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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239773/high-resolution-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy-of-the-yersinia-pestis-outer-membrane-protein-ail-in-lipid-membranes
#1
Yong Yao, Samit Kumar Dutta, Sang Ho Park, Ratan Rai, L Miya Fujimoto, Andrey A Bobkov, Stanley J Opella, Francesca M Marassi
The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail's biological activity...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239063/fatty-acid-and-lipid-class-composition-of-the-microalga-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#2
Yu-Hong Yang, Lei Du, Masashi Hosokawa, Kazuo Miyashita, Yume Kokubun, Hisayoshi Arai, Hiroyuki Taroda
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for the prevention and/or risk reduction of some diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Therefore, PUFAs-rich marine microalgae have received considerable research attention. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a rich source of lipids and fucoxanthin, has commercial applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the lipid class composition and fatty acid distribution in P. tricornutum under high-density and scale-up cultivation were investigated by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239061/evaluation-of-the-mechanisms-of-mayonnaise-phospholipid-oxidation
#3
Shunji Kato, Tatsuya Iseki, Yasuhiko Hanzawa, Yurika Otoki, Junya Ito, Fumiko Kimura, Teruo Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa
Mayonnaise, which is widely used in foods, is rich in lipids and therefore susceptible to oxidation during the manufacturing process, which can result in loss of quality. Herein, we detected and analyzed phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) isomers present in fresh mayonnaise using LC-MS/MS. The PCOOH isomer composition suggests that mayonnaise phospholipid peroxidation is predominantly initiated by radical-oxidation (i.e. upon autoxidation), rather than singlet oxygen-oxidation (e.g. upon light exposure), during manufacturing, packaging and/or storage...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238857/asiaticoside-attenuation-of-rotenone-induced-oxidative-burden-in-a-rat-model-of-hemiparkinsonism-by-maintaining-the-phosphoinositide-mediated-synaptic-integrity
#4
Margabandhu Gopi, Arambakkam Janardhanam Vanisree
Asiaticoside (AS), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the Indian medicinal herb Centella asiatica is known to exert a neuroprotective effect by attenuating the neurobehavioral, neurochemical and pathological changes in animal models. However, its potential neuroprotection in rotenone-induced hemiparkinsonism which implicates phospholipid-mediated neurotransmission remains unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of AS in rat model of ROT-infused hemiparkinsonism with respect to phosphoinositides-assisted cytodynamics and synaptic function...
February 23, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238819/alkylphospholipids-an-update-on-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-relevance
#5
REVIEW
Pablo Ríos-Marco, Carmen Marco, Xiomara Gálvez, Jose M Jiménez-López, María P Carrasco
Alkylphospholipid (APL) represent a new class of drugs which do not interact directly with DNA but act on the cell membrane where they accumulate and interfere with lipid metabolism and signalling pathways. This review summarizes the mode of action at the molecular level of these compounds. In this sense, a diversity of mechanisms has been suggested to explain the actions of clinically-relevant APLs, in particular, in cancer treatment. One consistently reported finding is that APLs reduce the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT)...
February 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238818/the-conformation-of-human-phospholipid-scramblase-1-as-studied-by-infrared-spectroscopy-effects-of-calcium-and-detergent
#6
Nagore Andraka, Lissete Sánchez-Magraner, Marcos García-Pacios, Félix M Goñi, José L R Arrondo
Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (SCR) is a membrane protein that catalyzes the transmembrane (flip-flop) motion of phospholipids. It can also exist in a non membrane-bound form in the nucleus, where it modulates several aspects of gene expression. Catalysis of phospholipid flip-flop requires the presence of millimolar Ca(2+), and occurs in the absence of ATP. Membrane-bound SCR contains a C-terminal α-helical domain embedded in the membrane bilayer. The latter domain can be removed giving rise to a stable truncated mutant SCRΔ that is devoid of scramblase activity...
February 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238458/increased-levels-of-anti-phosphatidylcholine-and-anti-phosphatidylethanolamine-antibodies-in-pediatric-patients-with-cerebral-infarction
#7
Seigo Korematsu, Hiroshi Yamada, Hiroaki Miyahara, Kenji Ihara
Cerebral infarction in children is rare and often occurs secondary to moyamoya disease, hereditary coagulopathies, vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, heart disease, mitochondrial disease. However, in some cases, the causes of cerebral infarction is unknown. In this study, we detected increased levels of serum anti-phosphatidylcholine and anti-phosphatidylethanolamine IgG antibodies in three pediatric patients with cerebral infarction whose primary disorders are unknown by routine examination. For the five disease control patients of cerebral infarction due to other primary disorders, there was no such increase in these antibodies levels...
February 23, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238371/characterization-of-lignocellulosic-compositions-degradation-during-chicken-manure-composting-with-added-biochar-by-phospholipid-fatty-acid-plfa-and-correlation-analysis
#8
Ning Liu, Jialiang Zhou, Lujia Han, Guangqun Huang
Biorefractory high polymer lignocellulosic compositions may limit rapid composting and stable decomposition. Because their degradation during composting is not well understood, the correlation with microbial community profiles was assessed to reveal degradation mechanism of lignocellulosic compositions. Testing of chicken manure aerobic composting with added biochar was performed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and correlation analysis. Results demonstrated a good composting effect with good dynamic correlation between microbial characteristic (PLFA) and lignocellulosic compositions' degradation ratio...
February 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238084/development-of-a-highly-efficient-oil-degumming-process-using-a-novel-phosphatidylinositol-specific-phospholipase-c-enzyme
#9
Sebastián Cerminati, Florencia Eberhardt, Claudia E Elena, Salvador Peirú, María E Castelli, Hugo G Menzella
Enzymatic degumming using phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes may be used in environmentally friendly processes with improved oil recovery yields. In this work, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) candidates obtained from an in silico analysis were evaluated for oil degumming. A PIPLC from Lysinibacillus sphaericus was shown to efficiently remove phosphatidylinositol from crude oil, and when combined with a second phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase C, the three major phospholipids were completely hydrolyzed, providing an extra yield of oil greater than 2...
February 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237087/e-configuration-structures-of-epa-and-dha-derived-from-euphausia-superba-and-their-significant-inhibitive-effects-on-growth-of-human-cancer-cell-lines-in-vitro
#10
Weilong Zheng, Xudong Wang, Wenjing Cao, Bowen Yang, Ying Mu, Yuesheng Dong, Zhilong Xiu
Many bioactive components such as poly-unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. EPA and DHA), phospholipids and astaxanthin are known in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) oil. The krill DHA and EPA are generally considered to be similar to natural ones. However, two chemical compounds which were separated from Antarctic krill oil and identified as EPA and DHA by HRESIMS and NMR acted much more effective inhibitive activities on growth of several cell lines (U937, K562, SMMC-7721, PC-3, MDA-MB-231, HL60 and MCF-7) than those from sturgeon liver and commercial fish oil...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236844/altered-metabolic-homeostasis-between-vitamin-d-and-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-preeclampsia
#11
Anindita A Nandi, Nisha S Wadhwani, Sadhana R Joshi
Sub-optimal maternal nutrition may result in pregnancy complications like preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is known to be of placental origin and a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our earlier studies suggest that altered metabolism of folic acid, vitamin B12 and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFAs) in the one carbon cycle increases homocysteine levels in preeclampsia. Recent reports indicate that vitamin D deficiency may also have a role in preeclampsia, although the mechanisms are unclear...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235903/effects-of-supplementation-with-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-reproduction-of-dairy-cows
#12
Leticia D P Sinedino, Paula M Honda, Letícia Ramos Lucena Souza, Adam L Lock, Maurice P Boland, Cr Staples, William W Thatcher, Jose E P Santos
Objectives were to determine the effects of supplementing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on reproduction of dairy cows. Holstein cows were assigned randomly to either a control (n = 373) or the same diet supplemented daily with 100 g/cow of an algae product containing 10% DHA (Algae, n = 366) from 27 to 147 days postpartum. Measurements included yields of milk and milk components, fatty acids (FA) profiles in milk fat and plasma phospholipids, resumption of ovulation by 57 days postpartum, pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI), and expression of interferon-stimulated genes in leukocytes...
February 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235891/two-acyltransferases-contribute-differently-to-linolenic-acid-levels-in-seed-oil
#13
Sofia K Marmon, Drew Sturtevant, Cornelia Herrfurth, Kent D Chapman, Sten Stymne, Ivo Feussner
Acyltransferases are key contributors to triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and thus of great importance for seed oil quality. The effect of increased or decreased expression of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) or phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) on seed lipid compositions were assessed in several Camelina sativa lines. Further, in-vitro assays of acyltransferases in microsomal fractions prepared from developing seeds of some of these lines were performed. Decreased expression of DGAT1 led to increased percentage of 18:3n-3 without any change in total lipid content of the seed...
February 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235471/membrane-cholesterol-is-essential-for-triterpenoid-saponin-augmentation-of-a-saporin-based-immunotoxin-directed-against-cd19-on-human-lymphoma-cells
#14
Wendy S Smith, Ella J Baker, Suzanne E Holmes, Grielof Koster, Alan N Hunt, David A Johnston, Sopsamorn U Flavell, David J Flavell
Triterpenoid saponins from Saponinum Album (SA) exert potent lytic effects on eukaryotic cell plasma membranes and, when used at sub-lytic concentrations, significantly augment the cytotoxicity of saporin-based immunotoxins (IT). To help elucidate the mechanism(s) behind these two phenomena we investigated the role of cholesterol to both. Human Daudi lymphoma cells were lipid deprived using a combination of three different approaches. Following treatment, the total cellular lipid content was analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol content measured using the lipophilic fluorescent probe NR12S...
February 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235448/ir-spectroscopy-analysis-of-pancreatic-lipase-related-protein-2-interaction-with-phospholipids-1-discriminative-recognition-of-mixed-micelles-versus-liposomes
#15
Eduardo Mateos-Diaz, Jean-Claude Bakala N'Goma, Deborah Byrne, Sylvie Robert, Frédéric Carrière, Hélène Gaussier
Guinea pig pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (GPLRP2) is an interesting model enzyme that can hydrolyze a large set of acylglycerols in vitro but displays however some selectivity depending on the supramolecular structure of substrate and the presence of surfactants like bile salts. We showed that GPLRP2 hydrolyzes 1,2-Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) present in mixed micelles with sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) but not in multilamellar (MLV) and large unilamellar (LUV) vesicles of DPPC. After characterization of these lipid aggregates by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the discriminative recognition of DPPC in DPPC/NaTDC micelles versus MLV and LUV by an inactive variant (S152G) of GPLRP2 to avoid the effect of substrate hydrolysis was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
February 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231490/lipid-droplet-growth-regulation-of-a-dynamic-organelle
#16
REVIEW
David Barneda, Mark Christian
Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are remarkably dynamic and complex organelles that enact regulated storage and release of lipids to fulfil their fundamental roles in energy metabolism, membrane synthesis and provision of lipid-derived signaling molecules. Although small LDs are observed in all types of eukaryotic cells, it is adipocytes that present the widest range of sizes up to the massive unilocular droplet of a white adipocyte. Our knowledge of the proteins and associated processes that control LD dynamics is improving...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230325/serum-phosphatidylinositol-as-a-biomarker-for-bipolar-disorder-liability
#17
Emma Em Knowles, Peter J Meikle, Kevin Huynh, Harald Hh Göring, Rene L Olvera, Samuel R Mathias, Ravi Duggirala, Laura Almasy, John Blangero, Joanne E Curran, David C Glahn
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with bipolar disorder (BPD) exhibit alterations in their phospholipid levels. It is unclear whether these alterations are a secondary consequence of illness state, or if phospholipids and illness risk overlap genetically. If the latter were true, then phospholipids might provide key insights into the pathophysiology of the illness. Therefore, we rank-ordered phospholipid classes by their genetic overlap with BPD risk in order to establish which class might be most informative in terms of increasing our understanding of illness pathophysiology...
February 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230173/a-novel-physiological-role-for-cardiac-myoglobin-in-lipid-metabolism
#18
Ulrike B Hendgen-Cotta, Sonja Esfeld, Cristina Coman, Robert Ahrends, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Ulrich Flögel, Tienush Rassaf, Matthias Totzeck
Continuous contractile activity of the heart is essential and the required energy is mostly provided by fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Myocardial lipid accumulation can lead to pathological responses, however the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The role of myoglobin in dioxygen binding in cardiomyocytes and oxidative skeletal muscle has widely been appreciated. Our recent work established myoglobin as a protector of cardiac function in hypoxia and disease states. We here unravel a novel role of cardiac myoglobin in governing FA metabolism to ensure the physiological energy production through β-oxidation, preventing myocardial lipid accumulation and preserving cardiac functions...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229635/oral-administration-of-fumonisin-b1-and-t-2-individually-and-in-combination-affects-hepatic-total-and-mitochondrial-membrane-lipid-profile-of-rabbits
#19
A Szabó, J Szabó-Fodor, H Fébel, M Mézes, G Bajzik, M Kovács
Weaned rabbits were fed diets contaminated with 2 mg/kg diet T-2 toxin alone, or 10 mg/kg diet fumonisin B1 (FB1) alone, and both toxins in combination (2 + 10 mg/kg, respectively) compared to a toxin-free control diet. Samplings were performed after 4 weeks (blood and liver). Bodyweight of T-2-fed group was lower after 4 weeks; the liver weight was increased dramatically (threefold of control). Liver total phospholipids (PLs) provided slight alterations in the fatty acid (FA) composition; all three toxin-treated groups showed a decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n7) proportion...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228763/cardiolipin-supports-respiratory-enzymes-in-plants-in-different-ways
#20
Jakob Petereit, Kenta Katayama, Christin Lorenz, Linda Ewert, Peter Schertl, Andreas Kitsche, Hajime Wada, Margrit Frentzen, Hans-Peter Braun, Holger Eubel
In eukaryotes the presence of the dimeric phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is limited to the mitochondrial membranes. It resides predominantly in the inner membrane where it interacts with components of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. CL deficiency has previously been shown to affect abundances of the plant NADH-dehydrogenase complex and its association with dimeric cyctochrome c reductase. Using an Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutant for the final enzyme of CL biosynthesis we here extend current knowledge on the dependence of plant respiration on CL...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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