major clinical challenge remains to identify the undiagnosed patients worldwide, many of whom live in low-income and middle-income countries, where access to nucleic acid testing remains limited. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a point-of-care (PoC) assay for the qualitative detection of HCV RNA. DESIGN: We developed a PoC assay for the qualitative detection of HCV RNA on the PCR Genedrive instrument...
April 3, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611106/direct-acting-antiviral-drugs-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-and-risk-of-major-vascular-events-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Eleonora Tamborini Permunian, Lorenzo Gervaso, Victor Gerdes, Lorenzo Moja, Luigina Guasti, Alessandro Squizzato
Direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) were recently approved for treating hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis. As advanced chronic liver disease may predispose patients to thrombotic events, it is still uncertain whether DAAs may influence the actual risk of major arterial and venous thrombotic events. We performed a systematic review to assess the incidence of major vascular events in patients receiving DAAs for HCV chronic hepatitis during phase-III randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers identified studies through Pubmed database until October 2015...
April 2, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611014/cost-effectiveness-of-novel-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-lebanese-patients
#16
Soumana C Nasser, Hanine Mansour, Tatiana Abi Nader, Mirna Metni
Background Limited data is available on Hepatitis C disease prevalence, treatment initiation and its cost-effectiveness in Lebanon and the whole Middle East. Objective The aim of the study is to assess whether initiation of novel Direct Acting Antiviral agents (DAAs) at early stage of hepatitis C is cost-effective in Lebanese patients. Setting Lebanon. Methods This modeling study was conducted from the perspective of Lebanese third party payers, where existing practice is based on international guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609552/experiences-of-liver-health-related-uncertainty-and-self-reported-stress-among-people-who-inject-drugs-living-with-hepatitis-c-virus-a-qualitative-study
#17
Stelliana Goutzamanis, Joseph S Doyle, Alexander Thompson, Paul Dietze, Margaret Hellard, Peter Higgs
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are most at risk of hepatitis C virus infection in Australia. The introduction of transient elastography (TE) (measuring hepatitis fibrosis) and direct acting antiviral medications will likely alter the experience of living with hepatitis C. We aimed to explore positive and negative influences on wellbeing and stress among PWID with hepatitis C. METHODS: The Treatment and Prevention (TAP) study examines the feasibility of treating hepatitis C mono-infected PWID in community settings...
April 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608601/sting-agonists-enable-antiviral-cross-talk-between-human-cells-and-confer-protection-against-genital-herpes-in-mice
#18
Morten K Skouboe, Alice Knudsen, Line S Reinert, Cedric Boularan, Thierry Lioux, Eric Perouzel, Martin K Thomsen, Søren R Paludan
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in immunomodulatory therapy as a means to treat various conditions, including infectious diseases. For instance, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been evaluated for treatment of genital herpes. However, although the TLR7 agonist imiquimod was shown to have antiviral activity in individual patients, no significant effects were observed in clinical trials, and the compound also exhibited significant side effects, including local inflammation. Cytosolic DNA is detected by the enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP (2'3'-cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) to stimulate antiviral pathways, mainly through induction of type I interferon (IFN)s...
April 2, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607961/a-patient-with-hcv-infection-and-a-sustained-virological-response-to-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-who-developed-inclusion-body-myositis
#19
Toru Kuwano, Norio Akuta, Fumitaka Suzuki, Shunichiro Fujiyama, Yusuke Kawamura, Hitomi Sezaki, Tetsuya Hosaka, Satoshi Saitoh, Masahiro Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Mariko Kobayashi, Yasuji Arase, Kenji Ikeda, Hiromitsu Kumada
We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who was found to have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 1987. Before treatment in 2016, she was found to have mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC). Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment produced a sustained virological response 12 (SVR12). She noticed gradual muscle weakness in 2015 and the gradual development of dysarthria and dysphagia in 2017. We performed a muscle biopsy that showed inclusion body myositis (IBM). To the best of our knowledge, this is first case of a patient with HCV infection, MC, and IBM, in which MC and IBM did not improve after an SVR12 was obtained by DAA treatment...
March 30, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607308/hepatitis-c-virus-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Page Axley, Zunirah Ahmed, Sujan Ravi, Ashwani K Singal
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related death worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with significantly increased risk for development of HCC. The morbidity and mortality of HCV-related HCC remains high, as rates of HCV cirrhosis continue to increase. The long-term goal of antiviral therapy for chronic HCV is to reduce complications from cirrhosis, including HCC. The advent of new direct-acting antivirals with high rates of virological clearance has revolutionized cure of HCV infection...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
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