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Priya Antony, Bincy Baby, Ranjit Vijayan
Phosphatidylinositols and their phosphorylated derivatives, phosphoinositides, play a central role in regulating diverse cellular functions. These phospholipids have been shown to interact with the hydrophobic TH domain of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced protein 8 (TIPE) family of proteins. However, the precise mechanism of interaction of these lipids is unclear. Here we report the binding mode and interactions of these phospholipids in the TH domain, as elucidated using molecular docking and simulations...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Imad Younus Hasan, Adam Mechler
Supported planar phospholipid membranes are used in a range of biophysical measurements, typically for characterizing protein-membrane interactions. Liposome deposition is the most common method to create such membranes. The ability of liposomes to fuse into a lamellar membrane during deposition is strongly dependent on the surface chemistry; some important substrate materials such as oxidized gold do not promote liposome fusion. Circumventing this determinism poses an enduring challenge to membrane biophysics...
September 22, 2016: Biointerphases
David P Hickey, Krysti L Knoche, Kelan Albertson, Carolina Castro, Ross D Milton, Shelley D Minteer
Here, we demonstrate the use of phospholipid micelles to enhance O2 concentrations by two-fold at the surface of a bilirubin oxidase biocathode. Specifically, 1,2-diarachidoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was used in a glucose enzymatic fuel cell to limit power losses due to O2 transport, even in a quiescent solution.
October 26, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yingshi Ouyang, Avraham Bayer, Tianjiao Chu, Vladimir A Tyurin, Valerian E Kagan, Adrian E Morelli, Carolyn B Coyne, Yoel Sadovsky
INTRODUCTION: Primary human trophoblasts release a repertoire of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Among them are nano-sized exosomes, which we found to suppress the replication of a wide range of diverse viruses. These exosomes contain trophoblastic microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed from the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster and exhibit antiviral properties. Here, we report our investigation of the cargo of placental EVs, focusing on the composition and the antiviral properties of exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic blebs...
November 2016: Placenta
Lisa N McAuliffe, Kieran N Kilcawley, Jeremiah J Sheehan, Paul L H McSweeney
Liposome-encapsulated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was incorporated into a model miniature Gouda-type cheese (20 g) in order to assess its effect on rennet gelation, starter viability, pH, and moisture content. EDTA was encapsulated within 2 different food-grade proliposome preparations, Pro-Lipo Duo and Pro-Lipo C (50% and 40% unsaturated soybean phospholipids and 50% and 60% aqueous medium, respectively), using the following high-shear technologies: Ultra-Turrax (5000 rpm), 2-stage homogenization (345 bar), or microfluidization (690 bar)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Catherine L Jackson, Laurence Walch, Jean-Marc Verbavatz
An evolutionarily conserved feature of cellular organelles is the distinct phospholipid composition of their bounding membranes, which is essential to their identity and function. Within eukaryotic cells, two major lipid territories can be discerned, one centered on the endoplasmic reticulum and characterized by membranes with lipid packing defects, the other comprising plasma-membrane-derived organelles and characterized by membrane charge. We discuss how this cellular lipid organization is maintained, how lipid flux is regulated, and how perturbations in cellular lipid homeostasis can lead to disease...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
Anne Julie Overgaard, Simranjeet Kaur, Flemming Pociot
Metabolomics is the snapshot of all detectable metabolites and lipids in biological materials and has potential in reflecting genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of complex diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. The progression to seroconversion to development of type 1 diabetes has been studied using this technique, although in relatively small cohorts and at limited time points. Overall, three observations have been consistently reported; phospholipids at birth are lower in children developing type 1 diabetes early in childhood, methionine levels are lower in children at seroconversion, and triglycerides are increased at seroconversion and associated to microbiome diversity, indicating an association between the metabolome and microbiome in type 1 diabetes progression...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Qili Zhu, Ling Sun, Jiajie Lian, Xuli Gao, Lei Zhao, Mingyu Ding, Jing Li, Yuancun Liang
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an important phospholipid hydrolase that plays critical roles in various biological processes in eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the functions of PLC in morphogenesis and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum, deletion mutants were constructed of all six FgPLC genes identified in this study. Deletion of FgPLC1, but not the other five FgPLC genes, affected hyphal growth and conidiation. The FgPLC1 deletion mutant (Δplc1) also was defective in conidium germination and germ tube growth...
October 21, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Qingxin Chen, Taiwei Chu
As tumor markers, the radiolabeling of choline (Cho)-containing phospholipids in cellular membranes with (99m)Tc is a challenge. The conventional strategy to combine the metallic radionuclide with Cho by large ligand damages the bioactivity of Cho, resulting in low tumor-to-nontumor ratios. Pretargeting strategy based on strain-promoted cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction was applied to solve this general problem. Functional click synthons were synthesized as pretargeting components: azidoethyl-choline (AECho) serves as tumor marker and azadibenzocyclooctyne (ADIBO) conjugated to bis(2-pieolyl) amine (BPA) ligand (ADIBO-BPA) as (99m)Tc(CO)3-labeling and azido-binding group...
October 12, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Thomas Schmidt, Alan J Situ, Tobias S Ulmer
The solvation of membrane proteins by both lipids and water makes their membrane immersion difficult to predict and the choice of a membrane mimic challenging. To characterize protein-lipid contacts and bicelle membrane mimics, we examined protein-lipid cross-relaxation of integrin αIIb and β3(A711P) transmembrane helices in isotropic phospholipid bicelles (q=0.5 and 0.7). Long-chain bicelle lipids dominated contacts with central helix segments, whereas both short- and long-chain lipids contacted the terminal turns of each helix in corroboration of the mixed bicelle model...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Vera Pader, Sanika Hakim, Kimberley L Painter, Sivaramesh Wigneshweraraj, Thomas B Clarke, Andrew M Edwards
Daptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic of last resort for serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(1,2). Although resistance is rare, treatment failure can occur in more than 20% of cases(3,4) and so there is a pressing need to identify and mitigate factors that contribute to poor therapeutic outcomes. Here, we show that loss of the Agr quorum-sensing system, which frequently occurs in clinical isolates, enhances S. aureus survival during daptomycin treatment. Wild-type S...
October 24, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Yiqiong Pu, Xitong Zhang, Qi Zhang, Bing Wang, Yuxi Chen, Chuanqi Zang, Yuqin Wang, Tina Ting-Xia Dong, Tong Zhang
20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a bioactive compound extracted from ginseng, possesses cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiestrogenic, anticancer and anxiolytic effects. However, the clinical application of PPD is limited by its weak aqueous solubility. In this study, we optimized an efficient method of preparing its phospholipid complex (PPD-PLC) using a central composite design and response surface analysis. The prepared PPD-PLC was characterized by differential scanning calorimetric, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses associated with molecular docking calculation...
October 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
H Xu, J Ärnlöv, B Sandhagen, U Risérus, B Lindholm, L Lind, J J Carrero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Unhealthy dietary fats are associated with faster kidney function decline. The cell membrane composition of phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) is a determinant of membrane fluidity and rheological properties. These properties, which have been linked to kidney damage, are thought to be reflected by the lipophilic index (LI). We prospectively investigated the associations of LI with kidney function and its decline. METHODS AND RESULTS: Observational study from the Prospective Investigation of Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors including 975 men and women with plasma phospholipid FAs composition and cystatin-C estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
September 16, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Christopher T Boughter, Viviana Monje-Galvan, Wonpil Im, Jeffery B Klauda
In this study, the influence of cholesterol on lipid bilayers is investigated by changing phospholipid head group, cholesterol concentration, chain saturation, and temperature. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to characterize bilayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) head groups with either fully saturated dimyristoyl (DM) or monounsaturated dioleoyl (DO) acyl chains and cholesterol concentrations ranging from 5-50%. To further explore the effects of cholesterol on bilayers with different head groups, we also preformed MD simulations of bilayer systems having 15% cholesterol with phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylserine (PS), each having DM chains and at a temperature above the solid gel phase transition...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jens Zierle, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Teriflunomide, an inhibitor of pyrimidine synthesis and thus proliferation of activated T and B lymphocytes, is successfully used for treatment of inflammatory disease. Teriflunomide has further been shown to trigger apoptosis of tumor cells and has thus been considered for the treatment of malignancy. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
James Esposito, Zoe Brown, Wendy Stevens, Joanne Sahhar, Candice Rabusa, Jane Zochling, Janet Roddy, Jennifer Walker, Susanna M Proudman, Mandana Nikpour
BACKGROUND: In some rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), low serum complement ('hypocomplementaemia') is a feature of active disease. However, the role of hypocomplementaemia in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is unknown. We sought to determine the frequency, clinical associations and relationship to disease activity of hypocomplementaemia in SSc. METHODS: The study included 1140 patients fulfilling the 2013 American College of Rheumatology criteria for SSc...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Makoto Yoshimoto
Phospholipid vesicle (liposome) offers an aqueous compartment surrounded by lipid bilayer membranes. Various enzyme molecules have been reported to be encapsulated in liposomes. The liposomal enzyme shows peculiar catalytic activity and selectivity to the substrate in the bulk liquid, which are predominantly derived from the substrate permeation resistance through the membrane. We reported that the quaternary structure of bovine liver catalase and alcohol dehydrogenase was stabilized in liposomes through their interaction with lipid membranes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yanfeng Zhang, Yong Xu, Wei Fang, Xiaotang Wang, Zemin Fang, Yazhong Xiao
A taxonomic study was carried out on a Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, non-flagellated, and facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain designated as strain SF-16(T), which was isolated from an unidentified starfish in Sanya, China. Strain SF-16(T) was found to be 5.0-7.0 μm long, and oxidase and catalase positive. Cell growth was observed at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, 7.0-8.0), temperatures of 10-41 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), and salinities of 0-12 % (optimum, 3.0-6.0 %). The predominant fatty acids (>20 %) were found to be C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c (summed feature 8)...
October 21, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Yi Li, Xueqian Lei, Yanting Xu, Hong Zhu, Meiying Xu, Lijun Fu, Wei Zheng, Jinli Zhang, Tianling Zheng
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain, designated Y21(T), was isolated from surface lake water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China. Growth was observed at temperatures from 4 to 37 °C, at salinities from 0 to 7.0 % and at pH from 6.0 to 10.0. Optimum growth was observed at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 1.5-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The highest similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain Y21(T) and the other strains was 96.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Rhizobium, forming a distinct lineage with R...
October 22, 2016: Current Microbiology
Norimitsu Shirai, Frank J Geoly, Walter F Bobrowski, Carlin Okerberg
Drug-induced phospholipidosis is characterized by intracellular accumulation of phospholipids with lamellar bodies in cells exposed to xenobiotics. Demonstration of the lamellar bodies by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the hallmark for a definitive diagnosis of phospholipidosis. However, the preparation of tissue samples for TEM and their ultrastructural evaluation are technically challenging and time consuming. Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is essentially a fat stain, and the staining mechanism is based upon the osmication of unsaturated lipids...
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
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